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Identification
NameRaloxifene
Accession NumberDB00481  (APRD00400)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-6-hydroxybenzo(b)thien-3-yl)(4-(2-(1-piperidinyl)ethoxy)phenyl)methanone
Keoxifene
LY 139481
RAL
Raloxifene
Raloxifeno
Raloxifenum
External Identifiers
  • LY-139481
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Raloxifenetablet60 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2012-06-19Not applicableCanada
Evistatablet60 mg/1oralEli Lilly and Company1998-01-06Not applicableUs
Evistatablet60 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1998-01-06Not applicableUs
Evistatablet60 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2000-05-11Not applicableUs
Evistatablet60 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-07Not applicableUs
Evista (60mg)tablet60 mgoralEli Lilly Canada Inc1998-11-20Not applicableCanada
PMS-raloxifenetablet60 mgoralPharmascience Inc2011-09-19Not applicableCanada
Raloxifenetablet60 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2013-11-28Not applicableCanada
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet60 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-03-01Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet60 mg/1oralPrasco Laboratories2014-03-01Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet60 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2014-05-29Not applicableUs
Teva-raloxifenetablet60 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2009-07-28Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-raloxifenetablet60 mgoralApotex Inc2009-03-31Not applicableCanada
Raloxifenetablet, film coated60 mg/1oralActavis Pharma, Inc.2015-06-18Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet, film coated60 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2016-03-22Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet, film coated60 mg/1oralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-11-12Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet60 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-11-13Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet, film coated60 mg/1oralPrasco Laboratories2015-08-28Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet, film coated60 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2015-08-28Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet, film coated60 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2014-11-03Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet, film coated60 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2014-03-28Not applicableUs
Raloxifene Hydrochloridetablet60 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals Inc2014-09-24Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
KeoxifeneNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Raloxifene Hydrochloride
82640-04-8
Thumb
  • InChI Key: BKXVVCILCIUCLG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 509.142756786
  • Average Mass: 510.044
DBSALT000272
Categories
UNIIYX9162EO3I
CAS number84449-90-1
WeightAverage: 473.583
Monoisotopic: 473.166079047
Chemical FormulaC28H27NO4S
InChI KeyInChIKey=GZUITABIAKMVPG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C28H27NO4S/c30-21-8-4-20(5-9-21)28-26(24-13-10-22(31)18-25(24)34-28)27(32)19-6-11-23(12-7-19)33-17-16-29-14-2-1-3-15-29/h4-13,18,30-31H,1-3,14-17H2
IUPAC Name
2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-{4-[2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethoxy]benzoyl}-1-benzothiophen-6-ol
SMILES
OC1=CC=C(C=C1)C1=C(C(=O)C2=CC=C(OCCN3CCCCC3)C=C2)C2=C(S1)C=C(O)C=C2
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 3-aroylthiophenes. These are thiophenes which are substituted by an aroyl group at the 3-position.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassThiophenes
Sub Class3-aroylthiophenes
Direct Parent3-aroylthiophenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-aroylthiophene
  • Benzothiophene
  • Acetophenone
  • Aryl ketone
  • Thiophene carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Phenol ether
  • Benzoyl
  • Phenol
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Piperidine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Ketone
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, as well as prevention and treatment of corticosteroid-induced bone loss. Also for the reduction in the incidence of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or have a high risk for developing breast cancer.
PharmacodynamicsRaloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the benzothiophene class, is similar to tamoxifen in that it produces estrogen-like effects on bone and lipid metabolism, while antagonizing the effects of estrogen on breast and uterine tissue. Raloxifene differs chemically and pharmacologically from naturally occuring estrogens, synthetic steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with estrogenic activity, and antiestrogens. Estrogens play an important role in the reproductive, skeletal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems in women, and act principally by regulating gene expression. When estrogen binds to a ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor, biologic response is initiated as a result of a conformational change of the estrogen receptor, which leads to gene transcription through specific estrogen response elements of target gene promoters. The subsequent activation or repression of the target gene is mediated through 2 distinct transactivation domains of the receptor: AF-1 and AF-2. The estrogen receptor also mediates gene transcription using different response elements and other signalling pathways. The role of estrogen as a regulator of bone mass is well established. In postmenopausal women, the progressive loss of bone mass is related to decreased ovarian function and a reduction in the level of circulation estrogens. Estrogen also has favourable effects on blood cholesterol.
Mechanism of actionRaloxifene binds to estrogen receptors, resulting in differential expression of multiple estrogen-regulated genes in different tissues. Raloxifene produces estrogen-like effects on bone, reducing resorption of bone and increasing bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, thus slowing the rate of bone loss. The maintenance of bone mass by raloxifene and estrogens is, in part, through the regulation of the gene-encoding transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3), which is a bone matrix protein with antiosteoclastic properties. Raloxifene activates TGF-β3 through pathways that are estrogen receptor-mediated but involve DNA sequences distinct from the estrogen response element. The drug also binds to the estrogen receptor and acts as an estrogen agonist in preosteoclastic cells, which results in the inhibtion of their proliferative capacity. This inhibition is thought to contribute to the drug's effect on bone resorption. Other mechanisms include the suppression of activity of the bone-resorbing cytokine interleukin-6 promoter activity. Raloxifene also antagonizes the effects of estrogen on mammary tissue and blocks uterotrophic responses to estrogen. By competing with estrogens for the estrogen receptors in reproductive tissue, raloxifene prevents the transcriptional activation of genes containing the estrogen response element. As well, raloxifene inhibits the estradiol-dependent proliferation of MCF-7 human mammary tumor cells in vitro. The mechansim of action of raloxifene has not been fully determined, but evidence suggests that the drug's tissue-specific estrogen agonist or antagonist activity is related to the structural differences between the raloxifene-estrogen receptor complex (specifically the surface topography of AF-2) and the estrogen-estrogen receptor complex. Also, the existence of at least 2 estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) may contribute to the tissue specificity of raloxifene.
Related Articles
AbsorptionApproximately 60% of an oral dose is absorbed, but presystemic glucuronide conjugation is extensive. Absolute bioavailability of raloxifene is 2.0%
Volume of distribution
  • 2348 L/kg [oral administration of single doses ranging from 30 to 150 mg]
Protein binding95%
Metabolism

Hepatic, raloxifene undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism to the glucuronide conjugates: raloxifene-4'-glucuronide, raloxifene-6-glucuronide, and raloxifene-6, 4'-diglucuronide. No other metabolites have been detected, providing strong evidence that raloxifene is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 pathways

Route of eliminationRaloxifene is primarily excreted in feces, and less than 0.2% is excreted unchanged in urine.
Half life27.7
Clearance
  • 44.1 L/kg•hr [Healthy Postmenopausal Woman with Single Dose]
  • 47.4 L/kg•hr [Healthy Postmenopausal Woman with Multiple Dose]
  • Oral cl=44.1 L/kg•hr
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9865
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8661
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7751
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6231
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9366
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.634
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5198
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8986
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.7617
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8222
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8487
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9433
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9587
Rat acute toxicity2.5287 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6322
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5779
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral60 mg/1
Tabletoral60 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral60 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Evista 60 mg tablet4.37USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2101356 No1998-11-172013-07-27Canada
CA2158400 No2006-10-242015-09-15Canada
US5393763 No1995-07-282012-07-28Us
US6458811 No1997-03-102017-03-10Us
US6797719 No1997-03-102017-03-10Us
US6894064 No1997-03-102017-03-10Us
US8030330 No1997-03-102017-03-10Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point143-147 °CNot Available
water solubility0.25mg/LNot Available
logP5.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000512 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.45ALOGPS
logP5.69ChemAxon
logS-6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area70 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity135.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability52.55 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Massimo Ferrari, Fabrizio Zinetti, Paolo Belotti, “Process for preparing raloxifene hydrochloride.” U.S. Patent US20070100147, issued May 03, 2007.

US20070100147
General References
  1. Authors unspecified: A STARring role for raloxifene? Lancet Oncol. 2006 Jun;7(6):443. [PubMed:16750489 ]
  2. Heringa M: Review on raloxifene: profile of a selective estrogen receptor modulator. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Aug;41(8):331-45. [PubMed:12940590 ]
  3. Barrett-Connor E: Raloxifene: risks and benefits. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Dec;949:295-303. [PubMed:11795366 ]
  4. Khovidhunkit W, Shoback DM: Clinical effects of raloxifene hydrochloride in women. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Mar 2;130(5):431-9. [PubMed:10068418 ]
  5. Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, Grady D, Powles TJ, Cauley JA, Norton L, Nickelsen T, Bjarnason NH, Morrow M, Lippman ME, Black D, Glusman JE, Costa A, Jordan VC: The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the MORE randomized trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation. JAMA. 1999 Jun 16;281(23):2189-97. [PubMed:10376571 ]
  6. Bryant HU, Glasebrook AL, Yang NN, Sato M: An estrogen receptor basis for raloxifene action in bone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1999 Apr-Jun;69(1-6):37-44. [PubMed:10418979 ]
  7. Balfour JA, Goa KL: Raloxifene. Drugs Aging. 1998 Apr;12(4):335-41; discussion 342. [PubMed:9571395 ]
  8. Clemett D, Spencer CM: Raloxifene: a review of its use in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Drugs. 2000 Aug;60(2):379-411. [PubMed:10983739 ]
  9. Silverman SL: New selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) in development. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2010 Sep;8(3):151-3. doi: 10.1007/s11914-010-0025-0. [PubMed:20603714 ]
  10. Diez-Perez A: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS). Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2006 Aug;50(4):720-34. [PubMed:17117297 ]
External Links
ATC CodesG03XC01
AHFS Codes
  • 68:16.12
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (2.11 MB)
MSDSDownload (57 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Raloxifene resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Raloxifene resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Raloxifene resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
LevothyroxineRaloxifene can cause a decrease in the absorption of Levothyroxine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
OspemifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Raloxifene is combined with Ospemifene.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription fact...
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Khovidhunkit W, Shoback DM: Clinical effects of raloxifene hydrochloride in women. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Mar 2;130(5):431-9. [PubMed:10068418 ]
  2. Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, Grady D, Powles TJ, Cauley JA, Norton L, Nickelsen T, Bjarnason NH, Morrow M, Lippman ME, Black D, Glusman JE, Costa A, Jordan VC: The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the MORE randomized trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation. JAMA. 1999 Jun 16;281(23):2189-97. [PubMed:10376571 ]
  3. Bryant HU, Glasebrook AL, Yang NN, Sato M: An estrogen receptor basis for raloxifene action in bone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1999 Apr-Jun;69(1-6):37-44. [PubMed:10418979 ]
  4. Figtree GA, Lu Y, Webb CM, Collins P: Raloxifene acutely relaxes rabbit coronary arteries in vitro by an estrogen receptor-dependent and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Circulation. 1999 Sep 7;100(10):1095-101. [PubMed:10477535 ]
  5. Schafer JI, Liu H, Tonetti DA, Jordan VC: The interaction of raloxifene and the active metabolite of the antiestrogen EM-800 (SC 5705) with the human estrogen receptor. Cancer Res. 1999 Sep 1;59(17):4308-13. [PubMed:10485477 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  7. Scott JA, Da Camara CC, Early JE: Raloxifene: a selective estrogen receptor modulator. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Sep 15;60(4):1131-9. [PubMed:10507743 ]
  8. Matsumoto T: [Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)]. Clin Calcium. 2006 Sep;16(9):1520-25. [PubMed:16951478 ]
  9. Moen MD, Keating GM: Raloxifene: a review of its use in the prevention of invasive breast cancer. Drugs. 2008;68(14):2059-83. [PubMed:18778124 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by...
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Bryant HU, Glasebrook AL, Yang NN, Sato M: An estrogen receptor basis for raloxifene action in bone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1999 Apr-Jun;69(1-6):37-44. [PubMed:10418979 ]
  2. Iannone MA, Consler TG, Pearce KH, Stimmel JB, Parks DJ, Gray JG: Multiplexed molecular interactions of nuclear receptors using fluorescent microspheres. Cytometry. 2001 Aug 1;44(4):326-37. [PubMed:11500849 ]
  3. Zhou W, Koldzic-Zivanovic N, Clarke CH, de Beun R, Wassermann K, Bury PS, Cunningham KA, Thomas ML: Selective estrogen receptor modulator effects in the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology. 2002 Jan;75(1):24-33. [PubMed:11810032 ]
  4. Sun J, Huang YR, Harrington WR, Sheng S, Katzenellenbogen JA, Katzenellenbogen BS: Antagonists selective for estrogen receptor alpha. Endocrinology. 2002 Mar;143(3):941-7. [PubMed:11861516 ]
  5. Kim IY, Seong DH, Kim BC, Lee DK, Remaley AT, Leach F, Morton RA, Kim SJ: Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, induces apoptosis in androgen-responsive human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP through an androgen-independent pathway. Cancer Res. 2002 Jul 1;62(13):3649-53. [PubMed:12097269 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. [PubMed:17101742 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal, and vanillin. Plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs containing aromatic azaheterocyclic substituents. Participates in the bioactivation of prodrugs such as famciclovir, catalyz...
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular Weight:
147916.735 Da
References
  1. Obach RS: Potent inhibition of human liver aldehyde oxidase by raloxifene. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Jan;32(1):89-97. [PubMed:14709625 ]
  2. Obach RS, Huynh P, Allen MC, Beedham C: Human liver aldehyde oxidase: inhibition by 239 drugs. J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Jan;44(1):7-19. [PubMed:14681337 ]
  3. Sahi J, Khan KK, Black CB: Aldehyde oxidase activity and inhibition in hepatocytes and cytosolic fractions from mouse, rat, monkey and human. Drug Metab Lett. 2008 Aug;2(3):176-83. [PubMed:19356090 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 29, 2016 01:50