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Identification
NameImipramine
Accession NumberDB00458  (APRD00672, DB08002)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

Imipramine, the prototypical tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), is a dibenzazepine-derivative TCA. TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, imipramine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, imipramine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. Imipramine has less sedative and anticholinergic effects than the tertiary amine TCAs, amitriptyline and clomipramine. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Imipramine may be used to treat depression and nocturnal enuresis in children. Unlabeled indications include chronic and neuropathic pain (including diabetic neuropathy), panic disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
ImipraminGermanNot Available
ImizineNot AvailableNot Available
N-(γ-dimethylaminopropyl)iminodibenzylNot AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Imipramine Hydrochloride
113-52-0
Thumb
  • InChI Key: XZZXIYZZBJDEEP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 316.170626517
  • Average Mass: 316.868
DBSALT000099
Imipramine Pamoate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: SBDXQUVAAJKLDH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 668.288637022
  • Average Mass: 668.7768
DBSALT000100
Brand names
NameCompany
AntideprinNot Available
IrminNot Available
MelipramineNot Available
TofranilMallinckrodt
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number50-49-7
WeightAverage: 280.4073
Monoisotopic: 280.193948778
Chemical FormulaC19H24N2
InChI KeyInChIKey=BCGWQEUPMDMJNV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H24N2/c1-20(2)14-7-15-21-18-10-5-3-8-16(18)12-13-17-9-4-6-11-19(17)21/h3-6,8-11H,7,12-15H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
(3-{2-azatricyclo[9.4.0.0^{3,8}]pentadeca-1(11),3(8),4,6,12,14-hexaen-2-yl}propyl)dimethylamine
SMILES
CN(C)CCCN1C2=CC=CC=C2CCC2=CC=CC=C12
Mass Specshow(10.2 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzazepines
SubclassDibenzazepines
Direct parentDibenzazepines
Alternative parentsAzepines; Benzene and Substituted Derivatives; Tertiary Amines; Polyamines
Substituentsazepine; benzene; tertiary amine; polyamine; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the dibenzazepines. These are compounds with two benzene rings connected by an azepine ring.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the relief of symptoms of depression and as temporary adjunctive therapy in reducing enuresis in children aged 6 years and older. May also be used to manage panic disorders, with or without agoraphobia, as a second line agent in ADHD, management of eating disorders, for short-term management of acute depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and for symptomatic treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.
PharmacodynamicsImipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant with general pharmacological properties similar to those of structurally related tricyclic antidepressant drugs such as amitriptyline and doxepin. A tertiary amine, imipramine inhibits the reuptake of serotonin more so than most secondary amine tricyclics, meaning that it blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline almost equally. With chronic use, imipramine also down-regulates cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitizes post-synaptic sertonergic receptors, which also contributes to increased serotonergic transmission. It takes approximately 2 - 4 weeks for antidepressants effects to occur. The onset of action may be longer, up to 8 weeks, in some individuals. It is also effective in migraine prophylaxis, but not in abortion of acute migraine attack.
Mechanism of actionImipramine works by inhibiting the neuronal reuptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin. It binds the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and sodium-dependent norepinephrine transporter preventing or reducing the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin by nerve cells. Depression has been linked to a lack of stimulation of the post-synaptic neuron by norepinephrine and serotonin. Slowing the reuptake of these neurotransmitters increases their concentration in the synaptic cleft, which is thought to contribute to relieving symptoms of depression. In addition to acutely inhibiting neurotransmitter re-uptake, imipramine causes down-regulation of cerebral cortical beta-adrenergic receptors and sensitization of post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. This leads to enhanced serotonergic transmission.
AbsorptionRapidly and well absorbed after oral administration. Bioavailability is approximately 43%. Peak plasma concentrations usually attained 1 - 2 hours following oral administration. Absorption is unaffected by food.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding60-95%
Metabolism

Exclusively metabolized by the liver. Imipramine is converted in the liver by various CYP isoenzymes (e.g. CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2C9) to active metabolites desipramine and 2-hydroxydesipramine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Imipramine
2-hydroxyimipramineDetails
Imipramine
DesipramineDetails
2-hydroxyimipramine
    2-hydroxy-imipramine glucuronideDetails
    Route of eliminationApproximately 40% of an orally administered dose is eliminated in urine within 24 hours, 70% in 72 hours. Small amounts are eliminated in feces via the biliary elimination.
    Half lifeImipramine - 8-20 hours; Desipramine (active metabolite) - up to 125 hours
    ClearanceNot Available
    ToxicityOral, rat LD50: 355 to 682 mg/kg. Toxic signs proceed progressively from depression, irregular respiration and ataxia to convulsions and death. Antagonism of the histamine H1 and α1 receptors can lead to sedation and hypotension. Antimuscarinic and anticholinergic side effects such as blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation and urine retention may occur. Cardiotoxicity may occur with high doses of imipramine. Cardiovascular side effects in postural hypotension, tachycardia, hypertension, ECG changes and congestive heart failure. Psychotoxic effects include impaired memory and delirium. Induction of hypomanic or manic episodes may occur in patients with a history of bipolar disorder. Withdrawal symptoms include GI disturbances (e.g. nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea), anxiety, insomnia, nervousness, headache and malaise.
    Affected organisms
    • Humans and other mammals
    PathwaysNot Available
    SNP Mediated Effects
    Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
    Cytochrome P450 2D6
    Gene symbol: CYP2D6
    UniProt: P10635
    rs3892097 CYP2D6*4A AllelePoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effects18070221
    SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
    Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
    Cytochrome P450 2D6
    Gene symbol: CYP2D6
    UniProt: P10635
    rs3892097 CYP2D6*4C > TThose that are homozygous for the poorly metabolizing CYP2D6 alleles are at an increased risk of side effects and decrease drug metabolism18070221
    Cytochrome P450 2D6
    Gene symbol: CYP2D6
    UniProt: P10635
    rs3892097 CYP2D6*4C > TThose that are homozygous for the poorly metabolizing CYP2D6 alleles are at an increased risk of side effects and decrease drug metabolism9918137
    ADMET
    Predicted ADMET features
    Property Value Probability
    Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9822
    Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9865
    Caco-2 permeable + 0.8867
    P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.7684
    P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8662
    P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.6205
    Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.8541
    CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7799
    CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.9532
    CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.6718
    CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7583
    CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9089
    CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.9017
    CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9304
    CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8309
    CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8399
    Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9132
    Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9329
    Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9819
    Rat acute toxicity 3.0187 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
    hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9172
    hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.7771
    Pharmacoeconomics
    Manufacturers
    • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
    • Actavis totowa llc
    • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
    • Lupin ltd
    • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
    • Par pharmaceutical inc
    • Roxane laboratories inc
    • Sandoz inc
    • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
    • Usl pharma inc
    • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
    • Watson laboratories inc
    • West ward pharmaceutical corp
    • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
    • Alra laboratories inc
    • Sanofi aventis us llc
    • Tyco healthcare group lp
    • Odyssey pharmaceuticals inc
    Packagers
    Dosage forms
    FormRouteStrength
    CapsuleOral75 mg, 100 mg, 125 mg, 150 mg
    TabletOral10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg
    Prices
    Unit descriptionCostUnit
    Tofranil-PM 30 125 mg capsule Bottle588.33USDbottle
    Tofranil-PM 30 150 mg capsule Bottle588.33USDbottle
    Tofranil-PM 30 75 mg capsule Bottle588.33USDbottle
    Tofranil 30 50 mg tablet Bottle185.09USDbottle
    Trimipramine maleate powder51.0USDg
    Tofranil-pm 100 mg capsule19.23USDcapsule
    Tofranil-pm 150 mg capsule18.86USDcapsule
    Tofranil-pm 75 mg capsule18.86USDcapsule
    Tofranil-pm 125 mg capsule18.68USDcapsule
    Imipramine pamoate 75 mg capsule16.35USDcapsule
    Imipramine pamoate 100 mg capsule15.17USDcapsule
    Imipramine pamoate 125 mg capsule15.17USDcapsule
    Imipramine pamoate 150 mg capsule15.17USDcapsule
    Tofranil 50 mg tablet6.64USDtablet
    Surmontil 100 mg capsule5.92USDcapsule
    Tofranil 25 mg tablet4.97USDtablet
    Tofranil 10 mg tablet4.73USDtablet
    Surmontil 50 mg capsule4.07USDcapsule
    Trimipramine Maleate 50 mg capsule3.27USDcapsule
    Trimipramine 50 mg capsule3.14USDcapsule
    Surmontil 25 mg capsule2.49USDcapsule
    Cenestin 0.3 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
    Cenestin 0.45 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
    Cenestin 0.625 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
    Cenestin 0.9 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
    Cenestin 1.25 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
    Trimipramine 25 mg capsule1.92USDcapsule
    Apo-Trimip 100 mg Tablet0.97USDtablet
    Imipramine hcl powder0.77USDg
    Apo-Trimip 75 mg Capsule0.77USDcapsule
    Apo-Imipramine 75 mg Tablet0.58USDtablet
    Tofranil 50 mg Tablet0.57USDtablet
    Apo-Trimip 50 mg Tablet0.57USDtablet
    Imipramine hcl 10 mg tablet0.46USDtablet
    Imipramine hcl 50 mg tablet0.44USDtablet
    Apo-Imipramine 50 mg Tablet0.4USDtablet
    Imipramine hcl 25 mg tablet0.35USDtablet
    Apo-Trimip 25 mg Tablet0.29USDtablet
    Apo-Imipramine 25 mg Tablet0.25USDtablet
    Apo-Trimip 12.5 mg Tablet0.23USDtablet
    Apo-Imipramine 10 mg Tablet0.14USDtablet
    DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
    PatentsNot Available
    Properties
    Statesolid
    Experimental Properties
    PropertyValueSource
    melting point174.5 °CPhysProp
    boiling point160 °C at 1.00E-01 mm HgPhysProp
    water solubility18.2 mg/L (at 24 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
    logP4.80HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
    logS-4.19ADME Research, USCD
    Caco2 permeability-4.85ADME Research, USCD
    pKa9.4SANGSTER (1994)
    Predicted Properties
    PropertyValueSource
    water solubility6.64e-02 g/lALOGPS
    logP4.53ALOGPS
    logP4.28ChemAxon
    logS-3.6ALOGPS
    pKa (strongest basic)9.2ChemAxon
    physiological charge1ChemAxon
    hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
    hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
    polar surface area6.48ChemAxon
    rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
    refractivity90.61ChemAxon
    polarizability33.39ChemAxon
    number of rings3ChemAxon
    bioavailability1ChemAxon
    rule of fiveYesChemAxon
    Ghose filterYesChemAxon
    Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
    MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
    Spectra
    Spectra
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    General ReferenceNot Available
    External Links
    ResourceLink
    KEGG CompoundC07049
    PubChem Compound3696
    PubChem Substance46507351
    ChemSpider3568
    ChEBI5881
    ChEMBLCHEMBL11
    Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001154
    PharmGKBPA449969
    IUPHAR357
    Guide to Pharmacology357
    HETIXX
    Drug Product Database726397
    RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/imip.htm
    Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/imipramine.html
    PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/tof1448.shtml
    WikipediaImipramine
    ATC CodesN06AA03N06AA06N06AA02
    AHFS Codes
    • 28:16.04.28
    PDB EntriesNot Available
    FDA labelshow(152 KB)
    MSDSshow(73.6 KB)
    Interactions
    Drug Interactions
    Drug
    AltretamineRisk of severe hypotension
    ArtemetherAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
    AtazanavirAtazanavir may increase the effect and toxicity of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if atazanavir if initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    ButabarbitalBarbiturates like butabarbital may increase the metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants like imipramine. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of tricyclic antidepressants if a barbiturate is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if a barbiturate is discontinued/dose decreased. The tricyclic antidepressant dosage will likely need to be increased during concomitant barbiturate therapy, and reduced upon barbiturate discontinuation.
    ButalbitalBarbiturates such as butalbital may increase the metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of tricyclic antidepressants if a barbiturate is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if a barbiturate is discontinued/dose decreased. The tricyclic antidepressant dosage will likely need to be increased during concomitant barbiturate therapy, and reduced upon barbiturate discontinuation.
    CarbamazepineCarbamazepine may decrease the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if carbamazepine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    CimetidineCimetidine may increase the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if cimetidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    CisaprideIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
    ClonidineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, decreases the effect of clonidine.
    DesvenlafaxineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
    Dihydroquinidine barbiturateDihydroquinidine barbiturate increases the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine.
    DobutamineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dobutamine.
    DonepezilPossible antagonism of action
    DopamineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dopamine.
    DuloxetinePossible increase in the levels of this agent when used with duloxetine
    EphedraThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of ephedra.
    EphedrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of ephedrine.
    EpinephrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
    FenoterolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of fenoterol.
    FluconazoleFluconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Additive QTc-prolonging effects may also occur. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if fluconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
    FluoxetineThe SSRI, fluoxetine, may increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Additive modulation of serotonin activity also increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for development of serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if fluoxetine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    FluvoxamineThe SSRI, fluvoxamine, may increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Additive modulation of serotonin activity also increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for development of serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if fluvoxamine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    GalantaminePossible antagonism of action
    GrepafloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
    GuanethidineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, may increase the sympathomimetic effect of guanethidine.
    IobenguaneMay diminish the therapeutic effect and increase chances of producing a false negative imaging result of Iobenguane as it inhibits noradrenaline transporter function
    IsocarboxazidPossibility of severe adverse effects
    IsoprenalineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of isoproterenol.
    KetoconazoleKetoconazole, a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of imipramine by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    LumefantrineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
    MephentermineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of mephentermine.
    MesoridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
    MetaraminolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of metaraminol.
    MethoxamineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of methoxamine.
    MoclobemidePossible severe adverse reaction with this combination
    NorepinephrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of norepinephrine.
    OrciprenalineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of orciprenaline.
    PhenelzinePossibility of severe adverse effects
    PhenylephrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of phenylephrine.
    PhenylpropanolamineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of phenylpropanolamine.
    PirbuterolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of pirbuterol.
    ProcaterolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of procaterol.
    PseudoephedrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of pseudoephedrine.
    QuinidineAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur. Quinidine may also increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
    Quinidine barbiturateQuinidine barbiturate increases the effect of tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine.
    RasagilinePossibility of severe adverse effects
    RifabutinThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    RifampicinThe rifamycin, rifampin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if rifampin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    RitonavirRitonavir may increase the effect and toxicity of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if ritonavir if initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    RivastigminePossible antagonism of action
    SalbutamolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol.
    SibutramineIncreased risk of CNS adverse effects
    SparfloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
    TacrineThe therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Imipramine, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
    TacrolimusAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be used with caution.
    TamoxifenImipramine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
    TamsulosinImipramine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Imipramine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
    TerbinafineTerbinafine may increase the effect and toxicity of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if terbinafine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    TerbutalineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of terbutaline.
    TerfenadineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
    ThioridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
    ThiothixeneMay cause additive QTc-prolonging effects. Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Consider alternate therapy. Thorough risk:benefit assessment is required prior to co-administration.
    TiclopidineTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Imipramine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Imipramine if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    ToremifeneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur, increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Consider alternate therapy. A thorough risk:benefit assessment is required prior to co-administration.
    TramadolTramadol increases the risk of serotonin syndrome and seizures. Imipramine may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production.
    TranylcypromineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. A significant washout period, dependent on the half-lives of the agents, should be employed between therapies.
    TrazodoneIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
    TrimethobenzamideTrimethobenzamide and Imipramine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
    TrimipramineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome. QTc-prolongation may also occur, increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be used with caution.
    TriprolidineTriprolidine and Imipramine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Additive CNS depressant effects may also occur. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
    TrospiumTrospium and Imipramine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
    VenlafaxineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
    VoriconazoleAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
    VorinostatAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
    ZiprasidoneAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may increase the risk of severe arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
    ZolmitriptanUse of two serotonin modulators, such as zolmitriptan and imipramine, increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy.
    ZuclopenthixolAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
    Zuclopenthixol acetateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
    Zuclopenthixol decanoateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
    Food Interactions
    • Avoid alcohol.
    • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (caffeine).
    • Avoid St.John's Wort.
    • Do not take fibers at the same time.
    • Take with food.

    1. Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter P23975 Details

    References:

    1. Mitchell HA, Ahern TH, Liles LC, Javors MA, Weinshenker D: The effects of norepinephrine transporter inactivation on locomotor activity in mice. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Nov 15;60(10):1046-52. Epub 2006 Aug 7. Pubmed
    2. Dziedzicka-Wasylewska M, Faron-Gorecka A, Kusmider M, Drozdowska E, Rogoz Z, Siwanowicz J, Caron MG, Bonisch H: Effect of antidepressant drugs in mice lacking the norepinephrine transporter. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Nov;31(11):2424-32. Epub 2006 Mar 22. Pubmed
    3. Anton M, Wagner B, Haubner R, Bodenstein C, Essien BE, Bonisch H, Schwaiger M, Gansbacher B, Weber WA: Use of the norepinephrine transporter as a reporter gene for non-invasive imaging of genetically modified cells. J Gene Med. 2004 Jan;6(1):119-26. Pubmed
    4. Kantor L, Hewlett GH, Park YH, Richardson-Burns SM, Mellon MJ, Gnegy ME: Protein kinase C and intracellular calcium are required for amphetamine-mediated dopamine release via the norepinephrine transporter in undifferentiated PC12 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jun;297(3):1016-24. Pubmed
    5. Tatsumi M, Jansen K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of neuroleptics at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Mar 5;368(2-3):277-83. Pubmed

    2. Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter P31645 Details

    References:

    1. Leboyer M, Quintin P, Manivet P, Varoquaux O, Allilaire JF, Launay JM: Decreased serotonin transporter binding in unaffected relatives of manic depressive patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Dec 15;46(12):1703-6. Pubmed
    2. Scholze P, Zwach J, Kattinger A, Pifl C, Singer EA, Sitte HH: Transporter-mediated release: a superfusion study on human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the human serotonin transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Jun;293(3):870-8. Pubmed
    3. Quintin P, Benkelfat C, Launay JM, Arnulf I, Pointereau-Bellenger A, Barbault S, Alvarez JC, Varoquaux O, Perez-Diaz F, Jouvent R, Leboyer M: Clinical and neurochemical effect of acute tryptophan depletion in unaffected relatives of patients with bipolar affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2001 Aug 1;50(3):184-90. Pubmed
    4. Goulet M, Miller GM, Bendor J, Liu S, Meltzer PC, Madras BK: Non-amines, drugs without an amine nitrogen, potently block serotonin transport: novel antidepressant candidates? Synapse. 2001 Dec 1;42(3):129-40. Pubmed
    5. Barkan T, Gurwitz D, Levy G, Weizman A, Rehavi M: Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of the serotonin transporter in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004 May;14(3):237-43. Pubmed
    6. Schloss P, Betz H: Heterogeneity of antidepressant binding sites on the recombinant rat serotonin transporter SERT1. Biochemistry. 1995 Oct 3;34(39):12590-5. Pubmed
    7. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. Pubmed

    3. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: antagonist

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A P28223 Details

    References:

    1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

    4. Histamine H1 receptor

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: antagonist

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Histamine H1 receptor P35367 Details

    References:

    1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

    5. Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: antagonist

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor P35348 Details

    References:

    1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed
    2. Nojimoto FD, Mueller A, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Pupo AS: The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are weak antagonists of human and rat alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010 Jul-Aug;59(1-2):49-57. Epub 2010 Apr 2. Pubmed

    6. Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: antagonist

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor P25100 Details

    References:

    1. Nojimoto FD, Mueller A, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Pupo AS: The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are weak antagonists of human and rat alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010 Jul-Aug;59(1-2):49-57. Epub 2010 Apr 2. Pubmed

    7. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: antagonist

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 P11229 Details

    References:

    1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

    8. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: antagonist

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 P08172 Details

    References:

    1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

    9. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: antagonist

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 P20309 Details

    References:

    1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

    10. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: antagonist

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4 P08173 Details

    References:

    1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

    11. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: antagonist

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5 P08912 Details

    References:

    1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

    12. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2 Q9NZV8 Details

    References:

    1. Casis O, Sanchez-Chapula JA: Disopyramide, imipramine, and amitriptyline bind to a common site on the transient outward K+ channel. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;32(4):521-6. Pubmed

    13. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3 Q9UK17 Details

    References:

    1. Casis O, Sanchez-Chapula JA: Disopyramide, imipramine, and amitriptyline bind to a common site on the transient outward K+ channel. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;32(4):521-6. Pubmed

    14. Transporter

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Aquifex aeolicus (strain VF5)

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Transporter O67854 Details

    References:

    1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

    1. Cytochrome P450 2D6

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

    References:

    1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
    2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
    3. Koyama E, Chiba K, Tani M, Ishizaki T: Reappraisal of human CYP isoforms involved in imipramine N-demethylation and 2-hydroxylation: a study using microsomes obtained from putative extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin and eleven recombinant human CYPs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun;281(3):1199-210. Pubmed

    2. Cytochrome P450 2C19

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

    References:

    1. Shin JG, Park JY, Kim MJ, Shon JH, Yoon YR, Cha IJ, Lee SS, Oh SW, Kim SW, Flockhart DA: Inhibitory effects of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) on human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro: mechanism of drug interaction between TCAs and phenytoin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Oct;30(10):1102-7. Pubmed
    2. Morinobu S, Tanaka T, Kawakatsu S, Totsuka S, Koyama E, Chiba K, Ishizaki T, Kubota T: Effects of genetic defects in the CYP2C19 gene on the N-demethylation of imipramine, and clinical outcome of imipramine therapy. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1997 Aug;51(4):253-7. Pubmed
    3. Madsen H, Rasmussen BB, Brosen K: Imipramine demethylation in vivo: impact of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Mar;61(3):319-24. Pubmed
    4. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
    5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
    6. Koyama E, Chiba K, Tani M, Ishizaki T: Reappraisal of human CYP isoforms involved in imipramine N-demethylation and 2-hydroxylation: a study using microsomes obtained from putative extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin and eleven recombinant human CYPs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun;281(3):1199-210. Pubmed
    7. Obach RS, Reed-Hagen AE: Measurement of Michaelis constants for cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation reactions using a substrate depletion approach. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Jul;30(7):831-7. Pubmed

    3. Cytochrome P450 1A2

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

    References:

    1. Brosen K: Drug interactions and the cytochrome P450 system. The role of cytochrome P450 1A2. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995;29 Suppl 1:20-5. Pubmed
    2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
    3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
    4. Koyama E, Chiba K, Tani M, Ishizaki T: Reappraisal of human CYP isoforms involved in imipramine N-demethylation and 2-hydroxylation: a study using microsomes obtained from putative extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin and eleven recombinant human CYPs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun;281(3):1199-210. Pubmed

    4. Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

    References:

    1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
    2. Koyama E, Chiba K, Tani M, Ishizaki T: Reappraisal of human CYP isoforms involved in imipramine N-demethylation and 2-hydroxylation: a study using microsomes obtained from putative extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin and eleven recombinant human CYPs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun;281(3):1199-210. Pubmed

    5. Cytochrome P450 3A7

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

    References:

    1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

    6. Cytochrome P450 2B6

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

    References:

    1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

    7. Cytochrome P450 2C18

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 2C18 P33260 Details

    References:

    1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

    8. Cytochrome P450 2E1

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

    References:

    1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

    1. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: no

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 P02763 Details

    References:

    1. Ferry DG, Caplan NB, Cubeddu LX: Interaction between antidepressants and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonists on the binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. J Pharm Sci. 1986 Feb;75(2):146-9. Pubmed

    1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

    References:

    1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. Pubmed
    2. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. Pubmed
    3. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. Pubmed

    2. Solute carrier family 22 member 1

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Solute carrier family 22 member 1 O15245 Details

    References:

    1. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed

    3. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

    References:

    1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. Pubmed
    2. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed

    4. Solute carrier family 22 member 3

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Solute carrier family 22 member 3 O75751 Details

    References:

    1. Wu X, Huang W, Ganapathy ME, Wang H, Kekuda R, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structure, function, and regional distribution of the organic cation transporter OCT3 in the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000 Sep;279(3):F449-58. Pubmed

    5. Solute carrier family 22 member 4

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Solute carrier family 22 member 4 Q9H015 Details

    References:

    1. Wu X, George RL, Huang W, Wang H, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structural and functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of rat OCTN1, an organic cation transporter, cloned from placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 1;1466(1-2):315-27. Pubmed

    Comments
    Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10