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Identification
NameAmprenavir
Accession NumberDB00701  (APRD00605)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Amprenavir is a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(3S)-Tetrahydro-3-furanyl ((1S,2R)-3-(((4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl)(2-methylpropyl)amino)-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl)carbamate
Agenerase
Amprenavir
Amprénavir
Amprenavirum
External Identifiers
  • 141 W 94
  • KVX 478
  • VX-478
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Agenerasecapsule50 mgoralGlaxosmithkline Inc2001-03-212008-05-27Canada
Ageneraseliquid15 mgoralGlaxosmithkline Inc2001-03-262008-05-27Canada
Agenerasecapsule150 mgoralGlaxosmithkline Inc2001-03-162008-05-27Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AgemeraseGlaxoSmithKline
ProzeiKissei Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd.
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII5S0W860XNR
CAS number161814-49-9
WeightAverage: 505.627
Monoisotopic: 505.224656557
Chemical FormulaC25H35N3O6S
InChI KeyInChIKey=YMARZQAQMVYCKC-OEMFJLHTSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C25H35N3O6S/c1-18(2)15-28(35(31,32)22-10-8-20(26)9-11-22)16-24(29)23(14-19-6-4-3-5-7-19)27-25(30)34-21-12-13-33-17-21/h3-11,18,21,23-24,29H,12-17,26H2,1-2H3,(H,27,30)/t21-,23-,24+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(3S)-oxolan-3-yl N-[(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-[N-(2-methylpropyl)4-aminobenzenesulfonamido]-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate
SMILES
CC(C)CN(C[C@@H](O)[[email protected]](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)O[[email protected]]1CCOC1)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(N)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzenesulfonamides. These are organic compounds containing a benzenesulfonamide moiety with an amine group attached to the benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzenesulfonamides
Direct ParentAminobenzenesulfonamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylbutylamine
  • Aminobenzenesulfonamide
  • Sulfonylaniline
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Substituted aniline
  • Aniline
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Saccharide
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Oxolane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents.
PharmacodynamicsAmprenavir is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. Amprenavir binds to the protease active site and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. This inhibition prevents cleavage of the viral polyproteins resulting in the formation of immature non-infectious viral particles. Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs.
Mechanism of actionAmprenavir inhibits the HIV viral proteinase enzyme which prevents cleavage of the gag-pol polyprotein, resulting in noninfectious, immature viral particles.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed after oral administration in HIV-1-infected patients with a time to peak concentration (Tmax) typically between 1 and 2 hours after a single oral dose. The absolute oral bioavailability of amprenavir in humans has not been established.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingVery high (90%). Amprenavir has the highest affinity for alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein.
Metabolism

Hepatic. Amprenavir is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme system. The 2 major metabolites result from oxidation of the tetrahydrofuran and aniline moieties. Glucuronide conjugates of oxidized metabolites have been identified as minor metabolites in urine and feces.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life7.1-10.6 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9132
Blood Brain Barrier-0.5886
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7175
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7973
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8383
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8815
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.5
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6176
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7641
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6591
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8821
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6641
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6185
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7229
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6097
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8218
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.4787 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9884
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8733
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Glaxosmithkline
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral150 mg
Capsuleoral50 mg
Liquidoral15 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Agenerase 50 mg capsule0.65USD capsule
Agenerase 15 mg/ml Solution0.21USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5585397 No1993-12-172013-12-17Us
US6730679 No1997-11-112017-11-11Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0491 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.85ALOGPS
logP2.43ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.39ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area131.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity134.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability53.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US5585397
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesJ05AE05
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.08.08
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (120 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pol
Uniprot ID:
Q72874
Molecular Weight:
10778.7 Da
References
  1. Wittayanarakul K, Hannongbua S, Feig M: Accurate prediction of protonation state as a prerequisite for reliable MM-PB(GB)SA binding free energy calculations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Comput Chem. 2008 Apr 15;29(5):673-85. [PubMed:17849388 ]
  2. Dandache S, Sevigny G, Yelle J, Stranix BR, Parkin N, Schapiro JM, Wainberg MA, Wu JJ: In vitro antiviral activity and cross-resistance profile of PL-100, a novel protease inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Nov;51(11):4036-43. Epub 2007 Jul 16. [PubMed:17638694 ]
  3. Sadler BM, Hanson CD, Chittick GE, Symonds WT, Roskell NS: Safety and pharmacokinetics of amprenavir (141W94), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 protease inhibitor, following oral administration of single doses to HIV-infected adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Jul;43(7):1686-92. [PubMed:10390223 ]
  4. Authors unspecified: Amprenavir: a new HIV protease inhibitor. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1999 Jul 16;41(1057):64-6. [PubMed:10436772 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Perloff MD, von Moltke LL, Fahey JM, Daily JP, Greenblatt DJ: Induction of P-glycoprotein expression by HIV protease inhibitors in cell culture. AIDS. 2000 Jun 16;14(9):1287-9. [PubMed:10894301 ]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Olson DP, Scadden DT, D'Aquila RT, De Pasquale MP: The protease inhibitor ritonavir inhibits the functional activity of the multidrug resistance related-protein 1 (MRP-1). AIDS. 2002 Sep 6;16(13):1743-7. [PubMed:12218384 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 23, 2016 01:52