You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameImipramine
Accession NumberDB00458  (APRD00672, DB08002)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

Imipramine, the prototypical tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), is a dibenzazepine-derivative TCA. TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, imipramine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, imipramine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. Imipramine has less sedative and anticholinergic effects than the tertiary amine TCAs, amitriptyline and clomipramine. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Imipramine may be used to treat depression and nocturnal enuresis in children. Unlabeled indications include chronic and neuropathic pain (including diabetic neuropathy), panic disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
ImipraminGermanNot Available
ImizineNot AvailableNot Available
N-(γ-dimethylaminopropyl)iminodibenzylNot AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Imipramine Hydrochloride
113-52-0
Thumb
  • InChI Key: XZZXIYZZBJDEEP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 316.170626517
  • Average Mass: 316.868
DBSALT000099
Imipramine Pamoate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: SBDXQUVAAJKLDH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 668.288637022
  • Average Mass: 668.7768
DBSALT000100
Brand names
NameCompany
AntidepTorrent
DepsonilAbbott
Depsonil-PMAbbott
ElaminBaroda
FronilJohnson
ImidolTanabe Mitsubishi Pharma
Imipramin DakNycomed
ImiprexDumex
PraminIncepta
TofranilNovartis
TOFRANIL-PMNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number50-49-7
WeightAverage: 280.4073
Monoisotopic: 280.193948778
Chemical FormulaC19H24N2
InChI KeyBCGWQEUPMDMJNV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H24N2/c1-20(2)14-7-15-21-18-10-5-3-8-16(18)12-13-17-9-4-6-11-19(17)21/h3-6,8-11H,7,12-15H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
(3-{2-azatricyclo[9.4.0.0^{3,8}]pentadeca-1(11),3(8),4,6,12,14-hexaen-2-yl}propyl)dimethylamine
SMILES
CN(C)CCCN1C2=CC=CC=C2CCC2=CC=CC=C12
Mass Specshow(10.2 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzazepines
SubclassDibenzazepines
Direct parentDibenzazepines
Alternative parentsAzepines; Benzene and Substituted Derivatives; Tertiary Amines; Polyamines
Substituentsazepine; benzene; tertiary amine; polyamine; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the dibenzazepines. These are compounds with two benzene rings connected by an azepine ring.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the relief of symptoms of depression and as temporary adjunctive therapy in reducing enuresis in children aged 6 years and older. May also be used to manage panic disorders, with or without agoraphobia, as a second line agent in ADHD, management of eating disorders, for short-term management of acute depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and for symptomatic treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.
PharmacodynamicsImipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant with general pharmacological properties similar to those of structurally related tricyclic antidepressant drugs such as amitriptyline and doxepin. A tertiary amine, imipramine inhibits the reuptake of serotonin more so than most secondary amine tricyclics, meaning that it blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline almost equally. With chronic use, imipramine also down-regulates cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitizes post-synaptic sertonergic receptors, which also contributes to increased serotonergic transmission. It takes approximately 2 - 4 weeks for antidepressants effects to occur. The onset of action may be longer, up to 8 weeks, in some individuals. It is also effective in migraine prophylaxis, but not in abortion of acute migraine attack.
Mechanism of actionImipramine works by inhibiting the neuronal reuptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin. It binds the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and sodium-dependent norepinephrine transporter preventing or reducing the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin by nerve cells. Depression has been linked to a lack of stimulation of the post-synaptic neuron by norepinephrine and serotonin. Slowing the reuptake of these neurotransmitters increases their concentration in the synaptic cleft, which is thought to contribute to relieving symptoms of depression. In addition to acutely inhibiting neurotransmitter re-uptake, imipramine causes down-regulation of cerebral cortical beta-adrenergic receptors and sensitization of post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. This leads to enhanced serotonergic transmission.
AbsorptionRapidly and well absorbed after oral administration. Bioavailability is approximately 43%. Peak plasma concentrations usually attained 1 - 2 hours following oral administration. Absorption is unaffected by food.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding60-95%
Metabolism

Exclusively metabolized by the liver. Imipramine is converted in the liver by various CYP isoenzymes (e.g. CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2C9) to active metabolites desipramine and 2-hydroxydesipramine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Imipramine
2-hydroxyimipramineDetails
Imipramine
DesipramineDetails
2-hydroxyimipramine
Not Available
2-hydroxy-imipramine glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationApproximately 40% of an orally administered dose is eliminated in urine within 24 hours, 70% in 72 hours. Small amounts are eliminated in feces via the biliary elimination.
Half lifeImipramine - 8-20 hours; Desipramine (active metabolite) - up to 125 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, rat LD50: 355 to 682 mg/kg. Toxic signs proceed progressively from depression, irregular respiration and ataxia to convulsions and death. Antagonism of the histamine H1 and α1 receptors can lead to sedation and hypotension. Antimuscarinic and anticholinergic side effects such as blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation and urine retention may occur. Cardiotoxicity may occur with high doses of imipramine. Cardiovascular side effects in postural hypotension, tachycardia, hypertension, ECG changes and congestive heart failure. Psychotoxic effects include impaired memory and delirium. Induction of hypomanic or manic episodes may occur in patients with a history of bipolar disorder. Withdrawal symptoms include GI disturbances (e.g. nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea), anxiety, insomnia, nervousness, headache and malaise.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated Effects
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene symbol: CYP2D6
UniProt: P10635
rs3892097 CYP2D6*4A AllelePoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effects18070221
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene symbol: CYP2D6
UniProt: P10635
rs3892097 CYP2D6*4C > TThose that are homozygous for the poorly metabolizing CYP2D6 alleles are at an increased risk of side effects and decrease drug metabolism18070221
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene symbol: CYP2D6
UniProt: P10635
rs3892097 CYP2D6*4C > TThose that are homozygous for the poorly metabolizing CYP2D6 alleles are at an increased risk of side effects and decrease drug metabolism9918137
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9822
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9865
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.7684
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8662
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.6205
Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.8541
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7799
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.9532
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.6718
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7583
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9089
CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.9017
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9304
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8399
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9132
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9329
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9819
Rat acute toxicity 3.0187 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9172
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.7771
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
  • Lupin ltd
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Alra laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Tyco healthcare group lp
  • Odyssey pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral75 mg, 100 mg, 125 mg, 150 mg
TabletOral10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tofranil-PM 30 125 mg capsule Bottle588.33USDbottle
Tofranil-PM 30 150 mg capsule Bottle588.33USDbottle
Tofranil-PM 30 75 mg capsule Bottle588.33USDbottle
Tofranil 30 50 mg tablet Bottle185.09USDbottle
Trimipramine maleate powder51.0USDg
Tofranil-pm 100 mg capsule19.23USDcapsule
Tofranil-pm 150 mg capsule18.86USDcapsule
Tofranil-pm 75 mg capsule18.86USDcapsule
Tofranil-pm 125 mg capsule18.68USDcapsule
Imipramine pamoate 75 mg capsule16.35USDcapsule
Imipramine pamoate 100 mg capsule15.17USDcapsule
Imipramine pamoate 125 mg capsule15.17USDcapsule
Imipramine pamoate 150 mg capsule15.17USDcapsule
Tofranil 50 mg tablet6.64USDtablet
Surmontil 100 mg capsule5.92USDcapsule
Tofranil 25 mg tablet4.97USDtablet
Tofranil 10 mg tablet4.73USDtablet
Surmontil 50 mg capsule4.07USDcapsule
Trimipramine Maleate 50 mg capsule3.27USDcapsule
Trimipramine 50 mg capsule3.14USDcapsule
Surmontil 25 mg capsule2.49USDcapsule
Cenestin 0.3 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
Cenestin 0.45 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
Cenestin 0.625 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
Cenestin 0.9 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
Cenestin 1.25 mg tablet2.21USDtablet
Trimipramine 25 mg capsule1.92USDcapsule
Apo-Trimip 100 mg Tablet0.97USDtablet
Imipramine hcl powder0.77USDg
Apo-Trimip 75 mg Capsule0.77USDcapsule
Apo-Imipramine 75 mg Tablet0.58USDtablet
Tofranil 50 mg Tablet0.57USDtablet
Apo-Trimip 50 mg Tablet0.57USDtablet
Imipramine hcl 10 mg tablet0.46USDtablet
Imipramine hcl 50 mg tablet0.44USDtablet
Apo-Imipramine 50 mg Tablet0.4USDtablet
Imipramine hcl 25 mg tablet0.35USDtablet
Apo-Trimip 25 mg Tablet0.29USDtablet
Apo-Imipramine 25 mg Tablet0.25USDtablet
Apo-Trimip 12.5 mg Tablet0.23USDtablet
Apo-Imipramine 10 mg Tablet0.14USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point174-175U.S. Patent 2,554,736.
boiling point160 °C at 1.00E-01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility18.2 mg/L (at 24 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP4.80HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.19ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.85ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.4SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility6.64e-02 g/lALOGPS
logP4.53ALOGPS
logP4.28ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)9.2ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area6.48ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity90.61ChemAxon
polarizability33.39ChemAxon
number of rings3ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patent 2,554,736.

General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC07049
PubChem Compound3696
PubChem Substance46507351
ChemSpider3568
ChEBI5881
ChEMBLCHEMBL11
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001154
PharmGKBPA449969
IUPHAR357
Guide to Pharmacology357
HETIXX
Drug Product Database726397
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/imip.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/imipramine.html
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/tof1448.shtml
WikipediaImipramine
ATC CodesN06AA03N06AA06N06AA02
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.04.28
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(152 KB)
MSDSshow(73.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AltretamineRisk of severe hypotension
ArtemetherAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
AtazanavirAtazanavir may increase the effect and toxicity of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if atazanavir if initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ButabarbitalBarbiturates like butabarbital may increase the metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants like imipramine. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of tricyclic antidepressants if a barbiturate is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if a barbiturate is discontinued/dose decreased. The tricyclic antidepressant dosage will likely need to be increased during concomitant barbiturate therapy, and reduced upon barbiturate discontinuation.
ButalbitalBarbiturates such as butalbital may increase the metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of tricyclic antidepressants if a barbiturate is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if a barbiturate is discontinued/dose decreased. The tricyclic antidepressant dosage will likely need to be increased during concomitant barbiturate therapy, and reduced upon barbiturate discontinuation.
CarbamazepineCarbamazepine may decrease the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if carbamazepine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
CimetidineCimetidine may increase the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if cimetidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
CisaprideIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ClonidineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, decreases the effect of clonidine.
DesvenlafaxineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
Dihydroquinidine barbiturateDihydroquinidine barbiturate increases the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine.
DobutamineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dobutamine.
DonepezilPossible antagonism of action
DopamineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of dopamine.
DuloxetinePossible increase in the levels of this agent when used with duloxetine
EphedraThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of ephedra.
EphedrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of ephedrine.
EpinephrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of epinephrine.
FenoterolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of fenoterol.
FluconazoleFluconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Additive QTc-prolonging effects may also occur. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if fluconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
FluoxetineThe SSRI, fluoxetine, may increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Additive modulation of serotonin activity also increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for development of serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if fluoxetine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
FluvoxamineThe SSRI, fluvoxamine, may increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Additive modulation of serotonin activity also increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for development of serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if fluvoxamine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
GalantaminePossible antagonism of action
GrepafloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
GuanethidineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, may increase the sympathomimetic effect of guanethidine.
IobenguaneMay diminish the therapeutic effect and increase chances of producing a false negative imaging result of Iobenguane as it inhibits noradrenaline transporter function
IsocarboxazidPossibility of severe adverse effects
IsoprenalineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of isoproterenol.
KetoconazoleKetoconazole, a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of imipramine by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
LumefantrineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
MephentermineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of mephentermine.
MesoridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
MetaraminolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of metaraminol.
MethoxamineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of methoxamine.
MoclobemidePossible severe adverse reaction with this combination
NorepinephrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of norepinephrine.
OrciprenalineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of orciprenaline.
PhenelzinePossibility of severe adverse effects
PhenylephrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of phenylephrine.
PhenylpropanolamineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of phenylpropanolamine.
PirbuterolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of pirbuterol.
ProcaterolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of procaterol.
PseudoephedrineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of pseudoephedrine.
QuinidineAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur. Quinidine may also increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
Quinidine barbiturateQuinidine barbiturate increases the effect of tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine.
RasagilinePossibility of severe adverse effects
RifabutinThe rifamycin, rifabutin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
RifampicinThe rifamycin, rifampin, may decrease the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if rifampin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
RitonavirRitonavir may increase the effect and toxicity of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if ritonavir if initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
RivastigminePossible antagonism of action
SalbutamolThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol.
SibutramineIncreased risk of CNS adverse effects
SparfloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
TacrineThe therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Imipramine, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
TacrolimusAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be used with caution.
TamoxifenImipramine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
TamsulosinImipramine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Imipramine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
TerbinafineTerbinafine may increase the effect and toxicity of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if terbinafine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TerbutalineThe tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of terbutaline.
TerfenadineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ThioridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ThiothixeneMay cause additive QTc-prolonging effects. Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Consider alternate therapy. Thorough risk:benefit assessment is required prior to co-administration.
TiclopidineTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Imipramine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Imipramine if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ToremifeneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur, increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Consider alternate therapy. A thorough risk:benefit assessment is required prior to co-administration.
TramadolTramadol increases the risk of serotonin syndrome and seizures. Imipramine may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production.
TranylcypromineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. A significant washout period, dependent on the half-lives of the agents, should be employed between therapies.
TrazodoneIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
TrimethobenzamideTrimethobenzamide and Imipramine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
TrimipramineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome. QTc-prolongation may also occur, increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be used with caution.
TriprolidineTriprolidine and Imipramine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Additive CNS depressant effects may also occur. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
TrospiumTrospium and Imipramine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
VenlafaxineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
VoriconazoleAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
VorinostatAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
ZiprasidoneAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may increase the risk of severe arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
ZolmitriptanUse of two serotonin modulators, such as zolmitriptan and imipramine, increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy.
ZuclopenthixolAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
Zuclopenthixol acetateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
Zuclopenthixol decanoateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (caffeine).
  • Avoid St.John's Wort.
  • Do not take fibers at the same time.
  • Take with food.

Targets

1. Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter P23975 Details

References:

  1. Mitchell HA, Ahern TH, Liles LC, Javors MA, Weinshenker D: The effects of norepinephrine transporter inactivation on locomotor activity in mice. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Nov 15;60(10):1046-52. Epub 2006 Aug 7. Pubmed
  2. Dziedzicka-Wasylewska M, Faron-Gorecka A, Kusmider M, Drozdowska E, Rogoz Z, Siwanowicz J, Caron MG, Bonisch H: Effect of antidepressant drugs in mice lacking the norepinephrine transporter. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Nov;31(11):2424-32. Epub 2006 Mar 22. Pubmed
  3. Anton M, Wagner B, Haubner R, Bodenstein C, Essien BE, Bonisch H, Schwaiger M, Gansbacher B, Weber WA: Use of the norepinephrine transporter as a reporter gene for non-invasive imaging of genetically modified cells. J Gene Med. 2004 Jan;6(1):119-26. Pubmed
  4. Kantor L, Hewlett GH, Park YH, Richardson-Burns SM, Mellon MJ, Gnegy ME: Protein kinase C and intracellular calcium are required for amphetamine-mediated dopamine release via the norepinephrine transporter in undifferentiated PC12 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jun;297(3):1016-24. Pubmed
  5. Tatsumi M, Jansen K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of neuroleptics at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Mar 5;368(2-3):277-83. Pubmed

2. Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter P31645 Details

References:

  1. Leboyer M, Quintin P, Manivet P, Varoquaux O, Allilaire JF, Launay JM: Decreased serotonin transporter binding in unaffected relatives of manic depressive patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Dec 15;46(12):1703-6. Pubmed
  2. Scholze P, Zwach J, Kattinger A, Pifl C, Singer EA, Sitte HH: Transporter-mediated release: a superfusion study on human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the human serotonin transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Jun;293(3):870-8. Pubmed
  3. Quintin P, Benkelfat C, Launay JM, Arnulf I, Pointereau-Bellenger A, Barbault S, Alvarez JC, Varoquaux O, Perez-Diaz F, Jouvent R, Leboyer M: Clinical and neurochemical effect of acute tryptophan depletion in unaffected relatives of patients with bipolar affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2001 Aug 1;50(3):184-90. Pubmed
  4. Goulet M, Miller GM, Bendor J, Liu S, Meltzer PC, Madras BK: Non-amines, drugs without an amine nitrogen, potently block serotonin transport: novel antidepressant candidates? Synapse. 2001 Dec 1;42(3):129-40. Pubmed
  5. Barkan T, Gurwitz D, Levy G, Weizman A, Rehavi M: Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of the serotonin transporter in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004 May;14(3):237-43. Pubmed
  6. Schloss P, Betz H: Heterogeneity of antidepressant binding sites on the recombinant rat serotonin transporter SERT1. Biochemistry. 1995 Oct 3;34(39):12590-5. Pubmed
  7. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. Pubmed

3. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A P28223 Details

References:

  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed
  2. Zanoveli JM, Nogueira RL, Zangrossi H Jr: Chronic imipramine treatment sensitizes 5-HT1A and 5-HT 2 A receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter: evidence from the elevated T-maze test of anxiety. Behav Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;16(7):543-52. Pubmed

4. Histamine H1 receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Histamine H1 receptor P35367 Details

References:

  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

5. Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor P35348 Details

References:

  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed
  2. Nojimoto FD, Mueller A, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Pupo AS: The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are weak antagonists of human and rat alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010 Jul-Aug;59(1-2):49-57. Epub 2010 Apr 2. Pubmed

6. Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor P25100 Details

References:

  1. Nojimoto FD, Mueller A, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Pupo AS: The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are weak antagonists of human and rat alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010 Jul-Aug;59(1-2):49-57. Epub 2010 Apr 2. Pubmed

7. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 P11229 Details

References:

  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

8. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 P08172 Details

References:

  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

9. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 P20309 Details

References:

  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

10. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4 P08173 Details

References:

  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

11. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5 P08912 Details

References:

  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. Pubmed

12. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2 Q9NZV8 Details

References:

  1. Casis O, Sanchez-Chapula JA: Disopyramide, imipramine, and amitriptyline bind to a common site on the transient outward K+ channel. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;32(4):521-6. Pubmed

13. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3 Q9UK17 Details

References:

  1. Casis O, Sanchez-Chapula JA: Disopyramide, imipramine, and amitriptyline bind to a common site on the transient outward K+ channel. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;32(4):521-6. Pubmed

14. Transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Aquifex aeolicus (strain VF5)

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Transporter O67854 Details

References:

  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

15. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C P28335 Details

References:

  1. Palvimaki EP, Roth BL, Majasuo H, Laakso A, Kuoppamaki M, Syvalahti E, Hietala J: Interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with the serotonin 5-HT2c receptor. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1996 Aug;126(3):234-40. Pubmed
  2. Roth BL: Multiple serotonin receptors: clinical and experimental aspects. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1994 Jun;6(2):67-78. Pubmed

16. Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor P35368 Details

References:

  1. Nojimoto FD, Mueller A, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Pupo AS: The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are weak antagonists of human and rat alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010 Jul-Aug;59(1-2):49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Apr 2. Pubmed

17. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 P34969 Details

References:

  1. Lucchelli A, Santagostino-Barbone MG, D’Agostino G, Masoero E, Tonini M: The interaction of antidepressant drugs with enteric 5-HT7 receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 Sep;362(3):284-9. Pubmed
  2. Roth BL: Multiple serotonin receptors: clinical and experimental aspects. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1994 Jun;6(2):67-78. Pubmed

18. D(1) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(1A) dopamine receptor P21728 Details
D(1B) dopamine receptor P21918 Details

References:

  1. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O’Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. Pubmed

19. D(2) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(2) dopamine receptor P14416 Details

References:

  1. Peddi S, Roth BL, Glennon RA, Westkaemper RB: Structural determinants for high 5-HT receptor affinity of spiro[9,10-dihydroanthracene]-9,3(’)-pyrrolidine (SpAMDA). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 May 3;14(9):2279-83. Pubmed

20. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2 Q12809 Details

References:

  1. Teschemacher AG, Seward EP, Hancox JC, Witchel HJ: Inhibition of the current of heterologously expressed HERG potassium channels by imipramine and amitriptyline. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Sep;128(2):479-85. Pubmed

21. Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter Q01959 Details

References:

  1. Melikian HE, Buckley KM: Membrane trafficking regulates the activity of the human dopamine transporter. J Neurosci. 1999 Sep 15;19(18):7699-710. Pubmed

22. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: activator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A P08908 Details

References:

  1. Haddjeri N, Blier P, de Montigny C: Long-term antidepressant treatments result in a tonic activation of forebrain 5-HT1A receptors. J Neurosci. 1998 Dec 1;18(23):10150-6. Pubmed

23. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6 P50406 Details

References:

  1. Grimaldi B, Bonnin A, Fillion MP, Ruat M, Traiffort E, Fillion G: Characterization of 5-ht6 receptor and expression of 5-ht6 mRNA in the rat brain during ontogenetic development. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;357(4):393-400. Pubmed
  2. Roth BL: Multiple serotonin receptors: clinical and experimental aspects. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1994 Jun;6(2):67-78. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Koyama E, Chiba K, Tani M, Ishizaki T: Reappraisal of human CYP isoforms involved in imipramine N-demethylation and 2-hydroxylation: a study using microsomes obtained from putative extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin and eleven recombinant human CYPs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun;281(3):1199-210. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Shin JG, Park JY, Kim MJ, Shon JH, Yoon YR, Cha IJ, Lee SS, Oh SW, Kim SW, Flockhart DA: Inhibitory effects of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) on human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro: mechanism of drug interaction between TCAs and phenytoin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Oct;30(10):1102-7. Pubmed
  2. Morinobu S, Tanaka T, Kawakatsu S, Totsuka S, Koyama E, Chiba K, Ishizaki T, Kubota T: Effects of genetic defects in the CYP2C19 gene on the N-demethylation of imipramine, and clinical outcome of imipramine therapy. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1997 Aug;51(4):253-7. Pubmed
  3. Madsen H, Rasmussen BB, Brosen K: Imipramine demethylation in vivo: impact of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Mar;61(3):319-24. Pubmed
  4. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  6. Koyama E, Chiba K, Tani M, Ishizaki T: Reappraisal of human CYP isoforms involved in imipramine N-demethylation and 2-hydroxylation: a study using microsomes obtained from putative extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin and eleven recombinant human CYPs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun;281(3):1199-210. Pubmed
  7. Obach RS, Reed-Hagen AE: Measurement of Michaelis constants for cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation reactions using a substrate depletion approach. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Jul;30(7):831-7. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Brosen K: Drug interactions and the cytochrome P450 system. The role of cytochrome P450 1A2. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995;29 Suppl 1:20-5. Pubmed
  2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  4. Koyama E, Chiba K, Tani M, Ishizaki T: Reappraisal of human CYP isoforms involved in imipramine N-demethylation and 2-hydroxylation: a study using microsomes obtained from putative extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin and eleven recombinant human CYPs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun;281(3):1199-210. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Koyama E, Chiba K, Tani M, Ishizaki T: Reappraisal of human CYP isoforms involved in imipramine N-demethylation and 2-hydroxylation: a study using microsomes obtained from putative extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin and eleven recombinant human CYPs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun;281(3):1199-210. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 2C18

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C18 P33260 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 P02763 Details

References:

  1. Ferry DG, Caplan NB, Cubeddu LX: Interaction between antidepressants and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonists on the binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. J Pharm Sci. 1986 Feb;75(2):146-9. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. Pubmed
  2. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. Pubmed
  3. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 1 O15245 Details

References:

  1. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

References:

  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. Pubmed
  2. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed

4. Solute carrier family 22 member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 3 O75751 Details

References:

  1. Wu X, Huang W, Ganapathy ME, Wang H, Kekuda R, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structure, function, and regional distribution of the organic cation transporter OCT3 in the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000 Sep;279(3):F449-58. Pubmed

5. Solute carrier family 22 member 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 4 Q9H015 Details

References:

  1. Wu X, George RL, Huang W, Wang H, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structural and functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of rat OCTN1, an organic cation transporter, cloned from placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 1;1466(1-2):315-27. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 30, 2014 11:21