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Identification
NameSecobarbital
Accession NumberDB00418  (APRD00497)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
Description

Secobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Seconal® and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. It possesses anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, sedative and hypnotic properties. In the United Kingdom, it was known as Quinalbarbitone.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+-)-Secobarbital
(±)-secobarbital
5-(1-Methylbutyl)-5-(2-propenyl)-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione
5-Allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione
5-allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)barbituric acid
5-Allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
Quinalbarbitone
Secobarbitalum
Secobarbitone
Seconal
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Novo-secobarb 100mgcapsule100 mgoralNovopharm Limited1967-12-312005-08-10Canada
Seconal Sodium Pulvule 240 0.1gmcapsule100 mgoralPharmascience Inc1939-12-312004-03-05Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Seconal Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralMarathon Pharmaceuticals, LLC1983-10-03Not applicableUs
Seconal Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC1983-10-03Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
SeconalNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Tuinal Pulvule 303Pharmascience Inc
Tuinal Pulvule 304Pharmascience Inc
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Secobarbital Sodium
Thumb
  • InChI Key: AXXJTNXVUHVOJW-UHFFFAOYNA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 260.113687095
  • Average Mass: 260.2647
DBSALT000255
Categories
UNII1P7H87IN75
CAS number76-73-3
WeightAverage: 238.2829
Monoisotopic: 238.131742452
Chemical FormulaC12H18N2O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=KQPKPCNLIDLUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H18N2O3/c1-4-6-8(3)12(7-5-2)9(15)13-11(17)14-10(12)16/h5,8H,2,4,6-7H2,1,3H3,(H2,13,14,15,16,17)
IUPAC Name
5-(pentan-2-yl)-5-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CCCC(C)C1(CC=C)C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentBarbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Barbiturate
  • Ureide
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Urea
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the Short-term treatment of intractable insomnia for patients habituated to barbiturates
PharmacodynamicsSecobarbital, a barbiturate, is used for the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli. Little analgesia is conferred by barbiturates; their use in the presence of pain may result in excitation.
Mechanism of actionSecobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationBarbiturates are metabolized primarily by the hepatic microsomal enzyme system, and the metabolic products are excreted in the urine and, less commonly, in the feces.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of an overdose typically include sluggishness, incoordination, difficulty in thinking, slowness of speech, faulty judgment, drowsiness or coma, shallow breathing, staggering, and in severe cases coma and death.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9331
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9762
Caco-2 permeable-0.5792
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6367
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5256
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9756
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.911
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7863
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.736
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8707
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7679
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9276
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7353
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8902
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9176
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6131
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8977
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9868
Rat acute toxicity3.0894 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9603
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9471
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Anabolic inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Everylife
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Lannett co inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • L perrigo co
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Vitarine pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Ranbaxy pharmaceuticals inc
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Eli lilly and co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral100 mg/1
Capsuleoral100 mg
Capsuleoral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Seconal 100 mg capsule5.23USD capsule
Seconal sodium 100 mg capsule4.91USD capsule
Seconal sodium 100 mg pulvul0.93USD each
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point100 °CPhysProp
water solubility550 mg/LNot Available
logP1.97HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa7.8WOLLWEBER,H (1989)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.21 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.2ALOGPS
logP2.03ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity62.65 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.33 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.04 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-014i-6900000000-eb3ae85faebb012ef83bView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN05CA06
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (48.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
AcetazolamideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Acetazolamide.
AldesleukinSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
AliskirenSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.
AmilorideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Amiloride.
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
AmlodipineThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
AmoxapineThe metabolism of Amoxapine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
AmrinoneThe metabolism of Amrinone can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
Amyl NitriteSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Amyl Nitrite.
ApraclonidineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.
AtenololSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Atenolol.
AzelastineSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
Azilsartan medoxomilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Azilsartan medoxomil.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Secobarbital.
BenazeprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazepril.
BendroflumethiazideSecobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide.
BepridilThe metabolism of Bepridil can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
BetaxololThe serum concentration of Betaxolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
BisoprololThe serum concentration of Bisoprolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
BretyliumSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Bretylium.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
BumetanideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Bumetanide.
BuprenorphineSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
ButalbitalThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
CaffeineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
CanagliflozinSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Canagliflozin.
CandesartanSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.
CaptoprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Captopril.
CarteololThe serum concentration of Carteolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Carvedilol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Celecoxib can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Secobarbital can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.
ChlorothiazideSecobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Chlorothiazide.
ChlorotrianiseneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
ChlorpropamideThe metabolism of Chlorpropamide can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
ChlorthalidoneSecobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Chlorthalidone.
CilazaprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilazapril.
ClevidipineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Clevidipine.
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
ClonidineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Clonidine.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cyclosporine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
DapagliflozinSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Dapagliflozin.
DapsoneThe metabolism of Dapsone can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
DesipramineThe metabolism of Desipramine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Desogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
DexmedetomidineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Dexmedetomidine.
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Diclofenac can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
DiclofenamideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Diclofenamide.
DicoumarolThe metabolism of Dicoumarol can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Dienogest can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
DinutuximabSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Dinutuximab.
DipyridamoleSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Dipyridamole.
DoxazosinSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Doxazosin.
DoxepinThe metabolism of Doxepin can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
DoxycyclineThe serum concentration of Doxycycline can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Drospirenone can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
EmpagliflozinSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Empagliflozin.
EnalaprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalapril.
EnalaprilatSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Enzalutamide can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
EplerenoneSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Eplerenone.
EprosartanSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Eprosartan.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Erythromycin can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
EsmololThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
Etacrynic acidSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Ethacrynic acid.
EthanolSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethynodiol can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Etonogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
EtravirineThe metabolism of Etravirine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Secobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Felbamate.
FelodipineThe metabolism of Felodipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
FlunarizineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
FosinoprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Fosinopril.
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Fosphenytoin can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
FurosemideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Furosemide.
GabapentinThe metabolism of Gabapentin can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
GliclazideThe metabolism of Gliclazide can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
GlimepirideThe metabolism of Glimepiride can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
GlipizideThe metabolism of Glipizide can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
GlyburideThe metabolism of Glyburide can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
GriseofulvinThe serum concentration of Griseofulvin can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
GuanfacineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanfacine.
HydralazineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydralazine.
HydrochlorothiazideSecobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocodoneSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
ImipramineThe metabolism of Imipramine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
IndapamideSecobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Indapamide.
IrbesartanSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Irbesartan.
IsomethepteneThe metabolism of Isometheptene can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
IsosorbideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isosorbide.
Isosorbide DinitrateSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isosorbide Dinitrate.
Isosorbide MononitrateSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isosorbide Mononitrate.
IsoxsuprineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isoxsuprine.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Isradipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
KetamineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
LabetalolThe serum concentration of Labetalol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
LamotrigineThe metabolism of Lamotrigine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
LercanidipineThe metabolism of Lercanidipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
LevobunololSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Levonorgestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
LisinoprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Lisinopril.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Secobarbital.
LosartanSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Losartan.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
MannitolSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Mannitol.
MecamylamineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Mecamylamine.
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
MeloxicamThe metabolism of Meloxicam can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Mestranol can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
MetforminSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
MethazolamideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Methazolamide.
MethotrimeprazineSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MethyclothiazideSecobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Methyclothiazide.
MethyldopaSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.
MetipranololSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metipranolol.
MetolazoneSecobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Metolazone.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
MetyrosineSecobarbital may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MianserinMianserin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
MinoxidilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
MirtazapineSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MoexiprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Moexipril.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
NadololSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nadolol.
NateglinideThe metabolism of Nateglinide can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
NebivololThe serum concentration of Nebivolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
NesiritideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nesiritide.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Nicardipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
NifedipineThe metabolism of Nifedipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
NimodipineThe metabolism of Nimodipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
NisoldipineThe metabolism of Nisoldipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
NitrendipineThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
NitroglycerinSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroglycerin.
NitroprussideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Norethindrone can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Norgestimate can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.
NortriptylineThe metabolism of Nortriptyline can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
OlmesartanSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Olmesartan.
OrphenadrineSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OspemifeneThe metabolism of Ospemifene can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
PapaverineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Papaverine.
ParaldehydeSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Paroxetine.
PenbutololThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
PerhexilineThe metabolism of Perhexiline can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
PerindoprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.
PethidineSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pethidine.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Phenytoin can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
PindololThe serum concentration of Pindolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
PiroxicamThe metabolism of Piroxicam can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
PramipexoleSecobarbital may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PrazosinSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Prazosin.
PrenylamineThe metabolism of Prenylamine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Primidone is combined with Secobarbital.
PropacetamolThe metabolism of Propacetamol can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
ProtriptylineThe metabolism of Protriptyline can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
PyridoxineThe metabolism of Secobarbital can be increased when combined with Pyridoxine.
QuetiapineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Quetiapine.
QuinaprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.
RamiprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Ramipril.
ReserpineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Reserpine.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Secobarbital can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Secobarbital can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Secobarbital can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RiociguatSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.
RisedronateThe metabolism of Risedronate can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
RopiniroleSecobarbital may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineSecobarbital may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Secobarbital.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Sildenafil can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
SomatostatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Somatostatin is combined with Secobarbital.
SotalolThe serum concentration of Sotalol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
SpironolactoneSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Spironolactone.
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Sulfadiazine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Sulfamethoxazole can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Sulfisoxazole can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SuvorexantSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Tamoxifen can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.
TelmisartanSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Telmisartan.
TeniposideThe serum concentration of Teniposide can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
TerazosinSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Terazosin.
ThalidomideSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
TizanidineSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Tizanidine.
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Tolbutamide can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
TorasemideSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Torasemide.
TrandolaprilSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Trandolapril.
TreprostinilThe serum concentration of Treprostinil can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
TriamtereneSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Triamterene.
TrichlormethiazideSecobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Trichlormethiazide.
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Trimethoprim can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
TrimipramineThe metabolism of Trimipramine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Secobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
ValsartanSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Voriconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.
WarfarinThe metabolism of Warfarin can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Zafirlukast can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
ZolpidemSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [PubMed:14579514 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
  5. Peters JA, Kirkness EF, Callachan H, Lambert JJ, Turner AJ: Modulation of the GABAA receptor by depressant barbiturates and pregnane steroids. Br J Pharmacol. 1988 Aug;94(4):1257-69. [PubMed:2850060 ]
  6. Miller LG, Deutsch SI, Greenblatt DJ, Paul SM, Shader RI: Acute barbiturate administration increases benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1988;96(3):385-90. [PubMed:2906155 ]
  7. Kirkness EF, Turner AJ: The gamma-aminobutyrate/benzodiazepine receptor from pig brain. Purification and characterization of the receptor complex from cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Biochem J. 1986 Jan 1;233(1):265-70. [PubMed:3006661 ]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  9. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  10. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797 ]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797 ]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and t...
Gene Name:
GRIA2
Uniprot ID:
P42262
Molecular Weight:
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIK2
Uniprot ID:
Q13002
Molecular Weight:
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1Q05586 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2AQ12879 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2BQ13224 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2CQ14957 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2DO15399 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3AQ8TCU5 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3BO60391 Details
References
  1. Daniell LC: Effect of anesthetic and convulsant barbiturates on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium flux in brain membrane vesicles. Pharmacology. 1994 Nov;49(5):296-307. [PubMed:7862741 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Visser LE, van Schaik RH, Jan Danser AH, Hofman A, Witteman JC, van Duijn CM, Uitterlinden AG, Pols HA, Stricker BH: The risk of myocardial infarction in patients with reduced activity of cytochrome P450 2C9. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jul;17(7):473-9. [PubMed:17558303 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Visser LE, van Schaik RH, Jan Danser AH, Hofman A, Witteman JC, van Duijn CM, Uitterlinden AG, Pols HA, Stricker BH: The risk of myocardial infarction in patients with reduced activity of cytochrome P450 2C9. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jul;17(7):473-9. [PubMed:17558303 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Sakuma T, Ohtake M, Katsurayama Y, Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N: Induction of CYP1A2 by phenobarbital in the livers of aryl hydrocarbon-responsive and -nonresponsive mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Mar;27(3):379-84. [PubMed:10064569 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10