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Identification
NameNimodipine
Accession NumberDB00393  (APRD00612)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

Nimodipine is a 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It acts primarily on vascular smooth muscle cells by stabilizing voltage-gated L-type calcium channels in their inactive conformation. By inhibiting the influx of calcium in smooth muscle cells, nimodipine prevents calcium-dependent smooth muscle contraction and subsequent vasoconstriction. Compared to other calcium channel blocking agents, nimodipine exhibits greater effects on cerebral circulation than on peripheral circulation. Nimodipine is used to as an adjunct to improve the neurologic outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
NimodipinoSpanishINN
NimodipinumLatinINN
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
NimotopBayer
Nymalize Arbor Pharmaceuticals Inc.
PeriplumNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number66085-59-4
WeightAverage: 418.4403
Monoisotopic: 418.174001196
Chemical FormulaC21H26N2O7
InChI KeyInChIKey=UIAGMCDKSXEBJQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H26N2O7/c1-12(2)30-21(25)18-14(4)22-13(3)17(20(24)29-10-9-28-5)19(18)15-7-6-8-16(11-15)23(26)27/h6-8,11-12,19,22H,9-10H2,1-5H3
IUPAC Name
3-(2-methoxyethyl) 5-propan-2-yl 2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
SMILES
COCCOC(=O)C1=C(C)NC(C)=C(C1C1=CC(=CC=C1)[N+]([O-])=O)C(=O)OC(C)C
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassPyridines and Derivatives
SubclassHydropyridines
Direct parentDihydropyridinecarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Alternative parentsNitrobenzenes; Dicarboxylic Acids and Derivatives; Nitronic Acids; Carboxylic Acid Esters; Nitro Compounds; Ethers; Enolates; Enamines; Organic Oxoazanium Compounds; Polyamines
Substituentsbenzene; dicarboxylic acid derivative; carboxylic acid ester; nitro compound; nitronic acid; polyamine; carboxylic acid derivative; organic oxoazanium; ether; enolate; enamine; organonitrogen compound; amine
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a dihydropyridine moiety bearing a carboxylic acid group.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as an adjunct to improve neurologic outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured intracranial berry aneurysms by reducing the incidence and severity of ischemic deficits.
PharmacodynamicsNimodipine belongs to the class of pharmacological agents known as calcium channel blockers. Nimodipine is indicated for the improvement of neurological outcome by reducing the incidence and severity of ischemic deficits in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured congenital aneurysms who are in good neurological condition post-ictus (e.g., Hunt and Hess Grades I-III). The contractile processes of smooth muscle cells are dependent upon calcium ions, which enter these cells during depolarization as slow ionic transmembrane currents. Nimodipine inhibits calcium ion transfer into these cells and thus inhibits contractions of vascular smooth muscle. In animal experiments, nimodipine had a greater effect on cerebral arteries than on arteries elsewhere in the body perhaps because it is highly lipophilic, allowing it to cross the blood brain barrier.
Mechanism of actionAlthough the precise mechanism of action is not known, nimodipine blocks intracellular influx of calcium through voltage-dependent and receptor-operated slow calcium channels across the membranes of myocardial, vascular smooth muscle, and neuronal cells. Nimodipine binds specifically to L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. The inhibition of calcium ion transfer results in the inhibition of vascular smooth muscle contraction. Evidence suggests that the dilation of small cerebral resistance vessels, with a resultant increase in collateral circulation, and/or a direct effect involving the prevention of calcium overload in neurons may be responsible for nimodipine's clinical effect in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
AbsorptionIn humans, nimodipine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and peak concentrations are generally attained within one hour. Bioavailability is 100% following intravenous administration and 3-30% following oral administration due to extensive first-pass metabolism.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding95% bound to plasma protein
Metabolism

Hepatic metabolism via CYP 3A4.

Route of eliminationNimodipine is eliminated almost exclusively in the form of metabolites and less than 1% is recovered in the urine as unchanged drug. Numerous metabolites, all of which are either inactive or considerably less active than the parent compound, have been identified.
Half life1.7-9 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdosage would be expected to be related to cardiovascular effects such as excessive peripheral vasodilation with marked systemic hypotension.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Nimodipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00380
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9387
Blood Brain Barrier - 0.9358
Caco-2 permeable - 0.5838
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.752
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.9287
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.9098
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8178
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8151
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9118
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7571
CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.9108
CYP450 2C9 substrate Inhibitor 0.8949
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrate Inhibitor 0.8994
CYP450 3A4 substrate Inhibitor 0.8248
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8557
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.5976
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.6953
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.8797
Rat acute toxicity 2.5326 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.6468
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8734
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries inc
  • Bayer pharmaceuticals corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral30 mg
SolutionOral60 mg/20 mL
Tablet, film coatedOral30 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
NiMODipine 100 30 mg capsule Box952.07USDbox
Nimotop 30 mg capsule9.87USDcapsule
Nimodipine 30 mg capsule9.69USDcapsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point125 °CNot Available
logP3.05MASUMOTO,K ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.20e-02 g/lALOGPS
logP3.41ALOGPS
logP2.54ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)5.41ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count6ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area119.68ChemAxon
rotatable bond count10ChemAxon
refractivity112.38ChemAxon
polarizability43.17ChemAxon
number of rings2ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General Reference
  1. Janjua N, Mayer SA: Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2003 Apr;9(2):113-9. Pubmed
  2. Allen GS, Ahn HS, Preziosi TJ, Battye R, Boone SC, Boone SC, Chou SN, Kelly DL, Weir BK, Crabbe RA, Lavik PJ, Rosenbloom SB, Dorsey FC, Ingram CR, Mellits DE, Bertsch LA, Boisvert DP, Hundley MB, Johnson RK, Strom JA, Transou CR: Cerebral arterial spasm—a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 1983 Mar 17;308(11):619-24. Pubmed
  3. Belfort MA, Anthony J, Saade GR, Allen JC Jr: A comparison of magnesium sulfate and nimodipine for the prevention of eclampsia. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 23;348(4):304-11. Pubmed#
    Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH: Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Sep;46(3):239-44. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Pubmed
  4. Tomassoni D, Lanari A, Silvestrelli G, Traini E, Amenta F: Nimodipine and its use in cerebrovascular disease: evidence from recent preclinical and controlled clinical studies. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2008 Nov;30(8):744-66. Pubmed
  5. Vergouwen MD, Vermeulen M, Roos YB: Effect of nimodipine on outcome in patients with traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Dec;5(12):1029-32. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00438
KEGG CompoundC07267
PubChem Compound4497
PubChem Substance46508497
ChemSpider4341
BindingDB50011690
ChEBI7575
ChEMBLCHEMBL1428
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000306
PharmGKBPA450633
IUPHAR2523
Guide to Pharmacology2523
Drug Product Database2155923
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic2/nimodip.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/nimodipine.html
WikipediaNimodipine
ATC CodesC08CA06
AHFS Codes
  • 24:28.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(504 KB)
MSDSshow(73.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
CimetidineCimetidine increases the effect of the calcium channel blocker, nimodipine.
QuinupristinThis combination presents an increased risk of toxicity
TelithromycinTelithromycin may reduce clearance of Nimodipine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Nimodipine if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ThiopentalThe CYP3A4 inducer, Thiopental, may increase the metabolism and clearance of Nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Nimodipine if Thiopental is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TipranavirTipranavir may decrease the metabolism and clearance of the calcium channel blocker, Nimodipine. Monitor for changes in Nimodipine therapeutic and adverse effects if Tipranavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TreprostinilAdditive hypotensive effect. Monitor antihypertensive therapy during concomitant use.
Valproic AcidValproic acid increases the effect of nimodipine
VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of nimodipine by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of nimodipine if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Grapefruit down regulates post-translational expression of CYP3A4, the major metabolizing enzyme of nimodipine. Grapefruit, in all forms (e.g. whole fruit, juice and rind), can significantly increase serum levels of nimodipine and may cause toxicity. Avoid grapefruit products while on this medication.
  • Take at the same time each day, with or without food, but always in the same manner.

1. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C Q13936 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Marchetti C, Usai C: High affinity block by nimodipine of the internal calcium elevation in chronically depolarized rat cerebellar granule neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Mar 29;207(2):77-80. Pubmed
  3. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In S. Offermanns, & W. Rosenthal (Eds.). Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin, Germany: Springer.
  4. Weant KA, Ramsey CN 3rd, Cook AM: Role of intraarterial therapy for cerebral vasospasm secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Apr;30(4):405-17. Pubmed
  5. Dong CJ, Guo Y, Agey P, Wheeler L, Hare WA: Nimodipine Enhancement of {alpha}2 Adrenergic Modulation of NMDA Receptor via a Mechanism Independent of Ca2+ Channel Blocking. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Aug;51(8):4174-80. Epub 2010 Mar 24. Pubmed
  6. Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH: Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Sep;46(3):239-44. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Pubmed
  7. Kumar R, Mehra R, Ray SB: L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights. Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Mar;54(2):127-31. Pubmed
  8. Keyrouz SG, Diringer MN: Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):220. Pubmed

2. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D Q01668 Details

References:

  1. Sinnegger-Brauns MJ, Huber IG, Koschak A, Wild C, Obermair GJ, Einzinger U, Hoda JC, Sartori SB, Striessnig J: Expression and 1,4-dihydropyridine-binding properties of brain L-type calcium channel isoforms. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Feb;75(2):407-14. Epub 2008 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Weant KA, Ramsey CN 3rd, Cook AM: Role of intraarterial therapy for cerebral vasospasm secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Apr;30(4):405-17. Pubmed
  3. Dong CJ, Guo Y, Agey P, Wheeler L, Hare WA: Nimodipine Enhancement of {alpha}2 Adrenergic Modulation of NMDA Receptor via a Mechanism Independent of Ca2+ Channel Blocking. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Aug;51(8):4174-80. Epub 2010 Mar 24. Pubmed
  4. Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH: Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Sep;46(3):239-44. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Pubmed
  5. Kumar R, Mehra R, Ray SB: L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights. Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Mar;54(2):127-31. Pubmed
  6. Keyrouz SG, Diringer MN: Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):220. Pubmed

3. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F O60840 Details

References:

  1. Weant KA, Ramsey CN 3rd, Cook AM: Role of intraarterial therapy for cerebral vasospasm secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Apr;30(4):405-17. Pubmed
  2. Dong CJ, Guo Y, Agey P, Wheeler L, Hare WA: Nimodipine Enhancement of {alpha}2 Adrenergic Modulation of NMDA Receptor via a Mechanism Independent of Ca2+ Channel Blocking. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Aug;51(8):4174-80. Epub 2010 Mar 24. Pubmed
  3. Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH: Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Sep;46(3):239-44. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Pubmed
  4. Kumar R, Mehra R, Ray SB: L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights. Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Mar;54(2):127-31. Pubmed

4. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S Q13698 Details

References:

  1. Peterson BZ, Catterall WA: Allosteric interactions required for high-affinity binding of dihydropyridine antagonists to Ca(V)1.1 Channels are modulated by calcium in the pore. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):667-75. Epub 2006 May 4. Pubmed
  2. Weant KA, Ramsey CN 3rd, Cook AM: Role of intraarterial therapy for cerebral vasospasm secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Apr;30(4):405-17. Pubmed
  3. Dong CJ, Guo Y, Agey P, Wheeler L, Hare WA: Nimodipine Enhancement of {alpha}2 Adrenergic Modulation of NMDA Receptor via a Mechanism Independent of Ca2+ Channel Blocking. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Aug;51(8):4174-80. Epub 2010 Mar 24. Pubmed
  4. Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH: Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Sep;46(3):239-44. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Pubmed
  5. Kumar R, Mehra R, Ray SB: L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights. Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Mar;54(2):127-31. Pubmed
  6. Keyrouz SG, Diringer MN: Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):220. Pubmed

5. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1 Q02641 Details

References:

  1. Weant KA, Ramsey CN 3rd, Cook AM: Role of intraarterial therapy for cerebral vasospasm secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Apr;30(4):405-17. Pubmed
  2. Dong CJ, Guo Y, Agey P, Wheeler L, Hare WA: Nimodipine Enhancement of {alpha}2 Adrenergic Modulation of NMDA Receptor via a Mechanism Independent of Ca2+ Channel Blocking. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Aug;51(8):4174-80. Epub 2010 Mar 24. Pubmed
  3. Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH: Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Sep;46(3):239-44. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Pubmed
  4. Kumar R, Mehra R, Ray SB: L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights. Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Mar;54(2):127-31. Pubmed
  5. Keyrouz SG, Diringer MN: Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):220. Pubmed

6. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 Q08289 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In S. Offermanns, & W. Rosenthal (Eds.). Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin, Germany: Springer.
  3. Weant KA, Ramsey CN 3rd, Cook AM: Role of intraarterial therapy for cerebral vasospasm secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Apr;30(4):405-17. Pubmed
  4. Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH: Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Sep;46(3):239-44. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Pubmed
  5. Kumar R, Mehra R, Ray SB: L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights. Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Mar;54(2):127-31. Pubmed
  6. Keyrouz SG, Diringer MN: Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):220. Pubmed

7. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3 P54284 Details

References:

  1. Weant KA, Ramsey CN 3rd, Cook AM: Role of intraarterial therapy for cerebral vasospasm secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Apr;30(4):405-17. Pubmed
  2. Dong CJ, Guo Y, Agey P, Wheeler L, Hare WA: Nimodipine Enhancement of {alpha}2 Adrenergic Modulation of NMDA Receptor via a Mechanism Independent of Ca2+ Channel Blocking. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Aug;51(8):4174-80. Epub 2010 Mar 24. Pubmed
  3. Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH: Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Sep;46(3):239-44. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Pubmed
  4. Kumar R, Mehra R, Ray SB: L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights. Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Mar;54(2):127-31. Pubmed
  5. Keyrouz SG, Diringer MN: Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):220. Pubmed

8. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4 O00305 Details

References:

  1. Weant KA, Ramsey CN 3rd, Cook AM: Role of intraarterial therapy for cerebral vasospasm secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Apr;30(4):405-17. Pubmed
  2. Dong CJ, Guo Y, Agey P, Wheeler L, Hare WA: Nimodipine Enhancement of {alpha}2 Adrenergic Modulation of NMDA Receptor via a Mechanism Independent of Ca2+ Channel Blocking. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Aug;51(8):4174-80. Epub 2010 Mar 24. Pubmed
  3. Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH: Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Sep;46(3):239-44. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Pubmed
  4. Kumar R, Mehra R, Ray SB: L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights. Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Mar;54(2):127-31. Pubmed
  5. Keyrouz SG, Diringer MN: Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):220. Pubmed

9. Mineralocorticoid receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mineralocorticoid receptor P08235 Details

References:

  1. Dietz JD, Du S, Bolten CW, Payne MA, Xia C, Blinn JR, Funder JW, Hu X: A number of marketed dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist activity. Hypertension. 2008 Mar;51(3):742-8. Epub 2008 Feb 4. Pubmed

10. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor P35869 Details

References:

  1. Hu W, Sorrentino C, Denison MS, Kolaja K, Fielden MR: Induction of cyp1a1 is a nonspecific biomarker of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation: results of large scale screening of pharmaceuticals and toxicants in vivo and in vitro. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;71(6):1475-86. Epub 2007 Feb 27. Pubmed

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Comments
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10