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Identification
NameNisoldipine
Accession NumberDB00401  (APRD00635)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Nisoldipine is a 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It acts primarily on vascular smooth muscle cells by stabilizing voltage-gated L-type calcium channels in their inactive conformation. By inhibiting the influx of calcium in smooth muscle cells, nisoldipine prevents calcium-dependent smooth muscle contraction and subsequent vasoconstriction. Nisoldipine may be used in alone or in combination with other agents in the management of hypertension.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
isobutyl methyl 2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylateNot AvailableIUPAC
NisoldipinGermanINN
NisoldipinaNot AvailableDCIT
NisoldipineNot AvailableUSAN, DCF, JAN, BAN
NisoldipinoSpanishINN
NisoldipinumLatinINN
SularNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release8.5 mgoralUnited Research Laboratories, Inc.2009-09-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release17 mgoralUnited Research Laboratories, Inc.2009-09-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release25.5 mgoralUnited Research Laboratories, Inc.2009-09-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release34 mgoralUnited Research Laboratories, Inc.2009-09-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Sulartablet, film coated, extended release25.5 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-02-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Sulartablet, film coated, extended release8.5 mgoralShionogi Inc.1995-02-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Sulartablet, film coated, extended release17 mgoralShionogi Inc.1995-02-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Sulartablet, film coated, extended release34 mgoralShionogi Inc.1995-02-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release8.5 mgoralPrasco Laboratories2012-02-27Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release17 mgoralPrasco Laboratories2012-02-27Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release34 mgoralPrasco Laboratories2012-02-27Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release8.5 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release17 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release25.5 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release34 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release20 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-07-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release30 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-07-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release40 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-07-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nisoldipinetablet, film coated, extended release40 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
BaymycardBayer
Baymycard RRBayer
Bo PingRui Yang Pharm
Di Yi XinTasly
Ji Ni Le ErJiankang Pharmaceutical
NinobarucinChoseido Pharmaceutical
NisomynardYoshindo
RiohardTaiyo Pharmaceutical
RuidiNanjing Sanrui Pharmaceutical Co.
SyscorBayer
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number63675-72-9
WeightAverage: 388.4144
Monoisotopic: 388.16343651
Chemical FormulaC20H24N2O6
InChI KeyVKQFCGNPDRICFG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H24N2O6/c1-11(2)10-28-20(24)17-13(4)21-12(3)16(19(23)27-5)18(17)14-8-6-7-9-15(14)22(25)26/h6-9,11,18,21H,10H2,1-5H3
IUPAC Name
3-methyl 5-(2-methylpropyl) 2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
SMILES
COC(=O)C1=C(C)NC(C)=C(C1C1=CC=CC=C1[N+]([O-])=O)C(=O)OCC(C)C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a dihydropyridine moiety bearing a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassHydropyridines
Direct ParentDihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Dihydropyridinecarboxylic acid derivative
  • Benzenoid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Methyl ester
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Organic nitrite
  • C-nitro compound
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Enamine
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
PharmacodynamicsNisoldipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, is used alone or with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, to treat hypertension, chronic stable angina pectoris, and Prinzmetal's variant angina. Nisoldipine is similar to other peripheral vasodilators. Nisoldipine inhibits the influx of extra cellular calcium across the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes possibly by deforming the channel, inhibiting ion-control gating mechanisms, and/or interfering with the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits the contractile processes of the myocardial smooth muscle cells, causing dilation of the coronary and systemic arteries, increased oxygen delivery to the myocardial tissue, decreased total peripheral resistance, decreased systemic blood pressure, and decreased afterload.
Mechanism of actionBy deforming the channel, inhibiting ion-control gating mechanisms, and/or interfering with the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, Nisoldipine inhibits the influx of extracellular calcium across the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes The decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits the contractile processes of the myocardial smooth muscle cells, causing dilation of the coronary and systemic arteries, increased oxygen delivery to the myocardial tissue, decreased total peripheral resistance, decreased systemic blood pressure, and decreased afterload.
AbsorptionRelatively well absorbed into the systemic circulation with 87% of the radiolabeled drug recovered in urine and feces. The absolute bioavailability of nisoldipine is about 5%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding99%
Metabolism

Pre-systemic metabolism in the gut wall, and this metabolism decreases from the proximal to the distal parts of the intestine. Nisoldipine is highly metabolized; 5 major urinary metabolites have been identified. The major biotransformation pathway appears to be the hydroxylation of the isobutyl ester. A hydroxylated derivative of the side chain, present in plasma at concentrations approximately equal to the parent compound, appears to be the only active metabolite and has about 10% of the activity of the parent compound. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are believed to play a major role in the metabolism of nisoldipine. The particular isoenzyme system responsible for its metabolism has not been identified, but other dihydropyridines are metabolized by cytochrome P450 IIIA4.

Route of eliminationAlthough 60-80% of an oral dose undergoes urinary excretion, only traces of unchanged nisoldipine are found in urine.
Half life7-12 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Nisoldipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00381
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9357
Blood Brain Barrier-0.947
Caco-2 permeable+0.6928
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5548
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8824
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9239
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8925
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7874
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8929
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7366
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8782
CYP450 2C9 substrateInhibitor0.7826
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9141
CYP450 2C19 substrateInhibitor0.7804
CYP450 3A4 substrateInhibitor0.8414
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8982
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.778
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5782
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9335
Rat acute toxicity2.6277 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8882
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9175
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Shionogi pharma inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral17 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral20 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral25.5 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral30 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral34 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral40 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral8.5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Sular 25.5 mg 24 Hour tablet6.84USD tablet
Sular 34 mg 24 Hour tablet6.84USD tablet
Sular 17 mg 24 Hour tablet6.48USD tablet
Sular 34 mg tablet5.64USD tablet
Sular 17 mg tablet5.17USD tablet
Nisoldipine er 30 mg tablet5.07USD tablet
Nisoldipine er 40 mg tablet5.07USD tablet
Sular 10 mg tablet5.04USD tablet
Sular 8.5 mg 24 Hour tablet5.04USD tablet
Nisoldipine er 20 mg tablet4.65USD tablet
Sular 25.5 mg tablet4.35USD tablet
Sular 8.5 mg tablet4.13USD tablet
Sular 20 mg tablet3.37USD tablet
Sular 30 mg 24 Hour tablet3.23USD tablet
Sular 40 mg 24 Hour tablet3.23USD tablet
Sular 30 mg tablet3.1USD tablet
Sular 40 mg tablet2.61USD tablet
Sular 10 mg 24 Hour tablet2.36USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States54221231995-06-062012-06-06
United States56268741994-11-302014-11-30
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP3.26MASUMOTO,K ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00577 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.63ALOGPS
logP3.06ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.32ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.45 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity105.91 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.72 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Massimo Ferrari, Marcello Ghezzi, Manuel Alberelli, Alberto Ambrosini, “Industrial process for the synthesis of isobutyl methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridine dicarboxylate (nisoldipine).” U.S. Patent US20050240022, issued October 27, 2005.

US20050240022
General Reference
  1. Mielcarek J, Grobelny P, Szamburska O: The effect of beta-carotene on the photostability of nisoldipine. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;27(3):167-71. Pubmed
  2. Missan S, Zhabyeyev P, Dyachok O, Jones SE, McDonald TF: Block of cardiac delayed-rectifier and inward-rectifier K+ currents by nisoldipine. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Nov;140(5):863-70. Epub 2003 Oct 6. Pubmed
  3. Hamilton SF, Houle LM, Thadani U: Rapid-release and coat-core formulations of nisoldipine in treatment of hypertension, angina, and heart failure. Heart Dis. 1999 Nov-Dec;1(5):279-88. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesC08CA07
AHFS Codes
  • 24:28.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
ConivaptanCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Avoid concurrent use of nisoldipine with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4, as the combination may lead to substantial increases in nisoldipine concentrations.
EtravirineNisoldipine, when used concomitantly with etravirine (a strong CYP3A4 inducer), may experience a decrease in serum concentration. It is recommended to avoid concurrent therapy.
FosphenytoinPhenytoin decreases the efficiency of nisoldipine
PhenytoinPhenytoin decreases the efficiency of nisoldipine
QuinupristinThis combination presents an increased risk of toxicity
TelithromycinTelithromycin may reduce clearance of Nisoldipine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Nisoldipine if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ThiopentalThe CYP3A4 inducer, Thiopental, may increase the metabolism and clearance of Nisoldipine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Nisoldipine if Thiopental is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TipranavirTipranavir, co-administered with Ritonavir, may alter the concentration of Nisoldipine. Monitor for efficacy and adverse/toxic effects of Nisoldipine.
TreprostinilAdditive hypotensive effect. Monitor antihypertensive therapy during concomitant use.
VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of nisoldipine by decreasing its metabolism. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
Food Interactions
  • Do not take with grapefruit juice as this has been shown to interfere with nisoldipine metabolism, resulting in a mean increase in Cmax of about 3-fold (up to about 7-fold) and AUC of almost 2-fold (up to 5-fold).

Targets

1. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C Q13936 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Hu H, Marban E: Isoform-specific inhibition of L-type calcium channels by dihydropyridines is independent of isoform-specific gating properties. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 May;53(5):902-7. Pubmed
  3. Morel N, Buryi V, Feron O, Gomez JP, Christen MO, Godfraind T: The action of calcium channel blockers on recombinant L-type calcium channel alpha1-subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Nov;125(5):1005-12. Pubmed
  4. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In S. Offermanns, & W. Rosenthal (Eds.). Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin, Germany: Springer.
  5. Wei X, Pan S, Lang W, Kim H, Schneider T, Perez-Reyes E, Birnbaumer L: Molecular determinants of cardiac Ca2+ channel pharmacology. Subunit requirement for the high affinity and allosteric regulation of dihydropyridine binding. J Biol Chem. 1995 Nov 10;270(45):27106-11. Pubmed

2. Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 P54289 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In S. Offermanns, & W. Rosenthal (Eds.). Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

3. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 Q08289 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In S. Offermanns, & W. Rosenthal (Eds.). Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

4. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D Q01668 Details

References:

  1. Sinnegger-Brauns MJ, Huber IG, Koschak A, Wild C, Obermair GJ, Einzinger U, Hoda JC, Sartori SB, Striessnig J: Expression and 1,4-dihydropyridine-binding properties of brain L-type calcium channel isoforms. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Feb;75(2):407-14. Epub 2008 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S Q13698 Details

References:

  1. Peterson BZ, Catterall WA: Allosteric interactions required for high-affinity binding of dihydropyridine antagonists to Ca(V)1.1 Channels are modulated by calcium in the pore. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):667-75. Epub 2006 May 4. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

3. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

4. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Takara K, Sakaeda T, Tanigawara Y, Nishiguchi K, Ohmoto N, Horinouchi M, Komada F, Ohnishi N, Yokoyama T, Okumura K: Effects of 12 Ca2+ antagonists on multidrug resistance, MDR1-mediated transport and MDR1 mRNA expression. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2002 Aug;16(3):159-65. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 13, 2014 11:32