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Identification
NameInfliximab
Accession NumberDB00065  (BIOD00004, BTD00004)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved
Description

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) binding antibody (chimeric IgG1). It is composed of human constant and murine variable regions. Infliximab is produced by a recombinant cell line cultured by continuous perfusion

Protein structureDb00065
Protein chemical formulaC6428H9912N1694O1987S46
Protein average weight144190.3 Da
Sequences
Synonyms
Ig gamma-1 chain C region
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Inflectrapowder for solution100 mgintravenousCelltrion Healthcare Co Ltd2014-09-04Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Remicadeinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 mg/10mLintravenousJanssen Biotech, Inc.1998-08-24Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Remicadepowder for solution100 mgintravenousJanssen Inc2001-06-14Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Remsimapowder for solution100 mgintravenousCelltrion Healthcare Co Ltd2014-09-18Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number170277-31-3
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationTo manage the signs and symptoms, as well as to induce and maintain clinical remission in adults with moderate to severe active Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Also used to manage signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (in conjunction with methotrexate), ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and juvenile arthritis.
PharmacodynamicsInfliximab is a chimeric human-murine anti-human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibody. It binds to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) and inhibits binding of TNFa with its receptors. This reduces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins (IL) 1 and 6. This also limits leukocyte migration and expression of adhesion molecules by endothelial cells and leukocytes. Infliximab also limits the activation of neutrophil and eosinophil functional activity, reduces production of tissue degrading enzymes produced by synoviocytes and/or chondrocytes. Infliximab decreases synovitis and joint erosions in collagen-induced arthritis and allows eroded joints to heal.
Mechanism of actionInfliximab neutralizes the biological activity of TNFa by binding with high affinity to the soluble and transmembrane forms of TNFa and inhibits binding of TNFa with its receptors. Infliximab does not neutralize TNFb (lymphotoxin a), a related cytokine that utilizes the same receptors as TNFa. TNFa activation normally induces the release of proinflammatory cytokines, the enhancement of leukocyte migration and activation of neutrophils among others. Neutralization of the biological activity of TNFa leads to an overall reduction in inflammation.
AbsorptionOnset of action occurs in about 2 weeks in Crohn's disease.
Volume of distribution

3-6 L

Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Most likely removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system when bound to T lymphocytes, or by human antimurine antibody production. Not metabolized by the CYP enzymes.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life9.5 days (7-12 days) in patients with Crohn's disease, plaque psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated Effects
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-A
Gene symbol: FCGR3A
UniProt: P08637
rs1801274 Not AvailableCC Allele (homozygous)Better ACR20 response18930989
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • J&J and Mitsubisi Tanabe
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous100 mg/10mL
Powder for solutionintravenous100 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Remicade 100 mg Solution Vial821.02USD vial
Remicade 100 mg vial789.44USD vial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
Canada21062992001-02-062012-03-18
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point61 °C (FAB fragment), 71 °C (whole mAb)Vermeer, A.W.P. & Norde, W., Biophys. J. 78:394-404 (2000)
hydrophobicity-0.441Not Available
isoelectric point8.25Not Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Knight DM, Trinh H, Le J, Siegel S, Shealy D, McDonough M, Scallon B, Moore MA, Vilcek J, Daddona P, et al.: Construction and initial characterization of a mouse-human chimeric anti-TNF antibody. Mol Immunol. 1993 Nov;30(16):1443-53. Pubmed
    #American Society of Health System Pharmacists, Inc., DynaMed [Internet]. Ipswich (MA): EBSCO Information Services. 1995. Infliximab; [updated 2014 Aug 27; cited 2014 Nov 12]. Available fromhttp://web.b.ebscohost.com/dynamed/detail?vid=15&sid=c9ea9657-342a-4b9b-a3bb-bf363d5d58c4%40sessionmgr112&hid=110&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZHluYW1lZC1saXZlJnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#db=dme&AN=232803&anchor=Mechanism-of-Action-Pharmacokinetics
  2. Dubinsky MC, Fleshner PP: Treatment of Crohn’s Disease of Inflammatory, Stenotic, and Fistulizing Phenotypes. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2003 Jun;6(3):183-200. Pubmed
  3. Present DH, Rutgeerts P, Targan S, Hanauer SB, Mayer L, van Hogezand RA, Podolsky DK, Sands BE, Braakman T, DeWoody KL, Schaible TF, van Deventer SJ: Infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1999 May 6;340(18):1398-405. Pubmed
  4. Sands BE, Anderson FH, Bernstein CN, Chey WY, Feagan BG, Fedorak RN, Kamm MA, Korzenik JR, Lashner BA, Onken JE, Rachmilewitz D, Rutgeerts P, Wild G, Wolf DC, Marsters PA, Travers SB, Blank MA, van Deventer SJ: Infliximab maintenance therapy for fistulizing Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Feb 26;350(9):876-85. Pubmed
  5. Hanauer SB: Crohn’s disease: step up or top down therapy. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2003 Feb;17(1):131-7. Pubmed
  6. http://www.google.co.in/patents/US8524217
    #Lexicomp Online (2014). Infliximab Available at: http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/doc/retrieve/docid/patch_f/7084#f_pharmacology-and-pharmacokinetics [Accessed 12 Nov. 2014].
External Links
ATC CodesL04AB02
AHFS Codes
  • 92:00.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (1.21 MB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbataceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Abatacept.
AcebutololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AdalimumabAdalimumab may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Infliximab.
AlendronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Alendronate.
AliskirenInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Aliskiren.
AmikacinInfliximab may decrease the excretion rate of Amikacin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AmilorideInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Amiloride.
AnakinraThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Anakinra.
ApixabanInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.
ArgatrobanInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.
AtenololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Atenolol.
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Infliximab.
BalsalazideInfliximab may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
BelimumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Belimumab.
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Infliximab.
BendroflumethiazideInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide.
BetaxololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Betaxolol.
BimatoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Bimatoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
BisoprololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bisoprolol.
BivalirudinInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.
BumetanideInfliximab may decrease the diuretic activities of Bumetanide.
CanakinumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Canakinumab.
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Infliximab.
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Captopril is combined with Infliximab.
CarteololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carteolol.
CarvedilolInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carvedilol.
CelecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Celecoxib.
Certolizumab pegolInfliximab may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Certolizumab pegol.
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorthalidone can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Infliximab resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilazapril is combined with Infliximab.
CiprofloxacinInfliximab may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Ciprofloxacin.
ClodronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Clodronate.
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Infliximab resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Infliximab resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CyclosporineInfliximab may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.
Dabigatran etexilateInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.
DalteparinInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.
DanaparoidInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.
DeferasiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Deferasirox.
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Infliximab.
DesirudinInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Desmopressin.
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with Infliximab.
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Diflunisal.
DifluprednateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Difluprednate.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Infliximab.
DrospirenoneInfliximab may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Drospirenone.
EdoxabanInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Infliximab.
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalaprilat is combined with Infliximab.
EnoxaparinInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EplerenoneInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Eplerenone.
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Infliximab.
EsmololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
EstradiolInfliximab may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Estradiol.
EtanerceptEtanercept may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Infliximab.
Ethacrynic acidInfliximab may decrease the diuretic activities of Ethacrynic acid.
EtodolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Etodolac.
FenoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Fenoprofen.
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Infliximab.
FluorometholoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Fluorometholone.
FlurbiprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Flurbiprofen.
Fondaparinux sodiumInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Infliximab.
FurosemideInfliximab may decrease the diuretic activities of Furosemide.
GemifloxacinInfliximab may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gemifloxacin.
GentamicinInfliximab may decrease the excretion rate of Gentamicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
golimumabgolimumab may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Infliximab.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Haloperidol.
HeparinInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.
HydralazineInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydralazine.
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
IbandronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Ibandronate.
IbuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Ibuprofen.
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Indapamide can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Indomethacin.
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Infliximab.
KanamycinInfliximab may decrease the excretion rate of Kanamycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KetoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Ketoprofen.
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Infliximab.
LabetalolInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Labetalol.
LatanoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Latanoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Leflunomide.
LevofloxacinInfliximab may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Levofloxacin.
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Infliximab.
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Infliximab.
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Infliximab.
Mefenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Mefenamic acid.
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Meloxicam.
MesalazineInfliximab may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Mesalazine.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Infliximab.
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyclothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metolazone can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
MetoprololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metoprolol.
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Infliximab.
MoxifloxacinInfliximab may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Moxifloxacin.
NabumetoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Nabumetone.
NadololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nadolol.
NadroparinInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.
NaproxenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Naproxen.
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Natalizumab.
NebivololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nebivolol.
NeomycinInfliximab may decrease the excretion rate of Neomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NorfloxacinInfliximab may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Norfloxacin.
OfloxacinInfliximab may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Ofloxacin.
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Infliximab.
OlsalazineInfliximab may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Olsalazine.
OxaprozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Oxaprozin.
PamidronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Pamidronate.
PenbutololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Infliximab.
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Infliximab.
PindololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Pindolol.
PiroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Piroxicam.
PralatrexateThe serum concentration of Pralatrexate can be increased when it is combined with Infliximab.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Infliximab can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
PropranololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Propranolol.
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Infliximab.
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Infliximab.
RilonaceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Rilonacept.
RimexoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Rimexolone.
RisedronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Risedronate.
RivaroxabanInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Infliximab.
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
SotalolInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Sotalol.
SpironolactoneInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Spironolactone.
StreptomycinInfliximab may decrease the excretion rate of Streptomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SulindacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Sulindac.
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Infliximab.
TafluprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Tafluprost can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Infliximab.
TenofovirThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Tenofovir.
Tiaprofenic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Tiaprofenic acid.
TiludronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Tiludronate.
TimololInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Timolol.
TinzaparinInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tinzaparin.
TobramycinInfliximab may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TocilizumabTocilizumab may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Infliximab.
TofacitinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Tofacitinib.
TolmetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Tolmetin.
TorasemideInfliximab may decrease the diuretic activities of Torasemide.
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Infliximab.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the neutropenic activities of Infliximab.
TravoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Treprostinil is combined with Infliximab.
TriamtereneInfliximab may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Triamterene.
UnoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Unoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
UstekinumabUstekinumab may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Infliximab.
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Infliximab.
VancomycinThe serum concentration of Vancomycin can be increased when it is combined with Infliximab.
VedolizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Vedolizumab.
WarfarinInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
ZoledronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Zoledronate.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Tumor necrosis factor

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tumor necrosis factor P01375 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Mimura T: [Selection of one of the TNF blockers; infliximab and etanercept] Nippon Rinsho. 2007 Jul;65(7):1282-6. Pubmed
  3. Braun J, Baraliakos X, Listing J, Sieper J: Decreased incidence of anterior uveitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with the anti-tumor necrosis factor agents infliximab and etanercept. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Aug;52(8):2447-51. Pubmed
  4. Danese S, Sans M, Scaldaferri F, Sgambato A, Rutella S, Cittadini A, Pique JM, Panes J, Katz JA, Gasbarrini A, Fiocchi C: TNF-alpha blockade down-regulates the CD40/CD40L pathway in the mucosal microcirculation: a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of infliximab in Crohn’s disease. J Immunol. 2006 Feb 15;176(4):2617-24. Pubmed
  5. Magro F, Pereira P, Carneiro F, Veloso FT: Reactive hepatitis in a patient with Crohn’s disease successfully treated with infliximab: does tumor necrosis factor alpha play a role in reactive hepatitis? Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2005 Jan;11(1):88-90. Pubmed
  6. Mori S, Imamura F, Kiyofuji C, Ito K, Koga Y, Honda I, Sugimoto M: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis as a complication of treatment with infliximab, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha neutralizing antibody. Mod Rheumatol. 2006;16(1):58-62. Pubmed
  7. Maini RN, Feldmann M: How does infliximab work in rheumatoid arthritis? Arthritis Res. 2002;4 Suppl 2:S22-8. Epub 2002 Mar 27. Pubmed
  8. Sapienza MS, Cohen S, Dimarino AJ: Treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum with infliximab in Crohn’s disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2004 Sep;49(9):1454-7. Pubmed
  9. Tobin AM, Kirby B: TNF alpha inhibitors in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. BioDrugs. 2005;19(1):47-57. Pubmed
  10. Shen C, Assche GV, Colpaert S, Maerten P, Geboes K, Rutgeerts P, Ceuppens JL: Adalimumab induces apoptosis of human monocytes: a comparative study with infliximab and etanercept. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Feb 1;21(3):251-8. Pubmed
  11. Popa C, Netea MG, Barrera P, Radstake TR, van Riel PL, Kullberg BJ, Van der Meer JW: Cytokine production of stimulated whole blood cultures in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving short-term infliximab therapy. Cytokine. 2005 Apr 21;30(2):72-7. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 12, 2014 16:07