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Identification
NameEsmolol
Accession NumberDB00187  (APRD00954)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionEsmolol (trade name Brevibloc) is a cardioselective beta1 receptor blocker with rapid onset, a very short duration of action, and no significant intrinsic sympathomimetic or membrane stabilizing activity at therapeutic dosages. Esmolol decreases the force and rate of heart contractions by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system, which are found in the heart and other organs of the body. Esmolol prevents the action of two naturally occurring substances: epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(±)-esmolol
(±)-methyl p-(2-hydroxy-3-(isopropylamino)propoxy)hydrocinnamate
3-[4-(2-Hydroxy-3-isopropylamino-propoxy)-phenyl]-propionic acid methyl ester
Methyl 4-(2-hydroxy-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)propoxy)benzenepropanoate
methyl p-(2-hydroxy-3-(isopropylamino)propoxy)hydrocinnamate
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Breviblocinjection10 mg/mLintravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation1986-12-31Not applicableUs
Breviblocinjection20 mg/mLintravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation1986-12-31Not applicableUs
Breviblocinjection, solution10 mg/mLintravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Breviblocinjection10 mg/mLintravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation1986-12-31Not applicableUs
Brevibloc Injection 10mg/mlsolution10 mgintravenousBaxter Corporation1996-08-16Not applicableCanada
Brevibloc Injection 250mg/mlliquid250 mgintravenousBaxter Corporation1997-01-172007-06-27Canada
Brevibloc Liq IV 10mg/mlliquid10 mgintravenousOhmeda Pharmaceutical Products, Division Of Boc Canada Limited1994-12-311996-09-26Canada
Brevibloc Liq IV 250mg/mlliquid250 mgintravenousOhmeda Pharmaceutical Products, Division Of Boc Canada Limited1994-12-311997-08-25Canada
Brevibloc Premixed Injectionsolution10 mgintravenousBaxter Corporation2008-09-12Not applicableCanada
Esmololinjection10 mg/mLintravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-04-01Not applicableUs
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection10 mg/mLintravenousCardinal Health1986-12-31Not applicableUs
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection10 mg/mLintravenousWest Ward Pharmaceutical Corporation1986-12-31Not applicableUs
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection10 mg/mLintravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation1986-12-31Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection, solution10 mg/mLintravenousAmerican Regent, Inc.2016-01-01Not applicableUs
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection, solution100 mg/10mLintravenousAuro Medics Pharma Llc2015-07-23Not applicableUs
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection10 mg/mLintravenousGENERAL INJECTABLES AND VACCINES, INC.2015-09-10Not applicableUs
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection, solution10 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2004-11-30Not applicableUs
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection10 mg/mLintravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not applicableUs
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection, solution10 mg/mLintravenousMylan Institutional LLC2013-02-21Not applicableUs
Esmolol Hydrochlorideinjection10 mg/mLintravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-06-13Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Esmolol hydrochloride
81161-17-3
Thumb
  • InChI Key: GEKNCWBANDDJJL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 331.155036032
  • Average Mass: 331.835
DBSALT000586
Categories
UNIIMDY902UXSR
CAS number81147-92-4
WeightAverage: 295.374
Monoisotopic: 295.178358293
Chemical FormulaC16H25NO4
InChI KeyInChIKey=AQNDDEOPVVGCPG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H25NO4/c1-12(2)17-10-14(18)11-21-15-7-4-13(5-8-15)6-9-16(19)20-3/h4-5,7-8,12,14,17-18H,6,9-11H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
methyl 3-(4-{2-hydroxy-3-[(propan-2-yl)amino]propoxy}phenyl)propanoate
SMILES
COC(=O)CCC1=CC=C(OCC(O)CNC(C)C)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenol ethers
Direct ParentPhenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenol ether
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Fatty acyl
  • Methyl ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the rapid control of ventricular rate in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in perioperative, postoperative, or other emergent circumstances where short term control of ventricular rate with a short-acting agent is desirable. Also used in noncompensatory sinus tachycardia where the rapid heart rate requires specific intervention.
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionSimilar to other beta-blockers, esmolol blocks the agonistic effect of the sympathetic neurotransmitters by competing for receptor binding sites. Because it predominantly blocks the beta-1 receptors in cardiac tissue, it is said to be cardioselective. In general, so-called cardioselective beta-blockers are relatively cardioselective; at lower doses they block beta-1 receptors only but begin to block beta-2 receptors as the dose increases. At therapeutic dosages, esmolol does not have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) or membrane-stabilizing (quinidine-like) activity. Antiarrhythmic activity is due to blockade of adrenergic stimulation of cardiac pacemaker potentials. In the Vaughan Williams classification of antiarrhythmics, beta-blockers are considered to be class II agents.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed, steady-state blood levels for dosages from 50-300 µg/kg/min (0.05-0.3 mg/kg/mm) are obtained within five minutes.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding55% bound to human plasma protein, while the acid metabolite is 10% bound.
Metabolism

Rapidly metabolized by hydrolysis of the ester linkage, chiefly by the esterases in the cytosol of red blood cells and not by plasma cholinesterases or red cell membrane acetylcholinesterase. Mainly in red blood cells to a free acid metabolite (with 1/1500 the activity of esmolol) and methanol.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Esmolol
Not Available
MethanolDetails
Route of eliminationConsistent with the high rate of blood-based metabolism of esmolol hydrochloride, less than 2% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine. The acid metabolite has an elimination half-life of about 3.7 hours and is excreted in the urine with a clearance approximately equivalent to the glomerular filtration rate. Excretion of the acid metabolite is significantly decreased in patients with renal disease, with the elimination half-life increased to about ten-fold that of normals, and plasma levels considerably elevated.
Half lifeRapid distribution half-life of about 2 minutes and an elimination half-life of about 9 minutes. The acid metabolite has an elimination half-life of about 3.7 hours.
Clearance
  • 20 L/kg/hr [Men]
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include cardiac arrest, bradycardia, hypotension, electromechanical dissociation and loss of consciousness.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Esmolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00301
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7023
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9645
Caco-2 permeable+0.5
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6511
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8625
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7171
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8605
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8124
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.663
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5869
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.864
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8789
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8806
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9585
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8495
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9761
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9066
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9519
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6493
Rat acute toxicity1.9194 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9556
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.774
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories
  • Bioniche pharma usa llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injectionintravenous20 mg/mL
Solutionintravenous10 mg
Liquidintravenous10 mg
Liquidintravenous250 mg
Injectionintravenous10 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous10 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous100 mg/10mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Brevibloc 250 mg/ml ampul13.21USD ml
Brevibloc 10 mg/ml vial2.21USD ml
Brevibloc 20 mg/ml iv bag1.54USD ml
Esmolol hcl 10 mg/ml vial1.26USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2410446 No2008-08-262022-01-02Canada
US6310094 Yes2001-07-122021-07-12Us
US6528540 Yes2001-07-122021-07-12Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityVery soluble as hydrochloride saltNot Available
logP1.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.144 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.02ALOGPS
logP1.82ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.67ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.79 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity81.05 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability33.68 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US4593119
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesC07AB09
AHFS Codes
  • 24:24.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (56.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
1,10-Phenanthroline1,10-Phenanthroline may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
4-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Acetazolamide.
AcetohexamideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
AcetyldigitoxinEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
AdapaleneAdapalene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
AgmatineAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Esmolol.
AlfuzosinEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Alfuzosin.
AlimemazineAlimemazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Aliskiren.
AmbenoniumAmbenonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Amiloride.
AminophyllineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Aminophylline.
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Amlodipine.
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
AmodiaquineThe metabolism of Esmolol can be decreased when combined with Amodiaquine.
AmoxapineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Amoxapine.
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Amyl Nitrite.
AntipyrineAntipyrine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
ApomorphineApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Apraclonidine.
ApremilastApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
ArbutamineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arbutamine.
ArecolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Arecoline.
ArformoterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Atenolol.
AzapropazoneAzapropazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
AzelastineAzelastine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.
BalsalazideBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
BambuterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Bambuterol.
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Benazepril.
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.
BenoxaprofenBenoxaprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
BenzphetamineBenzphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
BeractantEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Beractant.
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Betaxolol.
BethanecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Bethanechol.
BethanidineBethanidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Bisoprolol.
BretyliumBretylium may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Bretylium.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Brimonidine.
BromfenacBromfenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
BromocriptineEsmolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Bromocriptine.
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Bumetanide.
BupivacaineThe serum concentration of Bupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Esmolol.
CabergolineEsmolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Cabergoline.
CalfactantEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Calfactant.
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Canagliflozin.
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Candesartan.
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Captopril.
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Carbachol.
CarprofenCarprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Carteolol.
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Carvedilol.
CastanospermineCastanospermine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
CelecoxibCelecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
CeliprololEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Celiprolol.
CeritinibEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ceritinib.
CevimelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Cevimeline.
ChloroquineChloroquine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
ChlorpropamideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Chlorthalidone.
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Cilazapril.
ClenbuterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Clenbuterol.
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Clevidipine.
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Clonidine.
ClonixinClonixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
CoumaphosCoumaphos may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
CrizotinibEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Crizotinib.
D-LimoneneD-Limonene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Dapagliflozin.
DapoxetineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Dapoxetine.
DecamethoniumDecamethonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
DemecariumDemecarium may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
DeslanosideEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Deslanoside.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Dexmedetomidine.
DichlorvosDichlorvos may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
DiclofenacDiclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Diclofenamide.
DiflunisalDiflunisal may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
DigitoxinEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Digitoxin.
DigoxinEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Digoxin.
DihydroergotamineEsmolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Dihydroergotamine.
DihydroergotamineDihydroergotamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Diltiazem.
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Dinutuximab.
DipivefrinDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
DipivefrinEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Dipyridamole.
DisopyramideDisopyramide may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
DobutamineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dobutamine.
DonepezilDonepezil may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Doxazosin.
DronedaroneEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Dronedarone.
DroxicamDroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
DroxidopaDroxidopa may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
DroxidopaEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Droxidopa.
DuloxetineEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.
DyphyllineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dyphylline.
EchothiophateEchothiophate may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
EdrophoniumEdrophonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Empagliflozin.
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Enalapril.
EphedraEphedra may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
EphedraEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Ephedra.
EPIBATIDINEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with EPIBATIDINE.
EpinephrineEpinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
EpinephrineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Epinephrine.
EpirizoleEpirizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Eplerenone.
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Eprosartan.
Ergoloid mesylateEsmolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergoloid mesylate.
ErgonovineEsmolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergonovine.
ErgotamineEsmolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergotamine.
ErgotamineErgotamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Etacrynic acid.
EtanerceptEtanercept may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
EtodolacEtodolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
EtofenamateEtofenamate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
EtomidateEtomidate may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
EtoperidoneThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoperidone.
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
exisulindexisulind may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Felodipine.
FenbufenFenbufen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
FenfluramineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Fenfluramine.
FenoprofenFenoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
FenoterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Fenoterol.
FenthionFenthion may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
FingolimodEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Fingolimod.
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Esmolol.
FlunixinFlunixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.
FluphenazineFluphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
FormoterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Formoterol.
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Fosinopril.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Furosemide.
GalantamineGalantamine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
Gallamine TriethiodideGallamine Triethiodide may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
GlibornurideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glibornuride.
GliclazideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.
GlimepirideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.
GlipizideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GliquidoneEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliquidone.
GlisoxepideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glisoxepide.
GlyburideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.
GTS-21The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with GTS-21.
GuanabenzGuanabenz may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Guanfacine.
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
HMPL-004HMPL-004 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Huperzine AHuperzine A may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Hydralazine.
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydroxychloroquineThe metabolism of Esmolol can be decreased when combined with Hydroxychloroquine.
IbuprofenIbuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
IbuproxamIbuproxam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
IcatibantIcatibant may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
IndacaterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Indacaterol.
IndalpineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Indalpine.
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Indapamide.
IndomethacinIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
IndoprofenIndoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
IndoraminEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Indoramin.
Insulin PorkEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Pork.
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Irbesartan.
IsoetarineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Isoetarine.
IsoflurophateIsoflurophate may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
IsoprenalineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Isoprenaline.
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.
IsoxicamIsoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Isoxsuprine.
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Isradipine.
IvabradineEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ivabradine.
KebuzoneKebuzone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
KetoprofenKetoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
KetorolacKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Labetalol.
LacosamideEsmolol may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Lacosamide.
LanreotideEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lanreotide.
LeflunomideLeflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Levobunolol.
LevodopaEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Lidocaine can be increased when it is combined with Esmolol.
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Lisinopril.
LobelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Lobeline.
LofexidineLofexidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
LornoxicamLornoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Losartan.
LoxoprofenLoxoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Lu AA21004The serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Lu AA21004.
LucinactantEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lucinactant.
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
MalathionMalathion may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Mannitol.
MasoprocolMasoprocol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Mecamylamine.
Meclofenamic acidMeclofenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
MefloquineMefloquine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
MeloxicamMeloxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
MemantineMemantine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
MepivacaineThe serum concentration of Mepivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Esmolol.
MesalazineMesalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
MesoridazineMesoridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
MetamizoleMetamizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
MethacholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Methacholine.
MethamphetamineMethamphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Methazolamide.
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
MethotrimeprazineMethotrimeprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Methyclothiazide.
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Methyldopa.
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Metipranolol.
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Metolazone.
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Metoprolol.
MidodrineEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Midodrine.
MilnacipranThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Milnacipran.
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Minoxidil.
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Moexipril.
MoricizineMoricizine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
NabumetoneNabumetone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nadolol.
NaftifineNaftifine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
NaphazolineNaphazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
NaproxenNaproxen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
NCX 4016NCX 4016 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nebivolol.
NeostigmineNeostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
NepafenacNepafenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nesiritide.
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nicardipine.
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
NicotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nicotine.
Nicotine bitartrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nicotine bitartrate.
NifedipineNifedipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nifedipine.
Niflumic AcidNiflumic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
NimesulideNimesulide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nimodipine.
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nisoldipine.
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nitroglycerin.
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Nitroprusside.
NorepinephrineNorepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
NorepinephrineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Norepinephrine.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Olanzapine.
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Olmesartan.
OlodaterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Olodaterol.
OlopatadineOlopatadine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
OlsalazineOlsalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
OrciprenalineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Orciprenaline.
OrgoteinOrgotein may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
OuabainEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ouabain.
OxaprozinOxaprozin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
OxymetazolineOxymetazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
OxyphenbutazoneOxyphenbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
PaliperidonePaliperidone may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Papaverine.
ParecoxibParecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.
PasireotideEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Pasireotide.
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Penbutolol.
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
PergolidePergolide may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Perindopril.
PerphenazinePerphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
PhenylbutazonePhenylbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
PhenylpropanolaminePhenylpropanolamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
PhenylpropanolamineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Phenylpropanolamine.
PhysostigminePhysostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
PilocarpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Pilocarpine.
PimecrolimusPimecrolimus may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Pindolol.
PirbuterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Pirbuterol.
PirfenidonePirfenidone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
PiroxicamPiroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Poractant alfaEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Poractant alfa.
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Prazosin.
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Esmolol can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
ProcaterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Procaterol.
ProchlorperazineProchlorperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
PromazinePromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
PromethazinePromethazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
PropacetamolPropacetamol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.
PropafenoneEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Propafenone.
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Propranolol.
PseudoephedrinePseudoephedrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
PTC299PTC299 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
PyridostigminePyridostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Quetiapine.
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Quinapril.
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Esmolol.
RegorafenibRegorafenib may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
ReserpineReserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Reserpine.
ResveratrolResveratrol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Riociguat.
RisperidoneEsmolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.
RisperidoneRisperidone may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
RitodrineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Ritodrine.
RivastigmineRivastigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
RofecoxibRofecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
RopiniroleRopinirole may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
RuxolitinibRuxolitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
SalbutamolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salbutamol.
SalicylamideSalicylamide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
SalmeterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salmeterol.
SalsalateSalsalate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
SeratrodastSeratrodast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
SertralineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.
SilodosinEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Silodosin.
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Sotalol.
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Spironolactone.
SRT501SRT501 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
SufentanilEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Sufentanil.
SulfasalazineSulfasalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
SulindacSulindac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
SuprofenSuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
TacrineTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
TamsulosinEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Tamsulosin.
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Telmisartan.
TenoxicamTenoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
TepoxalinTepoxalin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Terazosin.
TerbutalineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Terbutaline.
TeriflunomideTeriflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
TheophyllineEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Theophylline.
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
ThiethylperazineThiethylperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
ThioridazineThioridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Timolol.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Tizanidine.
TofacitinibTofacitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
TolazamideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.
Tolfenamic AcidTolfenamic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
TolmetinTolmetin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Torasemide.
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Trandolapril.
TranilastTranilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Trazodone.
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Triamterene.
TrichlorfonTrichlorfon may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
TrifluoperazineTrifluoperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
TriflupromazineTriflupromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
TrimazosinEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Trimazosin.
Trisalicylate-cholineTrisalicylate-choline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
TubocurarineTubocurarine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Esmolol.
VareniclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Varenicline.
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Verapamil.
VilanterolEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Vilanterol.
VilazodoneThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Vilazodone.
VortioxetineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylometazolineXylometazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
ZaltoprofenZaltoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
ZileutonZileuton may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.
ZomepiracZomepirac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular Weight:
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Jahn P, Eckrich B, Schneidrowski B, Volz-Zang C, Schulte B, Mutschler E, Palm D: Beta 1-adrenoceptor subtype selective antagonism of esmolol and its major metabolite in vitro and in man. Investigations using tricresylphosphate as red blood cell carboxylesterase inhibitor. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995 May;45(5):536-41. [PubMed:7612051 ]
  3. Volz-Zang C, Eckrich B, Jahn P, Schneidrowski B, Schulte B, Palm D: Esmolol, an ultrashort-acting, selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist: pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1994;46(5):399-404. [PubMed:7957532 ]
  4. Kirshenbaum JM: Nonthrombolytic intervention in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1989 Jul 18;64(4):25B-28B. [PubMed:2568748 ]
  5. Jacobs JR, Maier GW, Rankin JS, Reves JG: Esmolol and left ventricular function in the awake dog. Anesthesiology. 1988 Mar;68(3):373-8. [PubMed:2894187 ]
  6. Howie MB, Black HA, Zvara D, McSweeney TD, Martin DJ, Coffman JA: Esmolol reduces autonomic hypersensitivity and length of seizures induced by electroconvulsive therapy. Anesth Analg. 1990 Oct;71(4):384-8. [PubMed:1975995 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 27, 2016 03:40