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Identification
NameSecobarbital
Accession NumberDB00418  (APRD00497)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Secobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Seconal® and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. It possesses anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, sedative and hypnotic properties. In the United Kingdom, it was known as Quinalbarbitone.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(+-)-SecobarbitalNot AvailableNot Available
(±)-secobarbitalNot AvailableNot Available
5-(1-Methylbutyl)-5-(2-propenyl)-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrioneNot AvailableNot Available
5-Allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrioneNot AvailableNot Available
5-allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)barbituric acidNot AvailableNot Available
5-Allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trioneNot AvailableNot Available
QuinalbarbitoneNot AvailableNot Available
SecobarbitalumLatinINN
SecobarbitoneNot AvailableNot Available
SeconalNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
SeconalNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Secobarbital Sodium
Thumb
  • InChI Key: AXXJTNXVUHVOJW-UHFFFAOYNA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 260.113687095
  • Average Mass: 260.2647
DBSALT000255
Categories
CAS number76-73-3
WeightAverage: 238.2829
Monoisotopic: 238.131742452
Chemical FormulaC12H18N2O3
InChI KeyKQPKPCNLIDLUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H18N2O3/c1-4-6-8(3)12(7-5-2)9(15)13-11(17)14-10(12)16/h5,8H,2,4,6-7H2,1,3H3,(H2,13,14,15,16,17)
IUPAC Name
5-(pentan-2-yl)-5-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CCCC(C)C1(CC=C)C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentBarbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Barbiturate
  • Ureide
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Urea
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the Short-term treatment of intractable insomnia for patients habituated to barbiturates
PharmacodynamicsSecobarbital, a barbiturate, is used for the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli. Little analgesia is conferred by barbiturates; their use in the presence of pain may result in excitation.
Mechanism of actionSecobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationBarbiturates are metabolized primarily by the hepatic microsomal enzyme system, and the metabolic products are excreted in the urine and, less commonly, in the feces.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of an overdose typically include sluggishness, incoordination, difficulty in thinking, slowness of speech, faulty judgment, drowsiness or coma, shallow breathing, staggering, and in severe cases coma and death.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9331
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9762
Caco-2 permeable-0.5792
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6367
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5256
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9756
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.911
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7863
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.736
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8707
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7679
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9276
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7353
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8902
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9176
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6131
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8977
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9868
Rat acute toxicity3.0894 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9603
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9471
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Anabolic inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Everylife
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Lannett co inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • L perrigo co
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Vitarine pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Ranbaxy pharmaceuticals inc
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Eli lilly and co
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Seconal 100 mg capsule5.23USD capsule
Seconal sodium 100 mg capsule4.91USD capsule
Seconal sodium 100 mg pulvul0.93USD each
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point100 °CPhysProp
water solubility550 mg/LNot Available
logP1.97HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa7.8WOLLWEBER,H (1989)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.21 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.2ALOGPS
logP2.03ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity62.65 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.33 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.04 KB)
SpectraMS1D NMR
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN05CA06
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (48.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
AcenocoumarolMay increase the metabolism of Vitamin K Antagonists.
AcetaminophenMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
AcetazolamideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AldesleukinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AliskirenMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AmilorideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AminophyllineMay decrease the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives.
AmitriptylineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
AmlodipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
AmoxapineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
AmrinoneBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
Amyl NitriteMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ApraclonidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AtenololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Azilsartan medoxomilMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
BenazeprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BendroflumethiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
BepridilBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
BetaxololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
BisoprololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
BretyliumMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BrimonidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BumetanideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BuprenorphineCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine.
ButalbitalMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
CanagliflozinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
CandesartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
CaptoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
CarteololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
CarvedilolMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
ChloramphenicolBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates.
ChlorothiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
ChlorthalidoneMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
CilazaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ClevidipineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ClomipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
ClonidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DapagliflozinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DesipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
DesogestrelMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
DihydrocodeineMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
DiltiazemMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
DipyridamoleMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DoxazosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DoxycyclineMay decrease the serum concentration of Doxycycline.
DoxylamineMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
DronabinolMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
DroperidolMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
DrospirenoneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EmpagliflozinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EnalaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EnzalutamideCYP2C8 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Enzalutamide.
EplerenoneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EprosartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EsmololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
Ethacrynic acidMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Ethinyl EstradiolMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EthynodiolMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EtonogestrelMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EtoposideBarbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Etoposide.
FelbamateBarbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Felbamate. Felbamate may increase the serum concentration of Barbiturates.
FelodipineBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
FlunarizineBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
FosinoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
FurosemideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
GabapentinBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
GriseofulvinMay decrease the serum concentration of Griseofulvin. Exceptions: Methohexital; Thiopental.
GuanfacineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
HydralazineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
HydrochlorothiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
HydrocodoneCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of Barbiturates.
ImipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
IndapamideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
IrbesartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IsomethepteneMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
Isosorbide DinitrateMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Isosorbide MononitrateMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IsoxsuprineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IsradipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
LabetalolMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
LamotrigineBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
LercanidipineBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
LevobunololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
LevonorgestrelMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
LisinoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
LosartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Magnesium SulfateBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
MannitolMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
MestranolMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
MethazolamideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MethotrimeprazineCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
MethyclothiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
MethyldopaMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MetipranololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MetolazoneMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
MetoprololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
MetyrosineCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Metyrosine.
MianserinMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of Barbiturates. Mianserin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Mianserin.
MirtazapineCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Mirtazapine.
MoexiprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NabiloneMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
NadololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NebivololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
NesiritideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NicardipineBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NifedipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NimodipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NisoldipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NitrendipineBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NitroglycerinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NitroprussideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NorelgestrominMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
NorethindroneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
NorgestimateMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
NortriptylineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
OlmesartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
OrphenadrineCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine.
PapaverineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PenbutololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
PerampanelMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
PerhexilineBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
PerindoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PethidineMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of Meperidine. Barbiturates may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Meperidine.
PindololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
PramipexoleCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole.
PrazosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PrenylamineBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
PrimidoneMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
PropafenoneBarbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Propafenone.
PropranololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
ProtriptylineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
PyridoxinePyridoxine may increase the metabolism of Barbiturates. Apparent in high pyridoxine doses (eg, 200 mg/day)
QuetiapineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
QuinaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
RamiprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ReserpineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
RifampicinRifamycin Derivatives may increase the metabolism of Barbiturates.
RifapentineRifamycin Derivatives may increase the metabolism of Barbiturates.
RiociguatMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
RisedronateBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
RopiniroleCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole.
RotigotineCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine.
RufinamideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced.
SotalolMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
SpironolactoneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
SuvorexantCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant.
TapentadolMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
TelmisartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TeniposideBarbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Teniposide.
TerazosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ThalidomideCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide.
TheophyllineMay decrease the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives.
TimololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
TizanidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TorasemideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TrandolaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TreprostinilCYP2C8 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Treprostinil.
TriamtereneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TrimipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
UlipristalBarbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Ulipristal.
Valproic AcidValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
ValsartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
VerapamilBarbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
VoriconazoleMay decrease the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Exceptions: Methohexital; PENTobarbital; Secobarbital; Thiopental.
ZolpidemCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details

References:

  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed
  5. Peters JA, Kirkness EF, Callachan H, Lambert JJ, Turner AJ: Modulation of the GABAA receptor by depressant barbiturates and pregnane steroids. Br J Pharmacol. 1988 Aug;94(4):1257-69. Pubmed
  6. Miller LG, Deutsch SI, Greenblatt DJ, Paul SM, Shader RI: Acute barbiturate administration increases benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1988;96(3):385-90. Pubmed
  7. Kirkness EF, Turner AJ: The gamma-aminobutyrate/benzodiazepine receptor from pig brain. Purification and characterization of the receptor complex from cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Biochem J. 1986 Jan 1;233(1):265-70. Pubmed
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  9. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  10. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 P48169 Details

References:

  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

5. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5 P31644 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6 Q16445 Details

References:

  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed

7. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4 P43681 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. Pubmed
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

8. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7 P36544 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. Pubmed
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

9. Glutamate receptor 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor 2 P42262 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

10. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2 Q13002 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

11. NMDA receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1 Q05586 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A Q12879 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B Q13224 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C Q14957 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D O15399 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A Q8TCU5 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B O60391 Details

References:

  1. Daniell LC: Effect of anesthetic and convulsant barbiturates on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium flux in brain membrane vesicles. Pharmacology. 1994 Nov;49(5):296-307. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Visser LE, van Schaik RH, Jan Danser AH, Hofman A, Witteman JC, van Duijn CM, Uitterlinden AG, Pols HA, Stricker BH: The risk of myocardial infarction in patients with reduced activity of cytochrome P450 2C9. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jul;17(7):473-9. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Visser LE, van Schaik RH, Jan Danser AH, Hofman A, Witteman JC, van Duijn CM, Uitterlinden AG, Pols HA, Stricker BH: The risk of myocardial infarction in patients with reduced activity of cytochrome P450 2C9. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jul;17(7):473-9. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Sakuma T, Ohtake M, Katsurayama Y, Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N: Induction of CYP1A2 by phenobarbital in the livers of aryl hydrocarbon-responsive and -nonresponsive mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Mar;27(3):379-84. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10