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Identification
NameNitric Oxide
Accession NumberDB00435  (APRD01142)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals including humans and is an extremely important intermediate in the chemical industry. It is also a toxic air pollutant produced by automobile engines and power plants.

Nitric oxide (NO) should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), a general anaesthetic, or with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is another poisonous air pollutant.

The nitric oxide molecule is a free radical, which is relevant to understanding its high reactivity. It reacts with the ozone in air to form nitrogen dioxide, signalled by the appearance of the reddish-brown color.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(.)NONot AvailableNot Available
(NO)(.)Not AvailableNot Available
[NO]Not AvailableNot Available
EDRFNot AvailableNot Available
endothelium-derived relaxing factorNot AvailableNot Available
Mononitrogen monoxideNot AvailableNot Available
Monoxido de nitrogenoNot AvailableNot Available
Monoxyde d'azoteNot AvailableNot Available
Nitric oxideNot AvailableNot Available
nitrogen monooxideNot AvailableNot Available
Nitrogen monoxideNot AvailableNot Available
NitrosylNot AvailableNot Available
NONot AvailableNot Available
NO(.)Not AvailableNot Available
Oxido de nitrogeno(ii)Not AvailableNot Available
Oxido nitricoNot AvailableNot Available
Oxyde azotiqueNot AvailableNot Available
Oxyde nitriqueNot AvailableNot Available
Stickstoff(ii)-oxidNot AvailableNot Available
StickstoffmonoxidNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Inomaxgas.123 mg/Lrespiratory (inhalation)INO Therapeutics1999-12-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Inomaxgas.98 mg/Lrespiratory (inhalation)INO Therapeutics1999-12-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Inomaxgas100 ppminhalationINO TherapeuticsNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Inomaxgas800 ppminhalationINO TherapeuticsNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number10102-43-9
WeightAverage: 30.0061
Monoisotopic: 29.997988627
Chemical FormulaNO
InChI KeyMWUXSHHQAYIFBG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/NO/c1-2
IUPAC Name
nitroso
SMILES
[N]=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other nonmetals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Homogeneous other non metal
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of term and near-term (>34 weeks) neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure
PharmacodynamicsPersistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs as a primary developmental defect or as a condition secondary to other diseases such as meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pneumonia, sepsis, hyaline membrane disease, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and pulmonary hypoplasia. In these states, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is high, which results in hypoxemia secondary to right-to-left shunting of blood through the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. In neonates with PPHN, Nitric oxide improves oxygenation (as indicated by significant increases in PaO2). Nitric oxide appears to increase the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) by dilating pulmonary vessels in better entilated areas of the lung, redistributing pulmonary blood flow away from lung regions with low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratios toward regions with normal ratios.
Mechanism of actionNitric oxide is a compound produced by many cells of the body. It relaxes vascular smooth muscle by binding to the heme moiety of cytosolic guanylate cyclase, activating guanylate cyclase and increasing intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which then leads to vasodilation. When inhaled, nitric oxide produces pulmonary vasodilation.
AbsorptionNitric oxide is absorbed systemically after inhalation.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

via pulmonary capillary bed

Route of eliminationNitrate has been identified as the predominant nitric oxide metabolite excreted in the urine, accounting for >70% of the nitric oxide dose inhaled.
Half life2–6 seconds
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9968
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9785
Caco-2 permeable+0.6149
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.9034
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.957
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9892
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8973
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8884
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.888
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7535
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7402
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9383
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.896
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8796
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9754
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8945
Ames testAMES toxic0.5342
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.8336
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9371
Rat acute toxicity2.5108 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8524
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9756
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Ino therapeutics inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Gasinhalation100 ppm
Gasinhalation800 ppm
Gasrespiratory (inhalation).123 mg/L
Gasrespiratory (inhalation).98 mg/L
PricesNot Available
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
Canada21868922007-11-272015-04-03
United States54858271993-01-232013-01-23
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point-163.6 °CPhysProp
boiling point-151.7 °CPhysProp
water solubility9.49E+004 mg/LNot Available
logP0Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity2.89 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (6.86 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Stephen M. Campbell, Chen-Youn Sue, “Nitric oxide for vapor phase elimination of styrene and acrylonitrile popcorn polymer in bulk SAN production.” U.S. Patent US5272231, issued November, 1968.

US5272231
General Reference
  1. Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L: Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2007 Jan;87(1):315-424. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesR07AX01
AHFS Codes
  • 24:12.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (52.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetaminophenMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
Amyl NitriteMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
AntipyrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
BenzocaineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
ButalbitalMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
CelecoxibMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
ChloroquineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
DihydrocodeineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
FlutamideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
IsomethepteneMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
Isosorbide DinitrateMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
Isosorbide MononitrateMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
MafenideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
MetoclopramideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
NitrofurantoinMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
NitroglycerinMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
NitroprussideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
PhenazopyridineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
PhenobarbitalMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
PhenytoinMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
PrilocaineMethemoglobinemia Associated Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Prilocaine. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
PrimaquineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
QuinineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
SulfadiazineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
SulfamethoxazoleMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
SulfasalazineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
ZopicloneMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2 P33402 Details

References:

  1. Moncada S, Palmer RM, Higgs EA: Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev. 1991 Jun;43(2):109-42. Pubmed
  2. Mancuso C, Navarra P, Preziosi P: Roles of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Neurochem. 2010 May 1;113(3):563-75. Epub 2010 Jan 20. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P05091 Details

References:

  1. Moon KH, Kim BJ, Song BJ: Inhibition of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase by nitric oxide-mediated S-nitrosylation. FEBS Lett. 2005 Nov 7;579(27):6115-20. Epub 2005 Oct 11. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Nakano R, Sato H, Watanabe A, Ito O, Shimizu T: Conserved Glu318 at the cytochrome P450 1A2 distal site is crucial in the nitric oxide complex stability. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 12;271(15):8570-4. Pubmed
  2. Mulero-Navarro S, Santiago-Josefat B, Pozo-Guisado E, Merino JM, Fernandez-Salguero PM: Down-regulation of CYP1A2 induction during the maturation of mouse cerebellar granule cells in culture: role of nitric oxide accumulation. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Oct;18(8):2265-72. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Aitken AE, Lee CM, Morgan ET: Roles of nitric oxide in inflammatory downregulation of human cytochromes P450. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Mar 15;44(6):1161-8. Epub 2007 Dec 23. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Watabe M, Isogai Y, Numazawa S, Yoshida T: Role of c-Myc in nitric oxide-mediated suppression of cytochrome P450 3A4. Life Sci. 2003 Nov 21;74(1):99-108. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10