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Identification
NameGriseofulvin
Accession NumberDB00400  (APRD01004)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

An antifungal antibiotic. Griseofulvin may be given by mouth in the treatment of tinea infections. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(+)-griseofulvinNot AvailableNot Available
AmudaneNot AvailableNot Available
Curling factorNot AvailableNot Available
FulcinNot AvailableNot Available
FulvicinNot AvailableNot Available
GrifulvinNot AvailableNot Available
GrisactinNot AvailableNot Available
GriseofulvinNot AvailableNot Available
GriseofulvinaSpanishINN
GriseofulvineFrenchINN
GriseofulvinumLatinINN
GrisovinNot AvailableNot Available
GrysioNot AvailableNot Available
LamorylNot AvailableNot Available
LikudenNot AvailableNot Available
PoncylNot AvailableNot Available
SpirofulvinNot AvailableNot Available
SporostatinNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Gris-pegtablet, film coated125 mgoralPEDINOL PHARMACAL INC.1975-04-16Not AvailableUs
Gris-pegtablet, film coated250 mgoralPEDINOL PHARMACAL INC.1975-04-16Not AvailableUs
Gris-pegtablet, film coated250 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-22Not AvailableUs
Gris-pegtablet, film coated250 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvintablet, film coated125 mgoralOceanside Pharmaceuticals2012-12-03Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvintablet, film coated250 mgoralOceanside Pharmaceuticals2012-12-03Not AvailableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Griseofulvinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2008-02-12Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralActavis Mid Atlantic LLC2007-07-26Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2010-10-08Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvintablet250 mgoralSandoz Inc2013-08-07Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvintablet500 mgoralSandoz Inc2013-08-07Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralPerrigo New York Inc2008-07-16Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-01-16Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvintablet125 mgoralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc2012-10-23Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvintablet250 mgoralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc2012-10-23Not AvailableUs
Griseofulvintablet500 mgoralRising Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-10-23Not AvailableUs
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CrivicinNot Available
FulcinCepharma
FulvicinSchering-Plough
GrifulvinMcNeil
Grifulvin VOrthoneutrogena Labs
GrisactinNot Available
Grison-250Not Available
GrisovinFujisawa
LamorylLovens
LikudenSanofi
PoncylTakeda
S-FulvinNot Available
SpirofulvinNot Available
SporostatinSchering
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number126-07-8
WeightAverage: 352.766
Monoisotopic: 352.071365983
Chemical FormulaC17H17ClO6
InChI KeyDDUHZTYCFQRHIY-RBHXEPJQSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H17ClO6/c1-8-5-9(19)6-12(23-4)17(8)16(20)13-10(21-2)7-11(22-3)14(18)15(13)24-17/h6-8H,5H2,1-4H3/t8-,17+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,6'R)-7-chloro-2',4,6-trimethoxy-6'-methyl-3H-spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexan]-2'-ene-3,4'-dione
SMILES
COC1=CC(OC)=C(Cl)C2=C1C(=O)[C@]1(O2)[C@H](C)CC(=O)C=C1OC
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzofurans. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a furan. Furan is a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzofurans
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzofurans
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzofuran
  • Aryl alkyl ketone
  • Aryl ketone
  • Anisole
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Vinylogous ester
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Ketone
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of ringworm infections of the skin, hair, and nails, namely: tinea corporis, tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea barbae, cradle cap or other conditions caused by Trichophyton or Microsporum fungi.
PharmacodynamicsGriseofulvin is a mycotoxic metabolic product of Penicillium spp. It was the first available oral agent for the treatment of dermatophytoses and has now been used for more than forty years. Griseofulvin is fungistatic with in vitro activity against various species of Microsporum Epidermophyton, and Trichophyton. It has no effect on bacteria or on other genera of fungi. Following oral administration, griseofulvin is deposited in the keratin precursor cells and has a greater affinity for diseased tissue. The drug is tightly bound to the new keratin which becomes highly resistant to fungal invasions. Once the keratin-Griseofulvin complex reaches the skin site of action, it binds to fungal microtubules (tubulin) thus altering fungal mitosis.
Mechanism of actionGriseofulvin is fungistatic, however the exact mechanism by which it inhibits the growth of dermatophytes is not clear. It is thought to inhibit fungal cell mitosis and nuclear acid synthesis. It also binds to and interferes with the function of spindle and cytoplasmic microtubules by binding to alpha and beta tubulin. It binds to keratin in human cells, then once it reaches the fungal site of action, it binds to fungal microtubes thus altering the fungal process of mitosis.
AbsorptionPoorly absorbed from GI ranging from 25 to 70% of an oral dose. Absorption is significantly enhanced by administration with or after a fatty meal.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic with major metabolites being 6-methyl-griseofulvin and its glucuronide conjugate.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Griseofulvin
Not Available
6-methyl-griseofulvinDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life9-21 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySide effects are minor: headaches, gastrointestinal reactions and cutaneous eruptions
Affected organisms
  • Yeast and other Trichophyton or Microsporum fungi
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9208
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.612
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8183
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5133
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.882
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7921
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6249
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 substrateInhibitor0.7043
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8235
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8544
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9964
Rat acute toxicity1.5788 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.938
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8869
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Johnson and johnson consumer companies inc
  • Orthoneutrogena
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Perrigo co tennessee inc
  • Elorac inc
  • Johnson and johnson consumer products inc
  • Schering corp sub schering plough corp
  • Pedinol pharmacal inc
  • Pliva inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Suspensionoral125 mg/5mL
Tabletoral125 mg
Tabletoral250 mg
Tabletoral500 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral125 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral250 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Griseofulvin Microsize 125 mg/5ml Suspension 120ml Bottle43.0USD bottle
Grifulvin v 500 mg tablet4.78USD tablet
Gris-peg 250 mg tablet2.75USD tablet
Gris-peg 125 mg tablet2.24USD tablet
Griseofulvin powder2.2USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point220 °CPhysProp
water solubility8.64 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.18HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.61ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.44ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0504 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.71ALOGPS
logP2.17ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)17.69ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area71.06 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity87.85 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.25 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Gary Liversidge, “Methods of making and using novel griseofulvin compositions.” U.S. Patent US20070098805, issued May 03, 2007.

US20070098805
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesD01AA08D01BA01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (131 KB)
MSDSDownload (75.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcenocoumarolGriseofulvin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol.
Acetylsalicylic acidGriseofulvin may decrease the efficacy of acetylsalicylic acid.
AmobarbitalThe barbiturate, amobarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
AnisindioneGriseofulvin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of anisindione.
AprobarbitalThe barbiturate, aprobarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
ButabarbitalThe barbiturate, butabarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
ButalbitalThe barbiturate, butalbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
ButethalThe barbiturate, butethal, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
ChlorotrianiseneThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, chlorotrianisene.
ClomifeneThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, clomifene.
Conjugated EstrogensThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, conjugated estrogens.
CyclosporineGriseofulvin decreases the effect of cyclosporine
DicoumarolGriseofulvin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol.
DiethylstilbestrolThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, diethylstilbestrol.
Dihydroquinidine barbiturateThe barbiturate, dihydroquinidine barbiturate, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
EstradiolThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol.
EstriolThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estriol.
EstroneThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estrone.
EstropipateThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estropipate.
Ethinyl EstradiolThis product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect
HeptabarbitalThe barbiturate, heptabarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
HexobarbitalThe barbiturate, hexobarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
LiraglutideCmax may be increased.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, may decrease the effect of the hormone, medroxyprogesterone.
Megestrol acetateThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, may decrease the effect of the hormone, megestrol.
MestranolThis product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect
MethohexitalThe barbiturate, methohexital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
MethylphenobarbitalThe barbiturate, methylphenobarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
NorethindroneThis product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect
PentobarbitalThe barbiturate, pentobarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
PhenobarbitalThe barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
PrimidoneThe barbiturate, primidone, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
QuinestrolThe enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, quinestrol.
Quinidine barbiturateThe barbiturate, quinidine barbiturate, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
SecobarbitalThe barbiturate, secobarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
TalbutalThe barbiturate, talbutal, decreases the effect of griseofulvin.
UlipristalConcomitant therapy with strong CYP3A4 inducers may decrease plasma concentrations of ulipristal and ultimately its effectiveness. Avoid combination therapy.
WarfarinGriseofulvin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take this medication with a high fat meal, fatty foods increase bioavailability.

Targets

1. Tubulin beta chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Yeast

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tubulin beta chain P10875 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Czymmek KJ, Bourett TM, Shao Y, DeZwaan TM, Sweigard JA, Howard RJ: Live-cell imaging of tubulin in the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe grisea treated with anti-microtubule and anti-microfilament agents. Protoplasma. 2005 Apr;225(1-2):23-32. Epub 2005 May 4. Pubmed
  4. Kiso T, Fujita K, Ping X, Tanaka T, Taniguchi M: Screening for microtubule-disrupting antifungal agents by using a mitotic-arrest mutant of Aspergillus nidulans and novel action of phenylalanine derivatives accompanying tubulin loss. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 May;48(5):1739-48. Pubmed
  5. Wang L, Zhou HB, Frisvad JC, Samson RA: Penicillium persicinum, a new griseofulvin, chrysogine and roquefortine C producing species from Qinghai Province, China. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2004 Aug;86(2):173-9. Pubmed

2. Tubulin alpha chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Yeast

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tubulin alpha chain P87066 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

3. Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 12

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: other/unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 12 Q99456 Details

References:

  1. Nakamichi I, Hatakeyama S, Nakayama KI: Formation of Mallory body-like inclusions and cell death induced by deregulated expression of keratin 18. Mol Biol Cell. 2002 Oct;13(10):3441-51. Pubmed
  2. Sobue S, Sekiguchi K, Nabeshima T: Intracutaneous distributions of fluconazole, itraconazole, and griseofulvin in Guinea pigs and binding to human stratum corneum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Jan;48(1):216-23. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Rasmussen BB, Jeppesen U, Gaist D, Brosen K: Griseofulvin and fluvoxamine interactions with the metabolism of theophylline. Ther Drug Monit. 1997 Feb;19(1):56-62. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Yasuda K, Ranade A, Venkataramanan R, Strom S, Chupka J, Ekins S, Schuetz E, Bachmann K: A comprehensive in vitro and in silico analysis of antibiotics that activate pregnane X receptor and induce CYP3A4 in liver and intestine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Aug;36(8):1689-97. Epub 2008 May 27. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10