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Identification
NameRoxithromycin
Accession NumberDB00778  (APRD01305)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Withdrawn
DescriptionRoxithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic. It is very similar in composition, chemical structure and mechanism of action to erythromycin, azithromycin, or clarithromycin. Roxithromycin prevents bacteria from growing, by interfering with their protein synthesis. Roxithromycin binds to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, and thus inhibits the translocation of peptides. Roxithromycin has similar antimicrobial spectrum as erythromycin, but is more effective against certain gram-negative bacteria, particularly Legionella pneumophila. It can treat respiratory tract, urinary and soft tissue infections. It is not available in the United States, but is available in Australia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(9e)-Erythromycin 9-(O-((2-methoxyethoxy)methyl)oxime)
Roxithromycin
Roxithromycine
Roxithromycinum
Roxitromicina
External Identifiers
  • RU 28965
  • RU 965
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AcevorHelp
ActiroxActive HC
Ai Luo XinHuashen Pharmaceutical
AllolideRoman Industries
AmmiroxMacroPhar
Anti-BioKon/Nos Leon
Ao Ge ShenJianfa Pharmaceutical
AparoxSiza
ArbidHetero
AroxeGlobal
AsmeticFarmilia
AssoralSavio I.B.N.
AswadRobins
AzurilPharmanel
BazuctrilChrispa
BD-RoxPanacea
Bei KeAoda Pharmaceuticals
Bei ShaHuipusen Medical Biological Technology
Bi Ai DiSiping Aimo Pharmaceutical
BiaxsigSanofi-Aventis
BicofenPharmex
BiostatikPharos
ClaramidPfizer
CoroxinNot Available
DelitroxinPharmathen
DelosDallas
DorolidDomesco
ElroxBiopharm M.J.
ErybrosBros
EslidShin Poong
GuamilP T Interbat
Heng TeHanson Pharmaceutical
HycinSaga
I-ThrocinT.C. Pharma-Chem
InfectoroxitInfectopharm
InroxIntra
IxorSoho
KlomicinaKlonal
LadlidChoseido Pharmaceutical
Lang SuShandong Dayin Yanghai Bio-Pharmaceutical Co.
Le Er TaiTianji Biological Pharmaceutical
Le Xi QingZhangshu Santai Pharmaceutical
Li FuSuzhou Chung-Hwa Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industrial
LizhuxingLivzon Zhuhai
LudinVellpharm
Luo Jun QingFusen Pharmaceutical
Luo Shi LiXi'an Detian Pharmaceutical Co.
Luo Si MeiYabo Pharmaceutical Co.
LuprexLupin
MacrolUAP
MacrolidRafarm
MarulidePasteur
Neo-SuxigalAnfarm
NiroxGabriel Health
OdiroxCipla
OveralLusofarmaco
PedilidIncepta
PedroxBeximco
PinshengXincat
PlethiroxSel-J
PoliroxinPolipharm
Pu HongShyndec
PymeroxitilPMP
Qi WeiLanling Pharmaceutical Production
RamivanMedipharm
RedotrinCoup
RemoraNobel
Ren SuYangtze River Pharma
RenicinSandoz
RidinfectMedicraft
RitosinMünir Sahin
RocinPasteur
RokithridTaiyo Pharmaceutical
RoksiminIl-Ko
RolexitNufarindo
RolicynPolfa Tarchomin
RomacSaiph
RomicinDae Woo
RomycinLivzon Zhuhai
RomykLindopharm
RopitEpitome
RossitrolSanofi-Aventis
RothricinSiam Bheasach
RotramRanbaxy
RovenalLeciva
RoxamedDar Al Dawa
RoxarSigma
RoxcinBiolab
RoxemicinHan Mi
RoxeptinIpca Laboratories Ltd.
RoxetominSun
RoxiDae Won
Roxi-FatolRiemser
Roxi-PurenActavis
Roxi-QJuta
Roxi-saarMIP
RoxibestBlue Cross
RoxibetaBetapharm
RoxibronViofar
RoxicinAtlantic Lab
RoxicurVelka
RoxicurePharmaceutical
RoxidAlembic
RoxideSandoz
RoxiduraMylan dura
RoxigammaWörwag Pharma
RoxigrünGrünenthal
RoxihexalSalutas
RoxikidAhn-Gook
RoxilYSS
RoxilanOlan-Kemed
RoximacRam Pharmaceutical
RoximainTowa Yakuhin
RoximaxPharmaghreb
RoximedMedhaus
RoximerckMylan Seiyaku
RoximicActo
RoximinNovis Pharmaceutical
RoximisanSlaviamed
RoximolTorrent
RoximycinAlphapharm
RoxingaRoxinga
RoxinoxCharoen Bhaesaj
Roxiratioratiopharm
RoxirocinKorea Arlico
RoxisaraAbbott
RoxistadAliud
RoxitasIntas
RoxitazonAlice Loren
RoxithrinKuk Je
RoxithroMillimed
RoxithrostadSTADA
RoxitilKolon
RoxitinT P Drug
RoxitisMedley
RoxitopFarmaline
RoxitranNeo Quimica
RoxitromBiolab
RoxitromycineSandoz
RoxitronICN
RoxivarZota
RoxivinolPheracon
RoxivistaCadila
Roxl-150Not Available
RoxoNot Available
RoxomycinNot Available
RoxyInd-Swift
Roxy-150Cipla
RulidNot Available
RulideSanofi-Aventis
Rulide DSanofi-Aventis
SurlidSanofi-Aventis
TirabicinNot Available
XthrocinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII21KOF230FA
CAS number80214-83-1
WeightAverage: 837.0465
Monoisotopic: 836.524569772
Chemical FormulaC41H76N2O15
InChI KeyInChIKey=RXZBMPWDPOLZGW-XMRMVWPWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C41H76N2O15/c1-15-29-41(10,49)34(45)24(4)31(42-53-21-52-17-16-50-13)22(2)19-39(8,48)36(58-38-32(44)28(43(11)12)18-23(3)54-38)25(5)33(26(6)37(47)56-29)57-30-20-40(9,51-14)35(46)27(7)55-30/h22-30,32-36,38,44-46,48-49H,15-21H2,1-14H3/b42-31+/t22-,23-,24+,25+,26-,27+,28+,29-,30+,32-,33+,34-,35+,36-,38+,39-,40-,41-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(3R,4S,5S,6R,7R,9R,11S,12R,13S,14R)-6-{[(2S,3R,4S,6R)-4-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-14-ethyl-7,12,13-trihydroxy-4-{[(2R,4R,5S,6S)-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-4,6-dimethyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-3,5,7,9,11,13-hexamethyl-10-(2,4,7-trioxa-1-azaoctan-1-ylidene)-1-oxacyclotetradecan-2-one
SMILES
CC[[email protected]]1OC(=O)[[email protected]](C)[C@@H](O[[email protected]]2C[C@@](C)(OC)[C@@H](O)[[email protected]](C)O2)[[email protected]](C)[C@@H](O[C@@H]2O[[email protected]](C)C[C@@H]([[email protected]]2O)N(C)C)[C@](C)(O)C[C@@H](C)C(=NOCOCCOC)[[email protected]](C)[C@@H](O)[C@]1(C)O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as macrolides and analogues. These are organic compounds containing a lactone ring of at least twelve members.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassMacrolides and analogues
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentMacrolides and analogues
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Macrolide
  • Amino sugar
  • Desosamine
  • Amino saccharide
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Saccharide
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Oxime ether
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • 1,2-diol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed to treat respiratory tract, urinary and soft tissue infections.
PharmacodynamicsRoxithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic. It is very similar in composition, chemical structure and mechanism of action to erythromycin, azithromycin, or clarithromycin. Roxithromycin has the following antibacterial spectrum in vitro: Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus), Neisseria meningitides (Meningococcus), Listeria monocytogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Legionella pneumophila, Helicobacter (Campylobacter), Gardnerella vaginalis, Bordetella pertussis, Moraxella catarrhalis (Branhamella Catarrhalis), and Haemophilus ducreyi. Roxithromycin is highly concentrated in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, achieving intracellular concentrations greater than those outside the cell. Roxithromycin enhances the adhesive and chemotactic functions of these cells which in the presence of infection produce phagocytosis and bacterial lysis. Roxithromycin also possesses intracellular bactericidal activity.
Mechanism of actionRoxithromycin prevents bacteria from growing, by interfering with their protein synthesis. Roxithromycin binds to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, and thus inhibits the translocation of peptides. Roxithromycin has similar antimicrobial spectrum as erythromycin, but is more effective against certain gram-negative bacteria, particularly Legionella pneumophila.
Related Articles
AbsorptionVery rapidly absorbed and diffused into most tissues and phagocytes.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding96%, mainly to alpha1-acid glycoproteins
Metabolism

Hepatic. Roxithromycin is only partially metabolised, more than half the parent compound being excreted unchanged. Three metabolites have been identified in urine and faeces: the major metabolite is descladinose roxithromycin, with N-mono and N-di-demethyl roxithromycin as minor metabolites. The respective percentage of roxithromycin and these three metabolites is similar in urine and faeces.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Roxithromycin
Not Available
descladinose roxithromycinDetails
Roxithromycin
Not Available
N-di-demethyl roxithromycinDetails
Roxithromycin
Not Available
N-mono roxithromycinDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life12 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityMost common side-effects are gastrointestinal; diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain and vomiting. Less common side-effects include headaches, rashes, abnormal liver function values and alteration in senses of smell and taste.
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00251
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.5
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9659
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8875
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5625
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8178
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8339
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.708
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9615
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8676
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.9728 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9792
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6433
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility0.0189 mg/L at 25 °C (SRC PhysProp estimated -- MEYLAN,WM et al. (1996))Not Available
logP1.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.187 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.9ALOGPS
logP3ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.08ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count16ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area216.89 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity211.24 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability91.84 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Murali Krishna Madala, Suresh Babu Meduri, Ketan Dhansukhlal Vyas, Ashok Krishna Kulkarni, “Process for preparing erythromycin derivative, such as roxithromycin, from the corresponding oxime.” U.S. Patent US6051695, issued September, 1998.

US6051695
General References
  1. Gentry LO: Roxithromycin, a new macrolide antibiotic, in the treatment of infections in the lower respiratory tract: an overview. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987 Nov;20 Suppl B:145-52. [PubMed:3323166 ]
  2. Link [Link]
External Links
ATC CodesJ01FA06
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
CobicistatThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DarunavirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
ImatinibThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
LopinavirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
MifepristoneThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Mifepristone.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Roxithromycin.
OlaparibThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Roxithromycin.
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Primidone.
RanolazineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Roxithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Shigella flexneri
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Structural constituent of ribosome
Specific Function:
Protein L10 is also a translational repressor protein. It controls the translation of the rplJL-rpoBC operon by binding to its mRNA (By similarity).Forms part of the ribosomal stalk, playing a central role in the interaction of the ribosome with GTP-bound translation factors.
Gene Name:
rplJ
Uniprot ID:
P0A7J6
Molecular Weight:
17711.38 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Bertho G, Gharbi-Benarous J, Delaforge M, Girault JP: Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect study of macrolide-ribosome interactions: correlation between antibiotic activities and bound conformations. Bioorg Med Chem. 1998 Feb;6(2):209-21. [PubMed:9547944 ]
  4. Yam WK, Wahab HA: Molecular insights into 14-membered macrolides using the MM-PBSA method. J Chem Inf Model. 2009 Jun;49(6):1558-67. doi: 10.1021/ci8003495. [PubMed:19469526 ]
  5. Mabe S, Eller J, Champney WS: Structure-activity relationships for three macrolide antibiotics in Haemophilus influenzae. Curr Microbiol. 2004 Oct;49(4):248-54. [PubMed:15386112 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Beltinger J, Haschke M, Kaufmann P, Michot M, Terracciano L, Krahenbuhl S: Hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with immunosuppressive cyclophosphamide dosing and roxithromycin. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Apr;40(4):767-70. Epub 2006 Mar 7. [PubMed:16595573 ]
  2. Kaufmann P, Haschke M, Torok M, Beltinger J, Bogman K, Wenk M, Terracciano L, Krahenbuhl S: Mechanisms of venoocclusive disease resulting from the combination of cyclophosphamide and roxithromycin. Ther Drug Monit. 2006 Dec;28(6):766-74. [PubMed:17164692 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23