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Identification
NameGentian Violet
Accession NumberDB00406  (APRD00998)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Crystal Violet
Crystal violet carbocation
Crystal violet ion(1)
Crystal violet(1+)
Gentian violet carbocation
Gentian violet(1+)
Methyl Violet 10B
Methylrosaniline
Methylrosanilinium
Pyoctanin
Pyoctanine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
De LA Cruz Gentian Violettincture1 g/100mLtopicalDLC Laboratories, Inc.2012-11-01Not applicableUs
Gentian Violet 2%solution2 g/100mLtopicalThe Podiatree Company2014-10-14Not applicableUs
Gentian Violet Topical Solutionliquid1 g/100mLtopicalLaboratorios Jaloma, S.A. de C.V.2013-09-27Not applicableUs
Gentiane Violet Liq Topliquid1 %topicalLaboratoire Atlas Inc1951-12-31Not applicableCanada
Humco Gentian Violet 1%liquid10 mg/mLtopicalHumco Holding Group, Inc.2008-01-01Not applicableUs
Humco Gentian Violet 2%liquid20 mg/mLtopicalHumco Holding Group, Inc.2008-01-01Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Perineze Triple DyePeace Medical Inc.
Triple DyeFrank W. Kerr Chemical Company
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Gentian violet chloride
548-62-9
Thumb
  • InChI Key: ZXJXZNDDNMQXFV-UHFFFAOYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 407.212825682
  • Average Mass: 407.979
DBSALT000604
Categories
UNII3GVJ31T6YY
CAS number14426-25-6
WeightAverage: 372.5258
Monoisotopic: 372.243972975
Chemical FormulaC25H30N3
InChI KeyInChIKey=LGLFFNDHMLKUMI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C25H30N3/c1-26(2)22-13-7-19(8-14-22)25(20-9-15-23(16-10-20)27(3)4)21-11-17-24(18-12-21)28(5)6/h7-18H,1-6H3/q+1
IUPAC Name
4-{bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methylidene}-N,N-dimethylcyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-iminium
SMILES
CN(C)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(C1=CC=C(C=C1)N(C)C)=C1C=CC(C=C1)=[N+](C)C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassDiphenylmethanes
Direct ParentDiphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Diphenylmethane
  • Phenylpropene
  • Substituted aniline
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Aniline
  • Secondary ketimine
  • Azomethine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections inside the mouth (thrush) and skin, also for the prevention of transmission of Chagas' disease (as a blood additive).
PharmacodynamicsGentian violet is a mutagen, a mitotic poison, and a clastogen. Gentian violet has been used in medicine for almost 100 years: as an antiseptic for external use, as a topical antibiotic, as a topical antifungal agent, as an antihelminthic agent by oral administration, and more recently, as a blood additive to prevent transmission of Chagas' disease. It is thought to work by binding to the DNA of target organisms and causing disruption, mutation or inhibition of DNA replication.
Mechanism of actionIn aqueous solutions Gentian violet (GV) dissociates into positive (GV+)and negative ions (Cl-) that penetrate through the wall and membrane of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells. The GV+ interacts with negatively charged components of bacterial cells including the lipopolysaccharide (on the cell wall), the peptidoglycan and DNA. A similar cell penetration and DNA binding process is thought to take place for fungal cells as well. Because Gentian violet is a mutagen and mitotic poison, cell growth is consequently inhibited. A photodynamic action of gentian violet, apparently mediated by a free-radical mechanism, has recently been described in bacteria and in the protozoan T. cruzi. Evidence also suggests that gentian violet dissipates the bacterial (and mitochondrial) membrane potential by inducing permeability. This is followed by respiratory inhibition. This anti-mitochondrial activity might explain gentian violet's efficacy towards both bacteria and yeast with relatively mild effects on mammalian cells.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic, mostly demethylation

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=420 mg/kg (rat, oral). Oral administration can cause gastrointestinal irritation, and intravenous injection can cause depression in the white blood cell count.
Affected organisms
  • Yeast and other fungi
  • Bacteria and protozoa
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.5643
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7198
Caco-2 permeable+0.6321
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5936
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6474
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5747
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5959
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7272
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7573
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5753
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5787
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8225
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5732
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8028
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.667
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7973
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.8444
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9944
Rat acute toxicity2.5102 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9172
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7075
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Savage laboratories inc div altana inc
  • Key pharmaceuticals inc sub schering plough corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tincturetopical1 g/100mL
Solutiontopical2 g/100mL
Liquidtopical1 g/100mL
Liquidtopical1 %
Liquidtopical10 mg/mL
Liquidtopical20 mg/mL
Solutiontopical
Liquidtopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Gentian violet 2% solution0.16USD ml
Gentian violet 1% solution0.08USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point215 °CNot Available
water solubility4 mg/mLNot Available
logP3.18Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00193 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.87ALOGPS
logP1.4ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.83ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.49 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity146 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability45.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Hiep Do, Daniel J. Spangler, Joel Rosenblatt, Barrett Remington, Onajite Okoh, “High concentration gentian violet containing medical devices and methods of making same.” U.S. Patent US20090130171, issued May 21, 2009.

US20090130171
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesD01AE02G01AX09
AHFS Codes
  • 84:04.08.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (77.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium picosulfate can be decreased when used in combination with Gentian Violet.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
intercalation
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Docampo R, Moreno SN: The metabolism and mode of action of gentian violet. Drug Metab Rev. 1990;22(2-3):161-78. [PubMed:2272286 ]
  4. Si WH, Zi YQ: [Studies on the interaction between RNA with methyl violet and determination of RNA by spectrophotometry]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2005 Nov;25(11):1846-9. [PubMed:16499061 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23