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Identification
NamePropofol
Accession NumberDB00818  (APRD01201, EXPT02558, DB05893)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Description

Propofol is an intravenous anaesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. IV administration of propfol is used to induce unconsciousness after which anaesthesia may be maintained using a combination of medications. Recovery from propofol-induced anaesthesia is generally rapid and associated with less frequent side effects (e.g. drowsiness, nausea, vomiting) than with thiopental, methohexital, and etomidate. Propofol may be used prior to diagnostic procedures requiring anaesthesia, in the management of refractory status epilepticus, and for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia prior to and during surgeries.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2,6-Bis(1-methylethyl)phenol
2,6-Diisopropylphenol
Diprivan
Disoprivan
Disoprofol
Propofol
Propofol
Propofol
Propofolum
Rapinovet
External Identifiers
  • ICI 35868
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Propofolemulsion10 mgintravenousActavis Pharma Company2015-11-20Not applicableCanada
Diprivaninjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-03-01Not applicableUs
Diprivaninjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2009-11-13Not applicableUs
Diprivan Eml IV 1%emulsion1 %intravenousAstrazeneca Canada Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-propofolemulsion10 mgintravenousPharmascience Inc2002-03-01Not applicableCanada
Propofolinjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousAPP Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-10-07Not applicableUs
Propofol Injectionemulsion10 mgintravenousNovopharm Limited2000-07-052013-04-01Canada
Propofol Injectionemulsion1 %intravenousFresenius Kabi Canada Ltd2015-06-01Not applicableCanada
Propofol Injectionemulsion10 mgintravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation1998-02-05Not applicableCanada
Propofol Injectionemulsion10 mgintravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation2004-04-022011-11-28Canada
Propofol-II Injectionemulsion10 mgintravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation2013-06-11Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Propofolinjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Propofolinjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousGeneral Injectables and Vaccines, Inc2014-08-21Not applicableUs
Propofolinjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2014-07-01Not applicableUs
Propofolinjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2007-06-21Not applicableUs
Propofolinjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2007-06-21Not applicableUs
Propofolinjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2007-06-21Not applicableUs
Propofolinjection, emulsion10 mg/mLintravenousActavis Pharma, Inc.2015-10-30Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AnepolHa Na Pharm
AnesproBehrens
AnesvanChi Sheng
CritifolAbbott
DisoprivanAstraZeneca
DormofolActavis
FresofolBoryung
GobbifolGobbi
HipnolamAC Farma
HyproCelon
IV-ProClaris Lifesciences
LipuroB. Braun Medical
Oleo-LaxFada
PlofedWarsaw Pharmaceutical Works
ProfolBiogalenic
ProfolenBlausiegel
PropofabbHospira
PropofilAlvia
PropogenGenepharm
PropolipidFresenius
PropovanBharat Serums
PropovenFresenius
ProviveAFT
RecofolBayer
SafolNovell
TrivamHana Pharm
TroypofolTroikaa
UnifolClaris Lifesciences
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIYI7VU623SF
CAS number2078-54-8
WeightAverage: 178.2707
Monoisotopic: 178.135765198
Chemical FormulaC12H18O
InChI KeyInChIKey=OLBCVFGFOZPWHH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H18O/c1-8(2)10-6-5-7-11(9(3)4)12(10)13/h5-9,13H,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
2,6-bis(propan-2-yl)phenol
SMILES
CC(C)C1=CC=CC(C(C)C)=C1O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cumenes. These are aromatic compounds containing a prop-2-ylbenzene moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassCumenes
Direct ParentCumenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpropane
  • Cumene
  • Phenol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia and for management of refractory status epilepticus.
PharmacodynamicsPropofol is a sedative-hypnotic agent for use in the induction and maintenance of anesthesia or sedation. Intravenous injection of a therapeutic dose of propofol produces hypnosis rapidly with minimal excitation, usually within 40 seconds from the start of an injection (the time for one arm-brain circulation).
Mechanism of actionThe action of propofol involves a positive modulation of the inhibitory function of the neurotransmitter gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) through GABA-A receptors.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapid - time to onset of unconsciousness is 15-30 seconds, due to rapid distribution from plasma to the CNS. Distribution is so rapid that peak plasma concentrations cannot be readily measured. Duration of action is 5-10 minutes.
Volume of distribution
  • 60 L/kg [healthy adults]
Protein binding95 to 99%, primarily to serum albumin and hemoglobin
Metabolism

Hepatically metabolized mainly by glucuronidation at the C1-hydroxyl. Hydroxylation of the benzene ring to 4-hydroxypropofol may also occur via CYP2B6 and 2C9 with subsequent conjugation to sulfuric and/or glucuronic acid. Hydroxypropofol has approximately 1/3 of hypnotic activity of propofol.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Propofol
4-HydroxypropofolDetails
Propofol
Propofol glucuronideDetails
Propofol glucuronide
Not Available
1-Quinol glucuronideDetails
4-Hydroxypropofol
1-Quinol glucuronideDetails
4-Hydroxypropofol
Not Available
4-Quinol sulfateDetails
Route of eliminationIt is chiefly eliminated by hepatic conjugation to inactive metabolites which are excreted by the kidney.
Half lifeInitial distribution phase t1/2α=1.8-9.5 minutes. Second redistirubtion phase t1/2β=21-70 minutes. Terminal elimination phase t1/2γ=1.5-31 hours.
Clearance
  • 23 – 50 mL/kg/min
  • 1.6 – 3.4 L/min [70 Kg adults]
ToxicityOverdosage may increase pharmacologic and adverse effects or cause death.

IV LD50=53 mg/kg (mice), 42 mg/kg (rats). Oral LD50 (as a solution in soybean oil)=1230 mg/kg (mice), 600 mg/kg (rats)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9955
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9381
Caco-2 permeable+0.9153
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.722
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9343
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9883
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9036
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7352
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.7838
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5667
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9368
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9196
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7429
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9282
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7195
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7808
Rat acute toxicity2.2996 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8987
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9087
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Emulsionintravenous1 %
Injection, emulsionintravenous10 mg/mL
Emulsionintravenous10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Diprivan 10 mg/ml vial0.93USD ml
Propoven 1000 mg/100 ml vial0.19USD ml
Propoven 200 mg/20 ml ampul0.19USD ml
Propoven 500 mg/50 ml vial0.19USD ml
Propofol 10 mg/ml vial0.13USD ml
Propofol 1% emulsion vial0.1USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2212794 No2000-09-122015-03-17Canada
US5714520 Yes1995-09-222015-09-22Us
US5731355 Yes1995-09-222015-09-22Us
US5731356 Yes1995-09-222015-09-22Us
US5908869 Yes1995-09-222015-09-22Us
US8476010 Yes2005-06-012025-06-01Us
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point18 °CPhysProp
boiling point256 °CPhysProp
water solubility124 mg/LNot Available
logP3.79HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa11.1 (at 20 °C)SERJEANT,EP & DEMPSEY,B (1979)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.158 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.81ALOGPS
logP4.16ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity56.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.9 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-2900000000-52d81dde2dccf378a450View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

John R. Carpenter, “Propofol-based anesthetic and method of making same.” U.S. Patent US6150423, issued May, 1977.

US6150423
General References
  1. Vasile B, Rasulo F, Candiani A, Latronico N: The pathophysiology of propofol infusion syndrome: a simple name for a complex syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2003 Sep;29(9):1417-25. Epub 2003 Aug 6. [PubMed:12904852 ]
  2. Ke JJ, Zhan J, Feng XB, Wu Y, Rao Y, Wang YL: A comparison of the effect of total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil and inhalational anaesthesia with isoflurane on the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients undergoing open cholecystectomy. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2008 Jan;36(1):74-8. [PubMed:18326136 ]
  3. Hong JY, Kang YS, Kil HK: Anaesthesia for day case excisional breast biopsy: propofol-remifentanil compared with sevoflurane-nitrous oxide. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008 Jun;25(6):460-7. doi: 10.1017/S026502150800375X. Epub 2008 Feb 26. [PubMed:18298873 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN01AX10
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (168 KB)
MSDSDownload (71.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Propofol.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Propofol.
AzelastinePropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Propofol.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
BuprenorphinePropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
CitalopramPropofol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
DofetilidePropofol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
EthanolPropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Propofol.
GoserelinPropofol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
HydrocodonePropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
LeuprolidePropofol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Lomitapide can be increased when it is combined with Propofol.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Propofol.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
MethotrimeprazinePropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MetyrosinePropofol may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Propofol can be increased when it is combined with Midazolam.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Propofol.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
MirtazapinePropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be increased when it is combined with Propofol.
OrphenadrinePropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
ParaldehydePropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Paroxetine.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Pimozide can be increased when it is combined with Propofol.
PramipexolePropofol may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Propofol can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.
RifampicinRifampicin may increase the hypotensive activities of Propofol.
RopinirolePropofol may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe serum concentration of Ropivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Propofol.
RotigotinePropofol may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Propofol.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
SuvorexantPropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.
ThalidomidePropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Propofol can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Propofol.
ZolpidemPropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Franks NP: Molecular targets underlying general anaesthesia. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S72-81. [PubMed:16402123 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Franks NP: Molecular targets underlying general anaesthesia. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S72-81. [PubMed:16402123 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This sodium channel may be present in both denervated and innervated skeleta...
Gene Name:
SCN4A
Uniprot ID:
P35499
Molecular Weight:
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Haeseler G, Karst M, Foadi N, Gudehus S, Roeder A, Hecker H, Dengler R, Leuwer M: High-affinity blockade of voltage-operated skeletal muscle and neuronal sodium channels by halogenated propofol analogues. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Sep;155(2):265-75. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.255. Epub 2008 Jun 23. [PubMed:18574460 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q99250
Molecular Weight:
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Haeseler G, Karst M, Foadi N, Gudehus S, Roeder A, Hecker H, Dengler R, Leuwer M: High-affinity blockade of voltage-operated skeletal muscle and neuronal sodium channels by halogenated propofol analogues. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Sep;155(2):265-75. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.255. Epub 2008 Jun 23. [PubMed:18574460 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. [PubMed:17101742 ]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW9
Molecular Weight:
59741.035 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular Weight:
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Takahashi H, Maruo Y, Mori A, Iwai M, Sato H, Takeuchi Y: Effect of D256N and Y483D on propofol glucuronidation by human uridine 5'-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A9). Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Aug;103(2):131-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00247.x. [PubMed:18816295 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naph...
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular Weight:
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Mano Y, Usui T, Kamimura H: Substrate-dependent modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) by propofol in recombinant human UGT1A1 and human liver microsomes. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Sep;101(3):211-4. [PubMed:17697043 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Fatty acid amide hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of these molecules. Hydrolyzes polyunsaturated substrate anandamide preferentially as compared to monounsaturated substrates.
Gene Name:
FAAH
Uniprot ID:
O00519
Molecular Weight:
63065.28 Da
References
  1. Zhu F, Han B, Kumar P, Liu X, Ma X, Wei X, Huang L, Guo Y, Han L, Zheng C, Chen Y: Update of TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D787-91. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp1014. Epub 2009 Nov 20. [PubMed:19933260 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Chen TL, Ueng TH, Chen SH, Lee PH, Fan SZ, Liu CC: Human cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system is suppressed by propofol. Br J Anaesth. 1995 May;74(5):558-62. [PubMed:7772432 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, retinoid and xenobiotics. Preferentially oxidizes 17beta-estradiol to the carcinogenic 4-hydroxy derivative, and a variety of procarcinogenic compou...
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular Weight:
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Chen TL, Ueng TH, Chen SH, Lee PH, Fan SZ, Liu CC: Human cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system is suppressed by propofol. Br J Anaesth. 1995 May;74(5):558-62. [PubMed:7772432 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Chen TL, Ueng TH, Chen SH, Lee PH, Fan SZ, Liu CC: Human cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system is suppressed by propofol. Br J Anaesth. 1995 May;74(5):558-62. [PubMed:7772432 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular Weight:
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 3 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular Weight:
60750.215 Da
References
  1. Gu J, Lu K, Xia P, Tang M, Dai Q, Ma D, Tao G: Pharmacokinetics of propofol and extrahepatic UGT1A6 gene expression in anhepatic rats. Pharmacology. 2009;84(4):219-26. doi: 10.1159/000236523. Epub 2009 Sep 10. [PubMed:19752585 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Bright DP, Adham SD, Lemaire LC, Benavides R, Gruss M, Taylor GW, Smith EH, Franks NP: Identification of anesthetic binding sites on human serum albumin using a novel etomidate photolabel. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):12038-47. Epub 2007 Feb 20. [PubMed:17311911 ]
  2. Liu R, Eckenhoff RG: Weak polar interactions confer albumin binding site selectivity for haloether anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr;102(4):799-805. [PubMed:15791110 ]
  3. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957 ]
  4. Schywalsky M, Ihmsen H, Knoll R, Schwilden H: Binding of propofol to human serum albumin. Arzneimittelforschung. 2005;55(6):303-6. [PubMed:16032968 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 24, 2016 03:10