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Identification
NameNilutamide
Accession NumberDB00665  (APRD00150)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Nilutamide is an antineoplastic hormonal agent primarily used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nilutamide is a pure, nonsteroidal anti-androgen with affinity for androgen receptors (but not for progestogen, estrogen, or glucocorticoid receptors). Consequently, Nilutamide blocks the action of androgens of adrenal and testicular origin that stimulate the growth of normal and malignant prostatic tissue. Prostate cancer is mostly androgen-dependent and can be treated with surgical or chemical castration. To date, antiandrogen monotherapy has not consistently been shown to be equivalent to castration.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
5,5-Dimethyl-3-(alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-4-nitro-m-tolyl)hydantoin
Nilandron
Nilutamida
Nilutamide
Nilutamidum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Anandrontablet50 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1997-08-20Not applicableCanada
Anandron - Tab 100mgtablet100 mgoralAventis Pharma Inc1997-08-202003-07-22Canada
Anandron Tab 100mgtablet100 mgoralHoechst Roussel Canada Inc.1992-12-311999-08-11Canada
Anandron Tab 100mgtablet100 mgoralRoussel Canada Inc.1992-12-311996-09-09Canada
Anandron Tab 50mgtablet50 mgoralHoechst Roussel Canada Inc.1994-12-311999-08-11Canada
Anandron Tab 50mgtablet50 mgoralRoussel Canada Inc.1992-12-311996-09-09Canada
Nilandrontablet150 mg/1oralConcordia Pharmaceuticals Inc.2013-07-15Not applicableUs
Nilandrontablet150 mg/1oralSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1996-09-19Not applicableUs
Nilandrontablet150 mg/1oralCovis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-07-15Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII51G6I8B902
CAS number63612-50-0
WeightAverage: 317.2207
Monoisotopic: 317.062340438
Chemical FormulaC12H10F3N3O4
InChI KeyInChIKey=XWXYUMMDTVBTOU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H10F3N3O4/c1-11(2)9(19)17(10(20)16-11)6-3-4-8(18(21)22)7(5-6)12(13,14)15/h3-5H,1-2H3,(H,16,20)
IUPAC Name
5,5-dimethyl-3-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]imidazolidine-2,4-dione
SMILES
CC1(C)NC(=O)N(C1=O)C1=CC(=C(C=C1)[N+]([O-])=O)C(F)(F)F
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylhydantoins. These are heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing an imiazolidinedione moiety substituted by a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzolidines
Sub ClassImidazolidines
Direct ParentPhenylhydantoins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-phenylhydantoin
  • Phenylimidazolidine
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Ureide
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Urea
  • Tertiary amine
  • Organic nitrite
  • C-nitro compound
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use in combination with surgical castration for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer involving distant lymph nodes, bone, or visceral organs (Stage D2).
PharmacodynamicsNilutamide is an antineoplastic hormonal agent primarily used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nilutamide is a pure, nonsteroidal anti-androgen with affinity for androgen receptors (but not for progestogen, estrogen, or glucocorticoid receptors). Consequently, Nilutamide blocks the action of androgens of adrenal and testicular origin that stimulate the growth of normal and malignant prostatic tissue. Prostate cancer is mostly androgen-dependent and can be treated with surgical or chemical castration. To date, antiandrogen monotherapy has not consistently been shown to be equivalent to castration. The relative binding affinity of nilutamide at the androgen receptor is less than that of bicalutamide, but similar to that of hydroxuflutamide.
Mechanism of actionNilutamide competes with androgen for the binding of androgen receptors, consequently blocking the action of androgens of adrenal and testicular origin that stimulate the growth of normal and malignant prostatic tissue. This blockade of androgen receptors may result in growth arrest or transient tumor regression through inhibition of androgen-dependent DNA and protein synthesis.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly and completely absorbed, yielding high and persistent plasma concentrations.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

The results of a human metabolism study using 14C-radiolabelled tablets show that nilutamide is extensively metabolized and less than 2% of the drug is excreted unchanged in urine after 5 days.

Route of eliminationNilutamide is extensively metabolized andless than 2% of the drug is excreted unchanged in urine after 5 days. Fecal elimination is negligible, ranging from 1.4% to 7% of the dose after 4 to 5 days.
Half life38.0-59.1 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include dizziness, general discomfort, headache, nausea, and vomiting.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8491
Caco-2 permeable-0.5254
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.637
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8572
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9314
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9567
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7776
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8934
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.527
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8993
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8293
Ames testAMES toxic0.6671
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6032
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9944
Rat acute toxicity3.0768 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9684
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral50 mg
Tabletoral100 mg
Tabletoral150 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Nilandron 150 mg tablet18.03USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00419 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.74ALOGPS
logP2.25ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity68.23 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability25.88 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Kassouf W, Tanguay S, Aprikian AG: Nilutamide as second line hormone therapy for prostate cancer after androgen ablation fails. J Urol. 2003 May;169(5):1742-4. [PubMed:12686822 ]
  2. Lukka H, Waldron T, Klotz L, Winquist E, Trachtenberg J: Maximal androgen blockade for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer--a systematic review. Curr Oncol. 2006 Jun;13(3):81-93. [PubMed:17576447 ]
External Links
ATC CodesL02BB02
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
BortezomibThe metabolism of Nilutamide can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
CapromabNilutamide may decrease effectiveness of Capromab as a diagnostic agent.
Choline C 11The therapeutic efficacy of Choline C 11 can be decreased when used in combination with Nilutamide.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Nilutamide can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Nilutamide can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Nilutamide can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Nilutamide can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Nilutamide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take before breakfast.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
References
  1. Raynaud JP: Antiandrogens in combination with LH-RH agonists in prostate cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. 1988;11 Suppl 2:S132-47. [PubMed:3071951 ]
  2. Moguilewsky M, Bertagna C, Hucher M: Pharmacological and clinical studies of the antiandrogen Anandron. J Steroid Biochem. 1987;27(4-6):871-5. [PubMed:3320565 ]
  3. Raynaud JP, Bonne C, Moguilewsky M, Lefebvre FA, Belanger A, Labrie F: The pure antiandrogen RU 23908 (Anandron), a candidate of choice for the combined antihormonal treatment of prostatic cancer: a review. Prostate. 1984;5(3):299-311. [PubMed:6374639 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  5. Labrie F: Hormonal therapy of prostate cancer. Prog Brain Res. 2010;182:321-41. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(10)82014-X. [PubMed:20541672 ]
  6. Schasfoort EM, Van De Beek C, Newling DW: Safety and efficacy of a non-steroidal anti-androgen, based on results of a post marketing surveillance of nilutamide. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2001;4(2):112-117. [PubMed:12497048 ]
  7. Kaisary AV, Iversen P, Tyrrell CJ, Carroll K, Morris T: Is there a role for antiandrogen monotherapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer? Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2001;4(4):196-203. [PubMed:12497018 ]
  8. Kolvenbag GJ, Furr BJ, Blackledge GR: Receptor affinity and potency of non-steroidal antiandrogens: translation of preclinical findings into clinical activity. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 1998 Dec;1(6):307-314. [PubMed:12496872 ]
  9. Brawer MK, Crawford ED, Labrie F, Mendoza-Valdes A, Miller PD, Petrylak DP: Androgen deprivation and other treatments for advanced prostate cancer. Rev Urol. 2001;3 Suppl 2:S59-68. [PubMed:16986000 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, nad(p)h as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
This enzyme is required for electron transfer from NADP to cytochrome P450 in microsomes. It can also provide electron transfer to heme oxygenase and cytochrome B5.
Gene Name:
POR
Uniprot ID:
P16435
Molecular Weight:
76689.12 Da
References
  1. Berger V, Berson A, Wolf C, Chachaty C, Fau D, Fromenty B, Pessayre D: Generation of free radicals during the reductive metabolism of nilutamide by lung microsomes: possible role in the development of lung lesions in patients treated with this anti-androgen. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Feb 4;43(3):654-7. [PubMed:1311586 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11