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Identification
NameNitric Oxide
Accession NumberDB00435  (APRD01142)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals including humans and is an extremely important intermediate in the chemical industry. It is also a toxic air pollutant produced by automobile engines and power plants.

Nitric oxide (NO) should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), a general anaesthetic, or with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is another poisonous air pollutant.

The nitric oxide molecule is a free radical, which is relevant to understanding its high reactivity. It reacts with the ozone in air to form nitrogen dioxide, signalled by the appearance of the reddish-brown color.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
EDRFNot AvailableNot Available
endothelium-derived relaxing factorNot AvailableNot Available
Mononitrogen monoxideNot AvailableNot Available
nitrogen monooxideNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
INOmaxNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number10102-43-9
WeightAverage: 30.0061
Monoisotopic: 29.997988627
Chemical FormulaNO
InChI KeyMWUXSHHQAYIFBG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/NO/c1-2
IUPAC Name
nitroso
SMILES
[N]=O
Mass Specshow(6.86 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
SuperclassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassOther Non-metal Organides
SubclassOther Non-metal Oxides
Direct parentOther Non-metal Oxides
Alternative parentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the other non-metal oxides. These are inorganic compounds containing an oxygen atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of term and near-term (>34 weeks) neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure
PharmacodynamicsPersistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs as a primary developmental defect or as a condition secondary to other diseases such as meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pneumonia, sepsis, hyaline membrane disease, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and pulmonary hypoplasia. In these states, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is high, which results in hypoxemia secondary to right-to-left shunting of blood through the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. In neonates with PPHN, Nitric oxide improves oxygenation (as indicated by significant increases in PaO2). Nitric oxide appears to increase the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) by dilating pulmonary vessels in better entilated areas of the lung, redistributing pulmonary blood flow away from lung regions with low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratios toward regions with normal ratios.
Mechanism of actionNitric oxide is a compound produced by many cells of the body. It relaxes vascular smooth muscle by binding to the heme moiety of cytosolic guanylate cyclase, activating guanylate cyclase and increasing intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which then leads to vasodilation. When inhaled, nitric oxide produces pulmonary vasodilation.
AbsorptionNitric oxide is absorbed systemically after inhalation.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

via pulmonary capillary bed

Route of eliminationNitrate has been identified as the predominant nitric oxide metabolite excreted in the urine, accounting for >70% of the nitric oxide dose inhaled.
Half life2–6 seconds
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9968
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9785
Caco-2 permeable + 0.6149
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.9034
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.957
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9892
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8973
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8884
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.888
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.7535
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7402
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9383
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.896
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8796
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9754
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8945
Ames test AMES toxic 0.5342
Carcinogenicity Carcinogens 0.8336
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.9371
Rat acute toxicity 2.5108 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.8524
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9756
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Ino therapeutics inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
GasRespiratory (inhalation)
PricesNot Available
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States54858271993-01-232013-01-23
Canada21868922007-11-272015-04-03
Properties
Stateliquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point-163.6 °CPhysProp
boiling point-151.7 °CPhysProp
water solubility9.49E+004 mg/LNot Available
logP0Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.35ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-2.9ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area34.14ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity2.89ChemAxon
polarizability1.69ChemAxon
number of rings0ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Stephen M. Campbell, Chen-Youn Sue, “Nitric oxide for vapor phase elimination of styrene and acrylonitrile popcorn polymer in bulk SAN production.” U.S. Patent US5272231, issued November, 1968.

US5272231
General Reference
  1. Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L: Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2007 Jan;87(1):315-424. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00074
KEGG CompoundC00533
PubChem Compound145068
PubChem Substance46506897
ChemSpider127983
ChEBI16480
ChEMBLCHEMBL1200689
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001056
PharmGKBPA450635
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/inomax.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/mtm/nitric-oxide-inhalation-gas.html
WikipediaNitric_Oxide
ATC CodesR07AX01
AHFS Codes
  • 24:12.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(52.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsSearched, but no interactions found.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2 P33402 Details

References:

  1. Moncada S, Palmer RM, Higgs EA: Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev. 1991 Jun;43(2):109-42. Pubmed
  2. Mancuso C, Navarra P, Preziosi P: Roles of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Neurochem. 2010 May 1;113(3):563-75. Epub 2010 Jan 20. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P05091 Details

References:

  1. Moon KH, Kim BJ, Song BJ: Inhibition of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase by nitric oxide-mediated S-nitrosylation. FEBS Lett. 2005 Nov 7;579(27):6115-20. Epub 2005 Oct 11. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Nakano R, Sato H, Watanabe A, Ito O, Shimizu T: Conserved Glu318 at the cytochrome P450 1A2 distal site is crucial in the nitric oxide complex stability. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 12;271(15):8570-4. Pubmed
  2. Mulero-Navarro S, Santiago-Josefat B, Pozo-Guisado E, Merino JM, Fernandez-Salguero PM: Down-regulation of CYP1A2 induction during the maturation of mouse cerebellar granule cells in culture: role of nitric oxide accumulation. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Oct;18(8):2265-72. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Aitken AE, Lee CM, Morgan ET: Roles of nitric oxide in inflammatory downregulation of human cytochromes P450. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Mar 15;44(6):1161-8. Epub 2007 Dec 23. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Watabe M, Isogai Y, Numazawa S, Yoshida T: Role of c-Myc in nitric oxide-mediated suppression of cytochrome P450 3A4. Life Sci. 2003 Nov 21;74(1):99-108. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10