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Identification
NameAtropine
Accession NumberDB00572  (APRD00807, EXPT02427)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
Description

An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly solanaceae. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+-)-Atropine
(+-)-Hyoscyamine
(+,-)-Tropyl tropate
(±)-atropine
(±)-hyoscyamine
(3-Endo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl tropate
[(1S,5R)-8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl] 3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-propanoate
8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl tropate
Atropin
Atropina
Atropine
Atropinum
dl-Hyoscyamine
dl-tropyltropate
Mydriasine
Tropine tropate
External Identifiers
  • NSC 61810
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Atropinesolution/ drops10 mg/mLophthalmicAkorn, Inc.2014-07-18Not applicableUs
Atropinesolution/ drops10 mg/mLophthalmicMwi2015-03-23Not applicableUs
Atropine 1%drops1 %ophthalmicNovartis Ophthalmics Novartis Pharmaceuticals (Canada) Inc1987-12-312003-12-10Canada
Atropine Injection BPsolution0.6 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc2016-01-28Not applicableCanada
Atropine Injection BPsolution0.4 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-12-04Not applicableCanada
Atropine Injection Bp 0.4mg/mlsolution0.4 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Atropine Injection Bp 0.6mg/mlsolution0.6 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Atropine Ont 1%ointment1 %ophthalmicAlcon Canada Inc1972-12-312009-04-24Canada
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.1 mg/mLendotracheal; intramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira, Inc.2001-07-09Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.05 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc.2010-03-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.1 mg/mLintramuscularREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-10-31Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.05 mg/mLendotracheal; intramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira, Inc.2001-07-09Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.1 mg/mLendotracheal; intramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira, Inc.2001-07-09Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfate Inj 0.1mg/mlliquid.1 mgintravenousInternational Medication Systems Ltd.1971-12-311997-08-15Canada
Atropine Sulfate Inj 0.3mg/mlsolution0.3 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira Healthcare Corporation1981-12-312012-08-03Canada
Atropine Sulfate Inj 0.4mg/0.5mlsolution0.8 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousInternational Medication Systems Ltd.1972-12-311997-08-15Canada
Atropine Sulfate Inj 0.4mg/mlsolution0.4 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAstra Pharma Inc.1986-12-312001-07-23Canada
Atropine Sulfate Inj 0.4mg/mlsolution0.4 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira Healthcare Corporation1981-12-312012-08-03Canada
Atropine Sulfate Inj 0.6mg/mlsolution0.6 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAstra Pharma Inc.1987-12-312001-07-23Canada
Atropine Sulfate Inj 0.6mg/mlsolution0.6 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira Healthcare Corporation1981-12-312012-08-03Canada
Atropine Sulfate Inj 1mg/mlsolution1 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira Healthcare Corporation1981-12-312012-08-03Canada
Atropine Sulfate Injectionsolution3 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousBiosyent Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Atropine Sulfate Injectionsolution1 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousBiosyent Pharma Inc2015-01-20Not applicableCanada
Atropine Sulfate Injectionsolution0.5 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousBiosyent Pharma Inc2015-01-20Not applicableCanada
Atropine Sulfate Injection USPsolution0.4 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Atropine Sulfate Injection USPsolution.6 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Atropine Sulfate Injection USPsolution0.1 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira Healthcare Corporation1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
Atropine Sulphate 1% - Liq Ophliquid1 %ophthalmicRivex Ophthalmics Inc.1997-05-172000-08-03Canada
Atropisoldrops10 mgophthalmicNovartis Ophthalmics Novartis Pharmaceuticals (Canada) Inc1996-12-312001-09-20Canada
Atropisol Oph Soln 1%drops1 %ophthalmicIolab Pharmaceuticals1988-12-311996-09-09Canada
Dioptic's Atropine Solution 1%solution1 %ophthalmicDioptic Pharmaceuticals Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Isopto Atropine 1%liquid1 %ophthalmicAlcon Canada Inc1964-12-31Not applicableCanada
Minims Atropine Sulphate 1%drops1 %ophthalmicValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
R.O.-atropineliquid1 %ophthalmicRichmond Pharmaceuticals Inc.1992-12-311997-08-11Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2013-09-19Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira, Inc.2005-08-25Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health2011-07-07Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection.1 mg/mLparenteralAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1990-01-02Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection.4 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-05-08Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.4 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health2011-07-07Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAmerican Regent, Inc.1992-12-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.4 mg/.5mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAmerican Regent, Inc.1992-11-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfatesolution10 mg/mLophthalmicA S Medication Solutions Llc1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfatesolution10 mg/mLophthalmicREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-08-20Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection.1 mg/mLparenteralInternational Medication Systems, Limited2000-06-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.4 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAmerican Regent, Inc.1992-11-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc.2010-03-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateointment10 mg/gophthalmicBausch & Lomb Incorporated1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution1 mg/mLintravenousREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-03-072016-03-29Us
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAmerican Regent, Inc.1992-11-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.4 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-04-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfatesolution1 mg/mLophthalmicFalcon Laboratory Ltd2000-06-302016-03-11Us
Atropine Sulfatesolution10 mg/mLophthalmicBausch & Lomb Incorporated1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.4 mg/.5mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.4 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-04-01Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira, Inc.2005-10-25Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection, solution.1 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health2005-10-25Not applicableUs
Atropine Sulfateinjection.4 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousWest Ward Pharmaceutical Corp.1971-01-01Not applicableUs
International Brands
NameCompany
AnespinOriental Chemical Works
AntolYing Yuan
AtroPenMeridian
AtroptSigma
AtrospanFischer
BellapanFarmapol
DysurgalMaxMedic
KintropineSynpac-Kingdom
TromineThe Central
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
B-donnaWinder Laboratories, LLC
Belladonna Alkaloids With PhenobartbitalLiberty Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Diban CapAyerst Laboratories
Diphenoxylate HCl and Atropine SulfateStat Rx USA
Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride and Atropine SulfateRoxane Laboratories, Inc
Direct RxDIRECT RX
Donnagel LiqAyerst Laboratories
DonnatalKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS
Donnatal ElixirAyerst Laboratories
Donnatal ExtentabsPBM Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Donnatal Extentabs SrtWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.
Donnatal TabWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.
DuodoteMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.
Enlon PlusMylan Institutional LLC
LomotilG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc
Me-PB-hyosMethod Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Odan-atropineOdan Laboratories Ltd
PhenohytroWinder Laboratories, LLC
QuadrapaxRebel Distributors Corp
Re-PB Hyos ElixirKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS
Se-donna Pb HyosSeton Pharmaceuticals
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Atropine Sulfate
55-48-1
Thumb
  • InChI Key: HOBWAPHTEJGALG-UHFFFAOYNA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 676.302966456
  • Average Mass: 676.817
DBSALT000281
Categories
UNII7C0697DR9I
CAS number51-55-8
WeightAverage: 289.3694
Monoisotopic: 289.167793607
Chemical FormulaC17H23NO3
InChI KeyInChIKey=RKUNBYITZUJHSG-SPUOUPEWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H23NO3/c1-18-13-7-8-14(18)10-15(9-13)21-17(20)16(11-19)12-5-3-2-4-6-12/h2-6,13-16,19H,7-11H2,1H3/t13-,14+,15+,16?
IUPAC Name
(1R,3R,5S)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
SMILES
CN1[[email protected]]2CC[C@@H]1C[C@@H](C2)OC(=O)C(CO)C1=CC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylacetic acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a phenylacetic acid moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the second position by an acetic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylacetic acid derivatives
Direct ParentPhenylacetic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylacetate
  • Tropane alkaloid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Piperidine
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of poisoning by susceptible organophosphorous nerve agents having anti-cholinesterase activity (cholinesterase inhibitors) as well as organophosphorous or carbamate insecticides.
PharmacodynamicsAtropine, a naturally occurring belladonna alkaloid, is a racemic mixture of equal parts of d- and l-hyoscyamine, whose activity is due almost entirely to the levo isomer of the drug. Atropine is commonly classified as an anticholinergic or antiparasympathetic (parasympatholytic) drug. More precisely, however, it is termed an antimuscarinic agent since it antagonizes the muscarine-like actions of acetylcholine and other choline esters. Adequate doses of atropine abolish various types of reflex vagal cardiac slowing or asystole. The drug also prevents or abolishes bradycardia or asystole produced by injection of choline esters, anticholinesterase agents or other parasympathomimetic drugs, and cardiac arrest produced by stimulation of the vagus. Atropine may also lessen the degree of partial heart block when vagal activity is an etiologic factor. Atropine in clinical doses counteracts the peripheral dilatation and abrupt decrease in blood pressure produced by choline esters. However, when given by itself, atropine does not exert a striking or uniform effect on blood vessels or blood pressure.
Mechanism of actionAtropine binds to and inhibit muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, producing a wide range of anticholinergic effects.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAtropine is rapidly and well absorbed after intramuscular administration. Atropine disappears rapidly from the blood and is distributed throughout the various body tissues and fluids.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingThe protein binding of atropine is 14 to 22% in plasma.
Metabolism

Much of the drug is destroyed by enzymatic hydrolysis, particularly in the liver. From 13 to 50% is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Route of eliminationMuch of the drug is destroyed by enzymatic hydrolysis, particularly in the liver; from 13 to 50% is excreted unchanged in the urine.
Half life3.0 ± 0.9 hours in adults. The half-life of atropine is slightly shorter (approximately 20 minutes) in females than males.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 75 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose includes widespread paralysis of parasympathetically innervated organs. Dry mucous membranes, widely dilated and nonresponsive pupils, tachycardia, fever and cutaneous flush are especially prominent, as are mental and neurological symptoms. In instances of severe intoxication, respiratory depression, coma, circulatory collapse and death may occur.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9286
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9569
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6542
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8595
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7956
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7041
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6838
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5496
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9275
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9285
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.95
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9113
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7742
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9631
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5527
Rat acute toxicity2.7305 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8354
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5378
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Meridian medical technologies inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • United states army office surgeon general
  • Hospira inc
  • Mission pharmacal co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solution/ dropsophthalmic10 mg/mL
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous0.4 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous0.6 mg
Ointmentophthalmic1 %
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous.4 mg/mL
Injectionparenteral.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionendotracheal; intramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous.05 mg/mL
Injection, solutionendotracheal; intramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous.05 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous.4 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous.4 mg/.5mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous1 mg/mL
Ointmentophthalmic10 mg/g
Solutionophthalmic1 mg/mL
Solutionophthalmic10 mg/mL
Liquidintravenous.1 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous0.3 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous0.8 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous0.5 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous1 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous3 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous.6 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous0.1 mg
Dropsophthalmic10 mg
Capsuleoral
Solutionophthalmic1 %
Solutionoral
Liquidoral
Tablet (extended-release)oral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral
Kitintramuscular
Injection, solutionintravenous
Liquidophthalmic1 %
Tabletoral
Dropsophthalmic1 %
Dropsophthalmic
Elixiroral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Atropine Sulfate 1% Solution 15ml Bottle101.27USD bottle
Isopto Atropine 1% Solution 15ml Bottle34.65USD bottle
Atropine powder34.48USD g
Isopto Atropine 1% Solution 5ml Bottle26.59USD bottle
Atropine Sulfate 1% Solution 5ml Bottle16.82USD bottle
Atropine Sulfate 1% Ointment 3.5 gm Tube15.92USD tube
Atropine-Care 1% Solution 2ml Bottle7.99USD bottle
Isopto atropine 1% eye drops5.06USD ml
Atropine-ns 1 mg/2.5 ml syr4.8USD ml
Atropine-ns 0.8 mg/2 ml syr3.9USD ml
Atropine 1% eye drops2.88USD ml
Atropine sulfate powder2.06USD g
Atropine care 1% eye drops2.03USD ml
Atropine-ns 2 mg/5 ml syringe1.92USD ml
Atropine Sulfate 0.4 mg/ml1.6USD ml
Atropine Sulfate 0.6 mg/ml1.6USD ml
Atropine 1 mg/ml vial1.44USD ml
Atropine Sulfate 0.4 mg/ml Solution1.22USD ml
Atropine 0.4 mg/0.5 ml ampul1.2USD ampul
Atropine 1 mg/ml ampul1.2USD ml
Atropine 0.4 mg/ml vial0.96USD ml
Isopto Atropine 1 % Solution0.68USD ml
Sal-tropine 0.4 mg tablet0.36USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point118.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility2200 mg/L (at 25 °C)DEHN,WM (1917)
logP1.83HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.12ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.43SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.52 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.19ALOGPS
logP1.57ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.39ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.77 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity80.82 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.28 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.92 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Pei-Chang Wu, Hsi-Kung Kuo, Po-Chiung Fang, Jong-Jer Lee, Chih-Hsin Chen, “Low-concentration atropine solution for preventing myopia progression and preparing method thereof.” U.S. Patent US20070254914, issued November 01, 2007.

US20070254914
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesS01FA01A03CB03A03BA01
AHFS Codes
  • 12:08.08
  • 52:24.00
  • 92:02.00*
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (164 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AclidiniumAclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.
AzelastineAtropine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Atropine.
Botulinum Toxin Type AAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.
Botulinum Toxin Type BAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type B.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Atropine.
CimetropiumAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cimetropium Bromide.
DronabinolAtropine may increase the tachycardic activities of Dronabinol.
EluxadolineAtropine may increase the activities of Eluxadoline.
EthanolAtropine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
Glucagon recombinantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Glucagon recombinant.
Ipratropium bromideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.
ItoprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Itopride can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Atropine.
MianserinMianserin may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.
MirabegronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mirabegron.
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Morphine.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Paroxetine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.
Potassium ChlorideAtropine may increase the ulcerogenic activities of Potassium Chloride.
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Atropine.
RamosetronAtropine may increase the activities of Ramosetron.
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.
SecretinThe therapeutic efficacy of Secretin can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.
SulpirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulpiride can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.
TacrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
Tedizolid PhosphateTedizolid Phosphate may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.
TiotropiumAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tiotropium.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Topiramate.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.
TrichlormethiazideThe serum concentration of Trichlormethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.
UmeclidiniumUmeclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then trigge...
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Roman S, Badia A, Camps P, Munoz-Torrero D, Clos MV: Nicotinic-receptor potentiator drugs, huprine X and galantamine, increase ACh release by blocking AChE activity but not acting on nicotinic receptors. Brain Res. 2005 Nov 9;1061(2):73-9. Epub 2005 Oct 24. [PubMed:16248990 ]
  2. Minaba M, Ichiyama S, Kojima K, Ozaki M, Kato Y: Activation of nematode G protein GOA-1 by the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype. Functional coupling of G-protein-coupled receptor and G protein originated from evolutionarily distant animals. FEBS J. 2006 Dec;273(24):5508-16. Epub 2006 Nov 3. [PubMed:17087737 ]
  3. May LT, Lin Y, Sexton PM, Christopoulos A: Regulation of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression and signaling by prolonged exposure to allosteric modulators. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jan;312(1):382-90. Epub 2004 Aug 27. [PubMed:15333678 ]
  4. Cembala TM, Forde SC, Appadu BL, Lambert DG: Allosteric interaction of the neuromuscular blockers vecuronium and pancuronium with recombinant human muscarinic M2 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 13;569(1-2):37-40. Epub 2007 May 22. [PubMed:17588565 ]
  5. Nelson CP, Nahorski SR, Challiss RA: Constitutive activity and inverse agonism at the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jan;316(1):279-88. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [PubMed:16188951 ]
  6. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular Weight:
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM5
Uniprot ID:
P08912
Molecular Weight:
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23