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Identification
NameButalbital
Accession NumberDB00241  (APRD00266)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Illicit
Description

Butalbital, 5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate with an intermediate duration of action. It has the same chemical formula as talbutal but a different structure. Butalbital is often combined with other medications, such as acetaminophen or aspirin, and is commonly prescribed for the treatment of pain and headache. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
5-(2-methylpropyl)-5-prop-2-enyl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
5-Allyl-5-(2-methylpropyl)barbituric acid
5-Allyl-5-(2'-methyl-N-propyl) barbituric acid
5-Allyl-5-isobutyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione
5-Allyl-5-isobutyl-pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione
5-Allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid
5-isobutyl-5-allylbarbituric acid
allylbarbital
allylbarbitone
Allylbarbituric acid
Butalbarbital
Butalbitalum
Iso-butylallylbarbituric acid
Itobarbital
Tetrallobarbital
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
SandoptalNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Acetaminophen, Butalbital and CaffeineSTAT Rx USA LLC
AllzitalLarken Laboratories, Inc.
Ascomp With CodeineNexgen Pharma, Inc.
BupapECR Pharmaceuticals
Butalbital Acetaminophen and CaffeineLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC
Butalbital and AcetaminophenQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Butalbital and Acetaminophen 50 Mg/325 mgSolubiomix
Butalbital CompoundMajor Pharmaceuticals
Butalbital, Acetaminophen and CaffeineWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp
Butalbital, Acetaminophen and Caffeine PlusSTAT Rx USA LLC
Butalbital, Acetaminophen and Caffeine With Codeine PhosphateWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, and CaffeineWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, CaffeineREMEDYREPACK INC.
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine and Codeine PhosphateBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine PhosphateActavis Pharma, Inc.
Butalbital, Acetominophen and Caffeinebryant ranch prepack
Butalbital, Aspirin and CaffeineWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp
Butalbital, Aspirin and Caffeine TabletsQualitest
Butalbital, Aspirin, and CaffeineLannett Company, Inc.
Butalbital, Aspirin, Caffeine and Codeine PhosphateLannett Company, Inc.
Butalbital, Aspirin, Caffeine, and Codeine PhosphateMayne Pharma Inc.
ButapapMikart, Inc.
CapacetMagna Pharmaceuticals
EsgicForest Laboratories, Inc.
FioricetActavis Pharma, Inc.
Fioricet With CodeineWatson Pharma, Inc.
FiorinalActavis Pharma, Inc.
Fiorinal C1/2Tribute Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc
Fiorinal C1/4Tribute Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc
Fiorinal TabNovartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc
Fiorinal With CodeineActavis Pharma, Inc.
MargesicMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Marten-tabMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
OrbivanAtley Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Phrenilin ForteValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC
PMS-pharnal CapsulesPharmascience Inc
PMS-pharnal TabletsPharmascience Inc
PMS-pharnal-C 1/4 CapsulesPharmascience Inc
PMS-pharnal-C1/2 CapsulesPharmascience Inc
Pronal - C1/2 CapsulesPro Doc Limitee
Pronal C1/4 CapsulesPro Doc Limitee
Pronal CapsulesPro Doc Limitee
Pronal TabletsPro Doc Limitee
Ratio-tecnalTeva Canada Limited
Ratio-tecnal C 1/2Teva Canada Limited
Ratio-tecnal C 1/4Teva Canada Limited
TenconInternational Ethical Labs, Inc.
Trianal C½Laboratoire Riva Inc
Trianal C¼Laboratoire Riva Inc
Trianal CapsulesLaboratoire Riva Inc
Trianal TabletLaboratoire Riva Inc
Vanatol LqGm Pharmaceuticals
ZebutalShionogi Inc.
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIKHS0AZ4JVK
CAS number77-26-9
WeightAverage: 224.2563
Monoisotopic: 224.116092388
Chemical FormulaC11H16N2O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=UZVHFVZFNXBMQJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H16N2O3/c1-4-5-11(6-7(2)3)8(14)12-10(16)13-9(11)15/h4,7H,1,5-6H2,2-3H3,(H2,12,13,14,15,16)
IUPAC Name
5-(2-methylpropyl)-5-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CC(C)CC1(CC=C)C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentBarbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Barbiturate
  • Ureide
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Urea
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in combination with acetaminophen or aspirin and caffeine for its sedative and relaxant effects in the treatment of tension headaches, migraines, and pain.
PharmacodynamicsButalbital is a short to intermediate-acting barbiturate. Barbiturates act as nonselective depressants of the central nervous system (CNS), capable of producing all levels of CNS mood alteration from excitation to mild sedation, hypnosis, and deep coma. In sufficiently high therapeutic doses, barbiturates induce anesthesia.
Mechanism of actionButalbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.
Related Articles
AbsorptionWell absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is expected to distribute to most tissues in the body.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding45%
Metabolism

Hepatic, although most of the dose is eliminated via the kidney (59 to 88%). Urinary excretion products included parent drug (about 3.6% of the dose), 5-isobutyl-5-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) barbituric acid (about 24% of the dose), 5-allyl-5(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propyl) barbituric acid (about 4.8%).

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life35 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of acute barbiturate poisoning include drowsiness, confusion, coma, respiratory depression, hypotension, and shock.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9112
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9703
Caco-2 permeable-0.5936
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5365
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5179
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9678
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9331
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7999
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8708
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6804
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8535
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8768
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9324
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8354
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9074
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9626
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5716
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8861
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9833
Rat acute toxicity3.0783 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9898
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9711
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral
Syruporal
Capsuleoral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Butalbital powder3.83USD g
Butalbital compound tablet1.04USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point138.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility1700 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP1.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.23 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.47ALOGPS
logP1.59ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity58.05 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.42 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Butalbital.
AldesleukinButalbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
AmlodipineThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphetamine is combined with Butalbital.
AmrinoneThe metabolism of Amrinone can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
AzelastineButalbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Butalbital.
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzphetamine is combined with Butalbital.
BepridilThe metabolism of Bepridil can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Butalbital can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butalbital.
ButabarbitalThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Butabarbital.
ButethalThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Butethal.
ChlorotrianiseneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when used in combination with Butalbital.
ChlorphentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphentermine is combined with Butalbital.
ClenbuterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clenbuterol is combined with Butalbital.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cyclosporine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
DapsoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapsone is combined with Butalbital.
DicoumarolThe metabolism of Dicoumarol can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
DobutamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dobutamine is combined with Butalbital.
DopamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Butalbital.
DoxofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Doxofylline.
EpinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epinephrine is combined with Butalbital.
EthanolEthanol may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Butalbital.
FelodipineThe metabolism of Felodipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
FenoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoterol is combined with Butalbital.
FlunarizineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Butalbital can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FormoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Formoterol is combined with Butalbital.
GabapentinThe metabolism of Gabapentin can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
HeptabarbitalThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Heptabarbital.
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Butalbital.
IsoprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoprenaline is combined with Butalbital.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Isradipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Butalbital.
LamotrigineThe metabolism of Lamotrigine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
LercanidipineThe metabolism of Lercanidipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Butalbital.
Magnesium SulfateThe metabolism of Magnesium Sulfate can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
MephentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mephentermine is combined with Butalbital.
MetaraminolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaraminol is combined with Butalbital.
MethamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methamphetamine is combined with Butalbital.
MethohexitalThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Methohexital.
MethoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxamine is combined with Butalbital.
MexiletineThe metabolism of Butalbital can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.
MidodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midodrine is combined with Butalbital.
NaphazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naphazoline is combined with Butalbital.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Nicardipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
NimodipineThe metabolism of Nimodipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
NisoldipineThe metabolism of Nisoldipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
NitrendipineThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Butalbital.
NorepinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norepinephrine is combined with Butalbital.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Norethindrone can be decreased when used in combination with Butalbital.
OrciprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orciprenaline is combined with Butalbital.
OxymetazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Butalbital.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Paroxetine.
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
PerhexilineThe metabolism of Perhexiline can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
PhenmetrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenmetrazine is combined with Butalbital.
PhentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with Butalbital.
PhenylephrineThe serum concentration of Phenylephrine can be increased when it is combined with Butalbital.
PhenylpropanolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylpropanolamine is combined with Butalbital.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Butalbital can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PrenylamineThe metabolism of Prenylamine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Prilocaine.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Primidone.
PropacetamolThe metabolism of Propacetamol can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.
RisedronateThe metabolism of Risedronate can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
RitodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritodrine is combined with Butalbital.
SalmeterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salmeterol is combined with Butalbital.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Sodium Nitrite.
TerbutalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terbutaline is combined with Butalbital.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Butalbital.
TrichlormethiazideButalbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Trichlormethiazide.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Butalbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
ValsartanButalbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [PubMed:14579514 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
  4. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  5. Cutrer FM, Mitsikostas DD, Ayata G, Sanchez del Rio M: Attenuation by butalbital of capsaicin-induced c-fos-like immunoreactivity in trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Headache. 1999 Nov-Dec;39(10):697-704. [PubMed:11279945 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  7. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  8. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797 ]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797 ]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and t...
Gene Name:
GRIA2
Uniprot ID:
P42262
Molecular Weight:
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIK2
Uniprot ID:
Q13002
Molecular Weight:
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23