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Identification
NameCaffeine
Accession NumberDB00201  (APRD00673)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine’s most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes smooth muscle, stimulates cardiac muscle, stimulates diuresis, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, antagonism of adenosine receptors, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-methyltheobromine
1,3,7-Trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine
1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purin-2,6-dion
7-methyltheophylline
Anhydrous caffeine
Cafeína
Caféine
Caffeine
Coffein
Guaranine
Koffein
Mateína
Methyltheobromine
Teina
Thein
Theine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cafcitinjection20 mg/mLintravenousWest Ward Pharmaceutical Corp.2008-11-04Not applicableUs
Cafcitsolution20 mg/mLoralBedford Laboratories2008-11-04Not applicableUs
Cafcitinjection20 mg/mLintravenousBedford Laboratories2008-11-04Not applicableUs
Diurette Water Pillstablet200 mgoralAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Spirit (chewable Squares)wafer60 mgoralWarner Lambert Canada Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Caffeine Citrateinjection, solution20 mg/mLintravenousAmerican Regent, Inc.2007-09-10Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citratesolution20 mg/mLoralExela Pharma Sciences, LLC2006-09-21Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citrateinjection, solution20 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2009-11-19Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citrateinjection20 mg/mLintravenousExela Pharma Sciences, LLC2006-09-21Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citratesolution20 mg/mLoralAPP Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-11-19Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citratesolution20 mg/mLoralSun Pharma Global FZE2009-10-01Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citrateinjection, solution20 mg/mLintravenousAuro Medics Pharma Llc2015-09-22Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citrateinjection20 mg/mLintravenousSun Pharma Global FZE2009-10-01Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citratesolution20 mg/mLoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-10-04Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citratesolution20 mg/mLoralSagent Pharmaceuticals2012-09-15Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citratesolution20 mg/mLoralExela Pharma Sciences, LLC2006-09-21Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citratesolution20 mg/mLintravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2012-09-15Not applicableUs
Caffeine Citrateinjection20 mg/mLintravenousExela Pharma Sciences, LLC2006-09-21Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Alerttablet, film coated200 mg/1oralTime Cap Labs, Inc2011-11-30Not applicableUs
Alerttablet200 mg/1oralDolgencorp, LLC1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Alert Aid Caffeine Capsules 175mgcapsule175 mgoralSun Labs Ltd1991-12-312004-03-11Canada
Alert Aid Caffeine Tablets 175mgtablet175 mgoralSun Labs Ltd1991-12-312004-03-11Canada
Alert Alertness Aidtablet200 mg/1oralL.N.K. International, Inc.1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Alert Tab 100mgtablet100 mgoralNutribon (1986) Inc.1995-12-311996-09-30Canada
Alertness Aidtablet200 mg/1oralChain Drug Consortium1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Alertness Aidtablet, coated200 mg/1oralWe Care Distributor Inc.2016-03-07Not applicableUs
Allertness Aidtablet200 mg/1oralChain Drug Consortium2014-11-03Not applicableUs
Allertness Aidtablet200 mg/1oralSelect Corporation2012-10-15Not applicableUs
Awake Maximum Strengthtablet, film coated200 mg/1oralBetter Living Brands, Llc1998-04-14Not applicableUs
Awake Maximum Strengthtablet, film coated200 mg/1oralWALGREEN CO.1998-04-14Not applicableUs
Caffeinetablet200 mg/1oralWOONSOCKET PRESCRIPTION CENTER,INCORPORATED1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Caffeinetablet200 mg/1oralAAA Pharmaceutical, Inc.2012-12-15Not applicableUs
Caffeinetablet200 mgoralAdded Dimensions1996-12-202006-09-25Canada
Caffeine 200 mgtablet, multilayer200 mg/200mgoralUltr Atab Laboratories, Inc.2016-04-05Not applicableUs
Caffeine Maximum Strengthtablet, film coated200 mg/1oralWOONSOCKET PRESCRIPTION CENTER,INCORPORATED1998-04-14Not applicableUs
Circle K Nosnoozetablet200 mg/1oralLil' Drug Store Products, Inc2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Conrx Alerttablet200 mg/1oralEagle Distributors,Inc.2013-02-15Not applicableUs
Destim - Tab 200mgtablet200 mgoralD & E Pharmaceuticals Inc.1995-12-312009-06-08Canada
Diurex Ultratablet, film coated100 mg/1oralAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.2005-09-01Not applicableUs
Diurex Watercapstablet, film coated200 mg/1oralAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.2009-04-15Not applicableUs
Drowz Away Maximum Strengthtablet200 mg/1oralCare One (American Sales Company)2010-08-31Not applicableUs
Drowz Away Maximum Strengthtablet200 mg/1oralCare One (American Sales Company)2014-03-05Not applicableUs
Equaline Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralSupervalu Inc2004-08-30Not applicableUs
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralAmerisource Bergen2001-07-16Not applicableUs
Good Sense Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralL. Perrigo Company1993-03-23Not applicableUs
Health Mart Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralMc Kesson2011-11-21Not applicableUs
Healthy Accents Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralDZA Brands LLC2008-02-04Not applicableUs
Jet Alert Double Strengthtablet, coated200 mg/1oralBell Pharmaceuticals, Inc2014-11-26Not applicableUs
Jet Alert Regular Strengthtablet, coated100 mg/1oralBell Pharmaceuticals, Inc2014-12-01Not applicableUs
Jet-alert Maximum Strength Alertness Aidcapsule, liquid filled200 mg/1oralBell Pharmaceuticals, Inc2014-11-262016-01-09Us
Leader Alertness Aidtablet200 mg/1oralCardinal Health1994-02-10Not applicableUs
Lil Drug Store Nosnoozetablet200 mg/1oralLil' Drug Store Products, Inc.2011-02-08Not applicableUs
Lil Drug Store Nosnoozetablet200 mg/1oralLil' Drug Store Products, Inc.2011-02-08Not applicableUs
Nano Ppccream5 mg/1000mLtopicalYBK Investment, INC2013-10-15Not applicableUs
Nodoz Maximum Strength Alertness Aidtablet, coated200 mg/1oralNovartis Consumer Health, Inc.2009-12-31Not applicableUs
Pep-back Peak Performancetablet, film coated200 mg/1oralAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.2007-03-28Not applicableUs
Pep-back Ultratablet, film coated200 mg/1oralAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.1993-04-08Not applicableUs
Phenfree Caffeine 100mg Capsulescapsule100 mgoralUpper 49 Th Imports Inc.1999-07-012004-09-09Canada
Smart Sense Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralKmart Corporation2010-12-16Not applicableUs
Sohmed Alertness Aidtablet200 mg/1oralSOHM Inc.2013-08-25Not applicableUs
Stay Alert Aidtablet200 mg/1oralRite Aid1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Alert Alertness Aidtablet200 mg/1oralL&R Distributors, Inc.1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralKinray Inc.2013-05-09Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralH E B1996-03-25Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralFreds Inc2013-03-01Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralGREAT LAKES WHOLESALE, MARKETING, & SALES, INC.1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralHy Vee Inc1996-05-28Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralGreenbrier International, Inc.1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralWestern Family Foods, Inc.2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet, film coated200 mg/1oralRite Aid1998-04-14Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralKroger Company1994-06-17Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralWestern Family Foods, Inc.2014-02-28Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralBest Choice (Valu Merchandisers Company)2014-04-30Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralSalado Sales, Inc.1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralWin Co Foods, Llc1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralArmy and Air Force Exchange Service1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralChain Drug Marketing Association Inc1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralPublix Super Markets Inc1998-01-06Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralNational Distribution Network (Smart Choice)2014-05-30Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralChain Drug Marketing Association2014-06-13Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralWal Mart Stores Inc1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralNash Finch Company1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralSUPERVALU INC.1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralFreds Inc2014-03-28Not applicableUs
Stay Awake Maximum Strengthtablet200 mg/1oralValu Merchandisers Company (Best Choice)2010-09-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awake Maximum Strengthtablet200 mg/1oralBetter Living Brands, Llc1992-11-21Not applicableUs
Stay Awake Maximum Strengthtablet200 mg/1oralSUPERVALU INC.1998-04-14Not applicableUs
Stay Awake Maximum Strengthtablet200 mg/1oralWALGREEN CO.1996-11-21Not applicableUs
Sugarloaf Spring Caffeine, Caffeinated Spring Waterliquid50 mgoralSugarloaf Spring Rain International Ltd.1998-10-152002-07-09Canada
Sunmark Stay Awaketablet200 mg/1oralMc Kesson2003-08-21Not applicableUs
Topcare Stay Awake Maximum Strengthtablet200 mg/1oralTopco Associates LLC1993-12-14Not applicableUs
Vivarintablet200 mg/1oralMeda Consumer Healthcare Inc.2014-06-15Not applicableUs
Vivarintablet200 mg/1oralMeda Consumer Healthcare Inc.2012-01-15Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Caffeine and Sodium Benzoateinjection, solution125 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousAmerican Regent, Inc.1993-02-01Not applicableUs
Diurex Ultimatetablet, film coated100 mg/1oralAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.2015-10-31Not applicableUs
International Brands
NameCompany
CaffedrineNot Available
DexitacNot Available
DurvitanNot Available
EnerjetsNot Available
No-DozNot Available
Pep-BackNot Available
Quick PepNot Available
Wake-UpNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
(extra Strength) Acetaminophen, Caffeine & 8mg Codeine Phosphate CapletsStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
217Merck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.
217 Strong TabMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.
222 TabletsMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson Inc
282 Mep TabMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.
282 TabMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.
282 TabletsPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc
292 TabMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.
292 TabletsPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc
692 TabMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.
692 TabletLioh Inc.
7 Select Migraine Formula7 Eleven
999 Ganmaoling ColdKingsway
A & C Tablets With Codeine 15mgD.C. Labs Limited
A & C Tablets With Codeine 30mgD.C. Labs Limited
A.C. & C 8mg TabVita Health Products Inc
A.C. & C. 8 mgLaboratoires Confab Inc
A.C. & C. 8mgWestcan Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
A.C.& C TabletsPharmascience Inc
Ac and C Tab 1/8grPharmascience Inc
Ac&c TabletsPharmascience Inc
Acet 2Pharmascience Inc
Acet 3Pharmascience Inc
Acetaminophen 300 Mg With 15 Mg Caffeine and 8 Mg Codeine PhosphateVita Health Products Inc
Acetaminophen 300mg, Caffeine & CodeineTanta Pharmaceuticals Inc
Acetaminophen 325 C & CTechnilab Pharma Inc.
Acetaminophen 325 Mg Caffeine and CodeineTanta Pharmaceuticals Inc
Acetaminophen 325 Mg With 15 Mg Caffeine and 8 Mg Codeine PhosphateVita Health Products Inc
Acetaminophen 500 Mg Compound Tablets With CodeinePharmascience Inc
Acetaminophen 500 Mg With 15 Mg Caffeine and 8 Mg Codeine PhosphateVita Health Products Inc
Acetaminophen 500mg and Caffeine 65mgPharmetics (2011) Inc
Acetaminophen 500mg, Caffeine and 8mg Codeine PhosphatePharmetics (2011) Inc
Acetaminophen Caffeine & 8mg Cod Phos TabStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Acetaminophen Caffeine & 8mg Cod. Phos. TabNovopharm Limited
Acetaminophen Compound Tablets With Codeine 8mgD.C. Labs Limited
Acetaminophen Headache Ultra ReliefApotex Inc
Acetaminophen Relief Regular StrengthJamp Pharma Corporation
Acetaminophen Ultra Relief Extra StrengthJamp Pharma Corporation
Acetaminophen W Codeine TabPharmascience Inc
Acetaminophen With Codeine - CapletTeva Canada Limited
Acetaminophen-caffeine-codeineLaboratoires Confab Inc
Acetaminophen, Butalbital and CaffeineSTAT Rx USA LLC
Acetaminophen, Caffeine & 8mg Codeine PhosphatePharmascience Inc
Acetaminophen, Caffeine & 8mg Codeine Phosphate TabletsJamp Pharma Corporation
Acetaminophen, Caffeine & CodeinePharmascience Inc
Acetaminophen, Caffeine & Codeine TabletsPharmascience Inc
Acetaminophen, Caffeine and 8 Mg Of Codeine Phosphate TabletsPharmetics (2011) Inc
Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and 8mg Of Codeine Phosphate TabletsPharmetics (2011) Inc
Acetaminophen, Caffeine, Dihydrocodeine BitartrateXspire Pharma Llc
Acetaminophene Codeine Et Cafeine CapletsLaboratoires Trianon Inc
Acetaminophene Codeine Et Cafeine FortLaboratoires Trianon Inc
Acetylsalicylic Acid, Caffeine & 8 Mg Codeine Phosphate TabletsJamp Pharma Corporation
Acetylsalicylic Acid, Caffeine and 8mg Codeine PhosphatePharmetics (2011) Inc
Ache and Pain Relief To GoBreakthrough Products Inc.
Added Strength Pain RelieverBetter Living Brands, Llc
Alka-seltzer Morning ReliefBayer Inc Consumer Care
AnacinInsight Pharmaceuticals
Anacin AFInsight Pharmaceuticals
Anacin CapletsWyeth Consumer Healthcare Inc.
Anacin EsInsight Pharmaceuticals
Anacin Extra StrengthPaladin Labs Inc
Anacin Extra Strength CapletsWyeth Consumer Healthcare Inc.
Anacin Extra Strength TabletWyeth Consumer Healthcare Inc.
Anacin TabletWyeth Consumer Healthcare Inc.
Anacin With Codeine TabWhitehall Robins Inc.
Antidol TabletsLes Produits Gerbex Inc.
Apo-acetaco #1Apotex Inc
Arco Pain TabLaboratoire Romilo
Arthriten Inflammatory Pain FormulaAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.
Asa and CaffeineTherapharma Inc.
Asa-caffeine-codeineLaboratoires Confab Inc
Asa, Caffeine & 8mg Codeine PhosphateCanapharm Manufacturing Inc
Ascomp With CodeineNexgen Pharma, Inc.
Aspirin Rapid ReliefBayer Inc Consumer Care
Aspirin, Caffeine, and Dihydrocodeine BitartrateCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd
Atasol 15 TabChurch & Dwight Canada Corp
Atasol 30 TabChurch & Dwight Canada Corp
Atasol 8 TabChurch & Dwight Canada Corp
Back and Body Extra StrengthGreenbrier International, Inc.
Backaid Inflammatory Pain FormulaAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.
Bayer Am Extra StengthBayer Health Care Llc, Consumer Care
Bayer Back and Body Extra StrengthBayer Health Care Llc, Consumer Care
Bayer Headache ReliefBayer Health Care Llc
Bayer Migraine FormulaBayer Health Care Llc, Consumer Care
BcMedtech Products Inc.
Bc ArthritisMedtech Products Inc.
Bc CherryMedtech Products Inc.
Berkley and Jensen Migraine FormulaBJWC
Berkley and Jensen Migraine ReliefBJWC
Bi Electro Extra StrengthGenomma Lab Usa
BlowfishRally Labs Llc
Butalbital Acetaminophen and CaffeineLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC
Butalbital CompoundMajor Pharmaceuticals
Butalbital, Acetaminophen and CaffeineWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp
Butalbital, Acetaminophen and Caffeine PlusSTAT Rx USA LLC
Butalbital, Acetaminophen and Caffeine With Codeine PhosphateWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, and CaffeineWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, CaffeineREMEDYREPACK INC.
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine and Codeine PhosphateBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine PhosphateActavis Pharma, Inc.
Butalbital, Acetominophen and Caffeinebryant ranch prepack
Butalbital, Aspirin and CaffeineWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp
Butalbital, Aspirin and Caffeine TabletsQualitest
Butalbital, Aspirin, and CaffeineLannett Company, Inc.
Butalbital, Aspirin, Caffeine and Codeine PhosphateLannett Company, Inc.
Butalbital, Aspirin, Caffeine, and Codeine PhosphateMayne Pharma Inc.
C T Acetylsalicylic Acid Codeine and Caf TabPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.
C-2 Buffered With CodeinePharmascience Inc
C2 Buffered TabWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.
C2 Buffered With Codeine TabWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.
C2 Tab With CodeineWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.
CafergotKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS
Cafergot SupNovartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc
Cafergot TabNovartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc
Calmine TabLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
CapacetMagna Pharmaceuticals
Care One Headache Relief Added StrengthAmerican Sales Company
Care One Migraine ReliefAmerican Sales Company
Careline Perfect Care BbCosmopharm Ltd.
Circle K Headache ReliefLil' Drug Store Products, Inc
CitramonBorisovskiy Zavod Medicinskikh Preparatov Jsc
Cold Remedy Gan Mao LingInternational Nature Nutraceuticals
Comfort-timeTime Cap Labs, Inc
Complete Menstrual ReliefGood Sense (Geiss, Destin & Dunn, Inc.)
Conrx Pain RelieverEagle Distributors,Inc.
CorytabLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
CotabsPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.
Darvon N Compound Pulvule 405Eli Lilly Canada Inc
Dg Health Headache Relief Added StrengthDolgencorp, LLC
Dg Health Migraine ReliefDolgencorp, LLC
Dihydrocodeine Bitartrate, Acetaminophen and CaffeinePhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Diurex Water PillsAlva Amco Pharmacal Companies, Inc.
Dolomine 37Frega Inc.
Dristan CapsulesWhitehall Robins Inc.
Emertabs TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
Equaline Headache Formula Added StrengthSupervalu Inc
Equaline Migraine FormulaSupervalu Inc
Equate Migraine ReliefWal Mart Stores Inc
Ergodryl CapErfa Canada 2012 Inc
ErgotamineWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp
Ergotamine Tartrate and CaffeineKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS
EsgicForest Laboratories, Inc.
ExaprinHART Health
ExcedrinBristol Myers Squibb Canada
Excedrin Extra StrengthNovartis Consumer Health, Inc.
Excedrin Extra Strength CapletsNovartis Consumer Health, Inc.
Excedrin Extra Strength GeltabsNovartis Consumer Health, Inc
Excedrin Extra Strength Pain RelieverNovartis Consumer Health, Inc.
Excedrin Extra-strengthNovartis Consumer Health Canada Inc.
Excedrin Menstrual CompleteNovartis Consumer Health, Inc.
Excedrin MigraineNovartis Consumer Health, Inc.
Excedrin Migraine GeltabsNovartis Consumer Health, Inc
Excedrin Mild Headache CapletsNovartis Consumer Health, Inc.
Excedrin Tension HeadacheNovartis Consumer Health, Inc.
Excedrin Tension Headache Pain RelieverNovartis Consumer Health, Inc.
Exdol 15tabMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.
Exdol 30tabMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.
Exdol 8 TabMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.
Exdol-15Pharmascience Inc
Exdol-30Pharmascience Inc
Exdol-8Pharmascience Inc
Extra Pain ReliefTime Cap Labs
Extra Strength Back and BodyWALGREEN CO.
Extra Strength Contac Plus Cold Nasal CongestionGlaxosmithkline Consumer Healthcare Inc.
Extra Strength Headache ReliefTarget Corporation
Extra Strength Menstrual CompleteVita Health Products Inc
Extra Strength MidolBayer Inc Consumer Care
Extra Strength Midol ReliefBayer Inc Consumer Care
Extra Strength Pain RelieverRite Aid
Family Wellness Migraine ReliefFamily Dollar Services Inc
FioricetActavis Pharma, Inc.
Fioricet With CodeineWatson Pharma, Inc.
FiorinalActavis Pharma, Inc.
Fiorinal C1/2Tribute Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc
Fiorinal C1/4Tribute Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc
Fiorinal TabNovartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc
Fiorinal With CodeineActavis Pharma, Inc.
First Aid Shot Therapy Hangover ReliefFirst Aid Beverages, Inc.
First Aid Shot Therapy Pain ReliefFirst Aid Beverages, Inc.
Formu Care Pain Reliever Added StrengthAccess Business Group LLC
Ganmaoling 999Kingsway Trading
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Headache ReliefAmerisource Bergen
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Migraine ReliefAmerisource Bergen
Good Sense Headache Formula Added StrengthL Perrigo Company
Good Sense Migraine FormulaL. Perrigo Company
GoodysGlaxo Smith Kline Consumer Healthcare Lp
Goodys Cool OrangeLil' Drug Store Products, Inc
Goodys Cool Orange HeadacheMedtech Products Inc.
Goodys Extra StrengthMedtech Products Inc.
Goodys Extra Strength Headache Mixed Fruit BlastMedtech Products Inc.
Goodys Headache Relief ShotMedtech Products Inc.
Goodys Migraine ReliefMedtech Products Inc.
Goodys PM Pain RelieverMedtech Products Inc.
Gravergol CapsulesCan Med Pharma Inc.
Green Guard Pain and Ache ReliefUnifirst First Aid Corporation
Harris Teeter Migraine ReliefHarris Teeter, LLC
Headache Formula Added StrengthKroger Company
Headache Formula Extra StrengthArmy and Air Force Exchange Service
Headache ReliefTarget Corporation
Headache Relief Added StrengthMedicine Shoppe International Inc
Headache Relief Extra StrengthWALGREEN CO.
Headache Relief MildMeijer
Headache Relief To GoBreakthrough Products Inc.
Health Mart Migraine FormulaMc Kesson
Health Mart Migraine ReliefMc Kesson
Healthy Accents Headache Relief Added StrengthDZA Brands LLC
Healthy Accents Migraine FormulaDZA Brands LLC
Herbopyrine Tab 325mgHerbes Universelles Inc.
Instantine - TabletsBayer Inc Consumer Care
Instantine TabSterling Winthrop Inc.
Isometheptene Mucate, Caffeine, and AcetaminophenXspire Pharma
Leader Headache Formula Added StrengthCardinal Health
Leader Migraine FormulaCardinal Health
Lil Drug Store Headache Relief Extra StrengthLil' Drug Store Products, Inc.
MadelonLes Laboratoires Du Saint Laurent E.H. Ltee
MargesicMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Maximum Strength Menstrual CompleteRite Aid
Medi First Pain ReliefUnifirst First Aid Corporation
Medi First Plus Pain ZapperUnifirst First Aid Corporation
Medique Back Pain OffUnifirst First Aid Corporation
Medique Pain OffUnifirst First Aid Corporation
Megral TabsGlaxo Wellcome Inc.
Menstrual CompleteThe Kroger Co.
Menstrual Complete Maximum StrengthRite Aid
Menstrual Midol CompleteBayer Inc Consumer Care
Menstrual ReliefWALGREEN CO.
Menstrual Relief Extra StrengthBetter Living Brands, Llc
Menstrual Relief Maximum StrengthWALGREEN CO.
Midol CompleteBayer Health Care Llc, Consumer Care
Midol Complete GelcapsBayer Health Care Llc, Consumer Care
Midol Extra Strength GelcapsBayer Inc Consumer Care
Midol Extra Strength MenstrualBayer Inc Consumer Care
Midol Multi-symptom Caplets Extra StrengthSterling Winthrop Inc.
Midol Multi-symptom Gelcap Extra StrengthBayer Inc Consumer Care
Midol OneBayer Inc Consumer Care
Midol RegularBayer Inc Consumer Care
MigergotG&W Laboratories, Inc.
Migraine FormulaSafeway
Migraine ReliefWalgreen Company
MigrenolFour Ventures Enterprises, Inc.
Nano PpcYBK Investment, INC
NervineJ L Mathieu Cie Ltee
Nervine TabJ L Mathieu Cie Ltee
Norgesic3 M Pharmaceuticals
Norgesic Forte3 M Pharmaceuticals
Norgesic Forte Tab3 M Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of 3 M Canada Company
Norgesic Tab3 M Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of 3 M Canada Company
Novo Ac and C 8mg TabNovopharm Limited
Novo-gesic C15Novopharm Limited
Novo-gesic C30Novopharm Limited
Novo-gesic-C8Novopharm Limited
Novo-propoxyn Compound CapNovopharm Limited
Nu-acetaco #1Nu Pharm Inc
Oradrine 2 TabNutribon (1986) Inc.
Oradrine TabletsPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.
Oradrine-2 TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
OrbivanAtley Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Orphenadrine Citrate, Aspirin and CaffeineRebel Distributors Corp
Pain AidZee Medical Inc
Pain Aid EsfZee Medical Inc
Pain Away PlusMedex Merchandising Llc
Pain Relief Added StrengthBetter Living Brands, Llc
Pain Relief Extra StrengthL&R Distributors, Inc.
Pain Relief Maximum StrengthSelect Corporation
Pain Reliever Added StrengthTarget Corporation
Pain Reliever Extra StrengthCostco Wholesale Corporation
Pain Reliever PlusClinical Solutions Wholesale
Pain Stopper ExtraNorth Safety Products LLC
Pain Stoppers ExtraNorth Safety Products LLC
Pain Stoppers RegularNorth Safety Products LLC
Painex Tab 0.25grIcn Canada Ltd.
Painex Tab 0.5grIcn Canada Ltd.
Pamprin Max Menstrual Pain ReliefChattem, Inc.
Pancold SKafus Co., Ltd
PMS-pharnal CapsulesPharmascience Inc
PMS-pharnal TabletsPharmascience Inc
PMS-pharnal-C 1/4 CapsulesPharmascience Inc
PMS-pharnal-C1/2 CapsulesPharmascience Inc
ProdrinGentex Pharma
Pronal - C1/2 CapsulesPro Doc Limitee
Pronal C1/4 CapsulesPro Doc Limitee
Pronal CapsulesPro Doc Limitee
Pronal TabletsPro Doc Limitee
Ratio-lenoltec No 1Teva Canada Limited
Ratio-lenoltec No 2Teva Canada Limited
Ratio-lenoltec No 3Teva Canada Limited
Ratio-tecnalTeva Canada Limited
Ratio-tecnal C 1/2Teva Canada Limited
Ratio-tecnal C 1/4Teva Canada Limited
Regular Strength AspirinWALGREEN CO.
Rx Act Headache Formula Added StrengthH E B
Sedalmex Pain RelieverMidway Importing, Inc
Shoprite Migraine FormulaWakefern Food Corporation
Signature Care Migraine ReliefSafeway
Sinugex 38Frega Inc.
Smart Sense Migraine FormulaKmart Corporation
Smart Sense Migraine ReliefKmart Corporation
Sohmed Pain RelieverSOHM Inc.
StanbackMedtech Products Inc.
Sunmark Headache ReliefMc Kesson
Sunmark Migraine ReliefMc Kesson
Sunmark Tension HeadacheMc Kesson
SynalgosCaraco Pharma Inc.
Tamicode TabletsViva Pharmaceutical Inc.
Teen Midol CompleteBayer Inc Consumer Care
Teen Pms Relief Complete CapletsTanta Pharmaceuticals Inc
Tension HeadacheWalgreen Company
Tension Headache Aspirin FreeWOONSOCKET PRESCRIPTION CENTER,INCORPORATED
Tension Headache Aspirin-freeRite Aid
Tension Headache ReliefWALGREEN CO.
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Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Caffeine citrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000866
Categories
UNII3G6A5W338E
CAS number58-08-2
WeightAverage: 194.1906
Monoisotopic: 194.080375584
Chemical FormulaC8H10N4O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=RYYVLZVUVIJVGH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H10N4O2/c1-10-4-9-6-5(10)7(13)12(3)8(14)11(6)2/h4H,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
1,3,7-trimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(C)C(=O)N2C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor management of fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, and for the short term treatment of apnea of prematurity in infants.
PharmacodynamicsCaffeine, a naturally occurring xanthine derivative like theobromine and the bronchodilator theophylline, is used as a CNS stimulant, mild diuretic, and respiratory stimulant (in neonates with apnea of prematurity). Often combined with analgesics or with ergot alkaloids, caffeine is used to treat migraine and other headache types. Over the counter, caffeine is available to treat drowsiness or mild water-weight gain.
Mechanism of actionCaffeine stimulates medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers, promoting bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and increased respiratory rate. This action was previously believed to be due primarily to increased intracellular cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) following inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that degrades cyclic AMP. It is now thought that xanthines such as caffeine act as antagonists at adenosine-receptors within the plasma membrane of virtually every cell. As adenosine acts as an autocoid, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic sites but augmenting the actions of norepinephrine or angiotensin, antagonism of adenosine receptors promotes neurotransmitter release. This explains the stimulatory effects of caffeine. Blockade of the adenosine A1 receptor in the heart leads to the accelerated, pronounced "pounding" of the heart upon caffeine intake.
Related Articles
AbsorptionReadily absorbed after oral or parenteral administration. The peak plasma level for caffeine range from 6-10mg/L and the mean time to reach peak concentration ranged from 30 minutes to 2 hours.
Volume of distribution
  • 0.8 to 0.9 L/kg [infants]
  • 0.6 L/kg [adults]
Protein bindingLow (25 to 36%).
Metabolism

Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) is involved in caffeine biotransformation. About 80% of a dose of caffeine is metabolized to paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), 10% to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and 4% to theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine).

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Caffeine
TheobromineDetails
Caffeine
TheophyllineDetails
Caffeine
1,3,7-Trimethyluric acidDetails
Caffeine
ParaxanthineDetails
Paraxanthine
1,7-Dimethyluric acidDetails
Theophylline
1-MethylxanthineDetails
1-Methylxanthine
1-Methyluric acidDetails
Paraxanthine
5-Acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracilDetails
Paraxanthine
Not Available
1-MethylxanthineDetails
Route of eliminationIn young infants, the elimination of caffeine is much slower than that in adults due to immature hepatic and/or renal function.
Half life3 to 7 hours in adults, 65 to 130 hours in neonates
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=127 mg/kg (orally in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Caffeine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00028
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Gene symbol: CYP1A2
UniProt: P05177
rs762551 Not AvailableC alleleMyocardial infarction16522833
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9935
Caco-2 permeable+0.633
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7572
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8086
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8471
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8872
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7484
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5869
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5305
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9906
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9836
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9927
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9618
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9924
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9359
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6696
Rat acute toxicity2.9741 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8925
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8702
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Mead johnson and co
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Paddock laboratories inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral175 mg
Tabletoral175 mg
Tabletoral100 mg
Tablet (effervescent)oral
Tablet
Tablet, film coatedoral200 mg/1
Tablet, effervescentoral
Syruporal
Capsuleoral
Tabletoral
Injectionintravenous20 mg/mL
Tablet, multilayeroral200 mg/200mg
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous125 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous20 mg/mL
Solutionintravenous20 mg/mL
Solutionoral20 mg/mL
Tabletoral200 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral100 mg/1
Tablet, coatedoral
Tablet, film coatedoral
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral
Solutionoral
Granuleoral
Capsule, coatedoral
Capsule
Powderoral
Tablet, coatedoral100 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledoral200 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledoral
Suppositoryrectal
Creamtopical
Creamtopical5 mg/1000mL
Tablet, coatedoral200 mg/1
Tablet, multilayeroral
Liquidoral
Capsuleoral100 mg
Waferoral60 mg
Tabletoral200 mg/1
Liquidoral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Migergot 12 2-100 mg Suppository Box105.43USD box
Cafcit 20 mg/ml oral soln16.4USD ml
Cafcit 20 mg/ml vial16.4USD ml
Caffeine cit 20 mg/ml oral sol15.21USD ml
Caffeine citrate 20 mg/ml vial12.8USD ml
Migergot suppository7.39USD suppository
Esgic tablet2.5USD tablet
Esgic 50-325-40 mg tablet2.27USD tablet
Darvon-n 100 mg tablet1.95USD tablet
Esgic-plus 50-500-40 mg tablet1.95USD tablet
Cafergot 1-100 mg tablet1.9USD tablet
Darvon 65 mg pulvule1.49USD each
Fioricet 50-325-40 mg tablet1.24USD tablet
Butalb-apap-caff 50-500-40 tablet1.2USD tablet
Butalb-apap-caff 50-325-40 tablet0.44USD tablet
Caffeine citrate powder0.36USD g
Propoxyphene hcl 65 mg capsule0.33USD capsule
Vivarin 200 mg caplet0.17USD caplet
Vivarin 200 mg tablet0.17USD tablet
No doz 200 mg caplet0.16USD caplet
Caffeine citrated powder purif0.13USD g
Stay awake 200 mg tablet0.1USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy caffeine 200 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Ra stay awake 100 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Caffeine powder0.07USD g
Caffeine 200 mg tablet0.01USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5972916 No1997-07-142017-07-14Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point238 °CPhysProp
water solubility2.16E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-0.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-0.97ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.41ADME Research, USCD
pKa10.4 (at 40 °C)DEAN,JA (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.24ALOGPS
logP-0.55ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.92ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.44 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity49.83 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.95 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.61 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (0 TMS)splash10-0536-3900000000-a9e112713ffae6dabdaaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (0 TMS)splash10-0536-2900000000-8cdcd005b2e7622a02a3View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-052f-0900000000-f1084acfddb240696073View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-05nf-6900000000-8670a644cee5d9de78d4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0536-3900000000-4430852b279a72e34822View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0900000000-447fc72b2c709e2e18a9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-1900000000-5e3b29de16ad91c79fe0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-d6f6c52ac36c8f25a500View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-0006-0900000000-cddd24399d942b1ac97cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-2aed5d425b6a95add5dbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-60) , Positivesplash10-0a4l-4900000000-3ff72dace6687d242f1fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-68) , Positivesplash10-0006-1900000000-2ba1fae6e27c7b836984View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (HITACHI M-60) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-63b9ef42a3e8d59e9997View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-185b3d97d8857a0f269dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-f8a0c0dd9f5c4a272eafView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-dd8e35226d0704aa657dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-01x9-9800000000-70e3b0eb52481c39d191View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-001l-9100000000-6d428a5571beb0e3fed4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-98bec16f898808c3de68View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-b112e4e059e1ecf98c5fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-761710441aa2c1c3ac68View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000b-0900000000-c10af6eda9a9a4094715View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01p9-3900000000-141118b1a93b4d48b2d4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-c8bd8cccb7dd6c66bb42View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-2c8c1760161edd358026View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-5900000000-260de4a79007e853e4bbView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-052f-8900000000-68b5e9aa3404fb3d8d3aView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Kaspar Bott, “Preparation of caffeine.” U.S. Patent US4380631, issued December, 1976.

US4380631
General References
  1. Nathanson JA: Caffeine and related methylxanthines: possible naturally occurring pesticides. Science. 1984 Oct 12;226(4671):184-7. [PubMed:6207592 ]
  2. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Milne AL, Scholey AB: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioural effects of guarana in humans. J Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jan;21(1):65-70. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [PubMed:16533867 ]
  3. Smit HJ, Gaffan EA, Rogers PJ: Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Nov;176(3-4):412-9. Epub 2004 May 5. [PubMed:15549276 ]
  4. Benjamin LT Jr, Rogers AM, Rosenbaum A: Coca-Cola, caffeine, and mental deficiency: Harry Hollingworth and the Chattanooga trial of 1911. J Hist Behav Sci. 1991 Jan;27(1):42-55. [PubMed:2010614 ]
  5. Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G: Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1992 May-Aug;17(2):139-70. [PubMed:1356551 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN06BC01V04CG30
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.92
  • 28:20.00
  • 28:20.92
  • 92:02.00*
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (37.7 KB)
MSDSDownload (76.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Caffeine.
AcenocoumarolCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Caffeine.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Acetazolamide.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AdenosineThe therapeutic efficacy of Adenosine can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.
AldesleukinCaffeine may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
AlteplaseCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Alteplase.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Amiloride.
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
AmlodipineThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphetamine is combined with Caffeine.
AmrinoneThe metabolism of Amrinone can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
AnistreplaseCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Anistreplase.
AtomoxetineAtomoxetine may increase the hypertensive activities of Caffeine.
AzelastineCaffeine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Caffeine.
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzphetamine is combined with Caffeine.
BepridilThe metabolism of Bepridil can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Caffeine.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Bumetanide.
ButabarbitalThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Butabarbital.
ButethalThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Butethal.
ButorphanolButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Caffeine.
CathinoneCathinone may increase the analgesic activities of Caffeine.
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorotrianiseneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.
ChlorphentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphentermine is combined with Caffeine.
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Chlorthalidone.
Citric AcidCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ClenbuterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clenbuterol is combined with Caffeine.
CollagenaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Collagenase.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cyclosporine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
CyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Cyclothiazide.
DalteparinCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.
DapsoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapsone is combined with Caffeine.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desmopressin is combined with Caffeine.
DexketoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Dexketoprofen.
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Diclofenamide.
DicoumarolCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DobutamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dobutamine is combined with Caffeine.
DopamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Caffeine.
DoxofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Doxofylline.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the tachycardic activities of Caffeine.
Edetic AcidCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.
EluxadolineCaffeine may increase the activities of Eluxadoline.
EnoxaparinCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EpinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epinephrine is combined with Caffeine.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Ethacrynic acid.
EthanolEthanol may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Caffeine.
EthoxzolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Ethoxzolamide.
Ethyl biscoumacetateCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.
FelodipineThe metabolism of Felodipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
FenoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoterol is combined with Caffeine.
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Fludrocortisone.
FlunarizineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
Fondaparinux sodiumCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.
FormoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Formoterol.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Furosemide.
GabapentinThe metabolism of Gabapentin can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
HeparinCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.
HeptabarbitalThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Heptabarbital.
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
HomoharringtonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Homoharringtonine.
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Hydroflumethiazide.
IcosapentThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Icosapent.
IndacaterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Indacaterol.
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Indapamide.
Insulin HumanCaffeine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.
IsoprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoprenaline is combined with Caffeine.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Isradipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Caffeine.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Caffeine.
LamotrigineThe metabolism of Lamotrigine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
LercanidipineThe metabolism of Lercanidipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
LimaprostLimaprost may increase the antiplatelet activities of Caffeine.
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the hypertensive activities of Caffeine.
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Caffeine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Caffeine.
Magnesium SulfateThe metabolism of Magnesium Sulfate can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
MephentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mephentermine is combined with Caffeine.
MetaraminolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaraminol is combined with Caffeine.
MethamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methamphetamine is combined with Caffeine.
MethohexitalThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Methohexital.
MethoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxamine is combined with Caffeine.
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Metolazone.
MexiletineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.
MidodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midodrine is combined with Caffeine.
NaphazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naphazoline is combined with Caffeine.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Nicardipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
NicorandilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Nicorandil.
NimodipineThe metabolism of Nimodipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
NisoldipineThe metabolism of Nisoldipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
NitrendipineThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
NorepinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norepinephrine is combined with Caffeine.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Norethindrone can be decreased when used in combination with Caffeine.
NorfloxacinThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Norfloxacin.
OlodaterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Olodaterol.
Omega-3 fatty acidsOmega-3 fatty acids may increase the antiplatelet activities of Caffeine.
OrciprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orciprenaline is combined with Caffeine.
OxymetazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Caffeine.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Paroxetine.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
PerhexilineThe metabolism of Perhexiline can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
PerindoprilCaffeine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.
PhenindioneCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.
PhenmetrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenmetrazine is combined with Caffeine.
PhenprocoumonCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.
PhentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with Caffeine.
PhenylephrineThe serum concentration of Phenylephrine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.
PhenylpropanolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylpropanolamine is combined with Caffeine.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PrenylamineThe metabolism of Prenylamine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Primidone.
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Caffeine.
PropacetamolThe metabolism of Propacetamol can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
RamosetronCaffeine may increase the activities of Ramosetron.
RegadenosonCaffeine may decrease the vasodilatory activities of Regadenoson.
ReteplaseCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reteplase.
RidogrelCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ridogrel.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.
RisedronateThe metabolism of Risedronate can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
RitodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritodrine is combined with Caffeine.
SalmeterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salmeterol is combined with Caffeine.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Spironolactone.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
StreptokinaseCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Streptokinase.
SulodexideCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.
TalniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Talniflumate.
Tedizolid PhosphateTedizolid Phosphate may increase the hypertensive activities of Caffeine.
TenecteplaseCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tenecteplase.
TerbutalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terbutaline is combined with Caffeine.
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Caffeine.
TicrynafenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Ticrynafen.
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Torasemide.
TositumomabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Tositumomab.
TreprostinilCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Treprostinil.
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caffeine is combined with Triamterene.
TrichlormethiazideCaffeine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Trichlormethiazide.
UrokinaseCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Urokinase.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
ValsartanCaffeine may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Caffeine.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
Vitamin EVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Caffeine.
WarfarinCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonistmultitarget
General Function:
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADORA1
Uniprot ID:
P30542
Molecular Weight:
36511.325 Da
References
  1. Gaytan SP, Saadani-Makki F, Bodineau L, Frugiere A, Larnicol N, Pasaro R: Effect of postnatal exposure to caffeine on the pattern of adenosine A1 receptor distribution in respiration-related nuclei of the rat brainstem. Auton Neurosci. 2006 Jun 30;126-127:339-46. Epub 2006 May 15. [PubMed:16702031 ]
  2. Wang SJ: Caffeine facilitation of glutamate release from rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals (synaptosomes) through activation protein kinase C pathway: an interaction with presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors. Synapse. 2007 Jun;61(6):401-11. [PubMed:17372967 ]
  3. Rieg T, Schnermann J, Vallon V: Adenosine A1 receptors determine effects of caffeine on total fluid intake but not caffeine appetite. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan 26;555(2-3):174-7. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17126319 ]
  4. Mustafa S, Venkatesh P, Pasha K, Mullangi R, Srinivas NR: Altered intravenous pharmacokinetics of topotecan in rats with acute renal failure (ARF) induced by uranyl nitrate: do adenosine A1 antagonists (selective/non-selective) normalize the altered topotecan kinetics in ARF? Xenobiotica. 2006 Dec;36(12):1239-58. [PubMed:17162470 ]
  5. Listos J, Malec D, Fidecka S: Adenosine receptor antagonists intensify the benzodiazepine withdrawal signs in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2006 Sep-Oct;58(5):643-51. [PubMed:17085856 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonistmultitarget
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID:
P29274
Molecular Weight:
44706.925 Da
References
  1. Riksen NP, Franke B, van den Broek P, Smits P, Rongen GA: The 1976C>T polymorphism in the adenosine A2A receptor gene does not affect the vasodilator response to adenosine in humans in vivo. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jul;17(7):551-4. [PubMed:17558310 ]
  2. Zhao G, Messina E, Xu X, Ochoa M, Sun HL, Leung K, Shryock J, Belardinelli L, Hintze TH: Caffeine attenuates the duration of coronary vasodilation and changes in hemodynamics induced by regadenoson (CVT-3146), a novel adenosine A2A receptor agonist. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;49(6):369-75. [PubMed:17577101 ]
  3. Cornelis MC, El-Sohemy A, Campos H: Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):240-4. [PubMed:17616786 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging from antidepressants to antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory agents.
Gene Name:
PDE4B
Uniprot ID:
Q07343
Molecular Weight:
83342.695 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Daly JW: Caffeine analogs: biomedical impact. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2153-69. [PubMed:17514358 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Calcium channel that mediates the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm and thereby plays a key role in triggering muscle contraction following depolarization of T-tubules. Repeated very high-level exercise increases the open probability of the channel and leads to Ca(2+) leaking into the cytoplasm. Can also mediate the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores ...
Gene Name:
RYR1
Uniprot ID:
P21817
Molecular Weight:
565170.715 Da
References
  1. Daly JW: Caffeine analogs: biomedical impact. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2153-69. [PubMed:17514358 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor, competitive
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. Has a higher affinity for cGMP than for cAMP.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1AP54750 Details
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1BQ01064 Details
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1CQ14123 Details
cAMP and cAMP-inhibited cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 10AQ9Y233 Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4AP27815 Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4BQ07343 Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4CQ08493 Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4DQ08499 Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7BQ9NP56 Details
cGMP-dependent 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesteraseO00408 Details
cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase AQ14432 Details
cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase BQ13370 Details
cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesteraseO76074 Details
Cone cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit alpha'P51160 Details
Dual 3',5'-cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11AQ9HCR9 Details
High affinity cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7AQ13946 Details
High affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8AO60658 Details
High affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8BO95263 Details
High affinity cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 9AO76083 Details
Rod cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit alphaP16499 Details
Rod cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit betaP35913 Details
References
  1. Ribeiro JA, Sebastiao AM: Caffeine and adenosine. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S3-15. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2010-1379. [PubMed:20164566 ]
  2. Essayan DM: Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Nov;108(5):671-80. [PubMed:11692087 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a molecular sensor for DNA damage. Involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination. Must be bound to DNA to express its catalytic properties. Promotes processing of hairpin DNA structures in V(D)J recombination by activation of the hairpin endonuclease artemis (DCLRE1C). The asse...
Gene Name:
PRKDC
Uniprot ID:
P78527
Molecular Weight:
469084.155 Da
References
  1. Foukas LC, Daniele N, Ktori C, Anderson KE, Jensen J, Shepherd PR: Direct effects of caffeine and theophylline on p110 delta and other phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Differential effects on lipid kinase and protein kinase activities. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 4;277(40):37124-30. Epub 2002 Jul 26. [PubMed:12145276 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity
Specific Function:
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) that phosphorylates PftdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 plays a key role by recruiting PH domain-containing proteins to the membrane, including AKT1 and PDPK1, activating signaling cascades involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, motility and morphology. Mediates immun...
Gene Name:
PIK3CD
Uniprot ID:
O00329
Molecular Weight:
119478.065 Da
References
  1. Foukas LC, Daniele N, Ktori C, Anderson KE, Jensen J, Shepherd PR: Direct effects of caffeine and theophylline on p110 delta and other phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Differential effects on lipid kinase and protein kinase activities. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 4;277(40):37124-30. Epub 2002 Jul 26. [PubMed:12145276 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) that phosphorylates PtdIns (Phosphatidylinositol), PtdIns4P (Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate) and PtdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 plays a key role by recruiting PH domain-containing proteins to the membrane, including AKT1 and PDPK1, activating signaling cascades involved in...
Gene Name:
PIK3CA
Uniprot ID:
P42336
Molecular Weight:
124283.025 Da
References
  1. Foukas LC, Daniele N, Ktori C, Anderson KE, Jensen J, Shepherd PR: Direct effects of caffeine and theophylline on p110 delta and other phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Differential effects on lipid kinase and protein kinase activities. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 4;277(40):37124-30. Epub 2002 Jul 26. [PubMed:12145276 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity
Specific Function:
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) that phosphorylates PtdIns (Phosphatidylinositol), PtdIns4P (Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate) and PtdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 plays a key role by recruiting PH domain-containing proteins to the membrane, including AKT1 and PDPK1, activating signaling cascades involved in...
Gene Name:
PIK3CB
Uniprot ID:
P42338
Molecular Weight:
122761.225 Da
References
  1. Foukas LC, Daniele N, Ktori C, Anderson KE, Jensen J, Shepherd PR: Direct effects of caffeine and theophylline on p110 delta and other phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Differential effects on lipid kinase and protein kinase activities. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 4;277(40):37124-30. Epub 2002 Jul 26. [PubMed:12145276 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol binding
Specific Function:
Intracellular channel that mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum following stimulation by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Involved in the regulation of epithelial secretion of electrolytes and fluid through the interaction with AHCYL1 (By similarity). Plays a role in ER stress-induced apoptosis. Cytoplasmic calcium released from the ER triggers apoptosis by the activation of CaM kinase II, eventually leading to the activation of downstream apoptosis pathways (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1Q14643 Details
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2Q14571 Details
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3Q14573 Details
References
  1. Parker I, Ivorra I: Caffeine inhibits inositol trisphosphate-mediated liberation of intracellular calcium in Xenopus oocytes. J Physiol. 1991 Feb;433:229-40. [PubMed:1844813 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon double strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis and genotoxic stresses such as ionizing ultraviolet A light (UVA), thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at double strand breaks (DSBs), thereby regulating DNA damage response ...
Gene Name:
ATM
Uniprot ID:
Q13315
Molecular Weight:
350684.105 Da
References
  1. Sarkaria JN, Busby EC, Tibbetts RS, Roos P, Taya Y, Karnitz LM, Abraham RT: Inhibition of ATM and ATR kinase activities by the radiosensitizing agent, caffeine. Cancer Res. 1999 Sep 1;59(17):4375-82. [PubMed:10485486 ]
  2. Blasina A, Price BD, Turenne GA, McGowan CH: Caffeine inhibits the checkpoint kinase ATM. Curr Biol. 1999 Oct 7;9(19):1135-8. [PubMed:10531013 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Brosen K: Drug interactions and the cytochrome P450 system. The role of cytochrome P450 1A2. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995;29 Suppl 1:20-5. [PubMed:8846619 ]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  4. Hickman D, Wang JP, Wang Y, Unadkat JD: Evaluation of the selectivity of In vitro probes and suitability of organic solvents for the measurement of human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activities. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Mar;26(3):207-15. [PubMed:9492382 ]
  5. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, retinoid and xenobiotics. Preferentially oxidizes 17beta-estradiol to the carcinogenic 4-hydroxy derivative, and a variety of procarcinogenic compou...
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular Weight:
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, Cvetkovic M, Fromm MF, Dempsey PJ, Roden MM, Belas F, Chaudhary AK, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR: Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 1999 Mar;16(3):408-14. [PubMed:10213372 ]
  2. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 27, 2016 01:55