You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameNalbuphine
Accession NumberDB00844  (APRD01132)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors. Nalbuphine is the only opioid analgesic that is not a controlled substance in the United States.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
N-Cyclobutylmethyl-4,5alpha-epoxy-3,6alpha,14-morphinantriol
Nalbufina
Nalbuphin
Nalbuphine
Nalbuphinum
External Identifiers
  • EN-2234 A
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nubain Injection 10mg/mlsolution10 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Nubain Injection 20mg/mlsolution20 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nalbuphine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira, Inc.1989-02-03Not applicableUs
Nalbuphine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1989-02-03Not applicableUs
Nalbuphine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1989-02-03Not applicableUs
Nalbuphine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-03-01Not applicableUs
Nalbuphine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution20 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira, Inc.1989-02-03Not applicableUs
Nalbuphine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution20 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira, Inc.1989-02-03Not applicableUs
Nalbuphine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousHospira, Inc.1989-02-03Not applicableUs
Nalbuphine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution20 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2010-05-03Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
MexifenMedicus
NalbuphineMylan
NalpainOrpha-Devel
NubainSandoz
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Nalbuphine hydrochloride
23277-43-2
Thumb
  • InChI Key: YZLZPSJXMWGIFH-BCXQGASESA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 393.170686096
  • Average Mass: 393.904
DBSALT000125
Categories
UNIIL2T84IQI2K
CAS number20594-83-6
WeightAverage: 357.4434
Monoisotopic: 357.194008357
Chemical FormulaC21H27NO4
InChI KeyInChIKey=NETZHAKZCGBWSS-CEDHKZHLSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H27NO4/c23-14-5-4-13-10-16-21(25)7-6-15(24)19-20(21,17(13)18(14)26-19)8-9-22(16)11-12-2-1-3-12/h4-5,12,15-16,19,23-25H,1-3,6-11H2/t15-,16+,19-,20-,21+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,5R,13R,14S,17S)-4-(cyclobutylmethyl)-12-oxa-4-azapentacyclo[9.6.1.0¹,¹³.0⁵,¹⁷.0⁷,¹⁸]octadeca-7,9,11(18)-triene-10,14,17-triol
SMILES
O[[email protected]]1CC[C@@]2(O)[[email protected]]3CC4=CC=C(O)C5=C4[C@@]2(CCN3CC2CCC2)[[email protected]]1O5
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as morphinans. These are polycyclic compounds with a four-ring skeleton with three condensed six-member rings forming a partially hydrogenated phenanthrene moiety, one of which is aromatic while the two others are alicyclic.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassMorphinans
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentMorphinans
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Morphinan
  • Benzylisoquinoline
  • Phenanthrene
  • Tetralin
  • Benzofuran
  • Aralkylamine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Piperidine
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the relief of moderate to severe pain.
PharmacodynamicsNalbuphine is a synthetic opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic of the phenanthrene series. Nalbuphine's analgesic potency is essentially equivalent to that of morphine on a milligram basis. The opioid antagonist activity of nalbuphine is one-fourth as potent as nalorphine and 10 times that of pentazocine. Nalbuphine by itself has potent opioid antagonist activity at doses equal to or lower than its analgesic dose. When administered following or concurrent with mu agonist opioid analgesics (e.g., morphine, oxymorphone, fentanyl), nalbuphine may partially reverse or block opioid-induced respiratory depression from the mu agonist analgesic. Nalbuphine may precipitate withdrawal in patients dependent on opioid drugs. Nalbuphine should be used with caution in patients who have been receiving mu opioid analgesics on a regular basis.
Mechanism of actionThe exact mechanism of action is unknown, but is believed to interact with an opiate receptor site in the CNS (probably in or associated with the limbic system). The opiate antagonistic effect may result from competitive inhibition at the opiate receptor, but may also be a result of other mechanisms. Nalbuphine is thought primarily to be a kappa agonist. It is also a partial mu antagonist analgesic, with some binding to the delta receptor and minimal agonist activity at the sigma receptor.
Related Articles
AbsorptionThe mean absolute bioavailability was 81% and 83% for the 10 and 20 mg intramuscular doses, respectively, and 79% and 76% following 10 and 20 mg of subcutaneous nalbuphine.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot appreciably bound.
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeThe plasma half-life of nalbuphine is 5 hours, and in clinical studies the duration of analgesic activity has been reported to range from 3 to 6 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, acute LD50 is 1100 mg/kg in dog. Symptoms of overdose include primarily sleepiness and mild dysphoria.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Nalbuphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00691
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.968
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9642
Caco-2 permeable+0.7337
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8532
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8781
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8923
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.5431
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8645
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.5896
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5919
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9421
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9029
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.93
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9562
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6897
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9598
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9796
Rat acute toxicity2.6502 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.747
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8054
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous10 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous20 mg/mL
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous10 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous20 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Nubain 20 mg/ml ampule4.9USD ml
Nubain 10 mg/ml vial3.53USD ml
Nalbuphine 20 mg/ml ampul3.2USD ml
Nalbuphine 200 mg/10 ml vial2.66USD ml
Nalbuphine 10 mg/ml ampul1.46USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point230 °C as HCl saltNot Available
water solubility35.5 mg/mL at 25 °C as HCl saltNot Available
logP1.4Not Available
pKa8.71 and 9.96 (hcl form)FDA Label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.09 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2ALOGPS
logP1.19ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)13.75ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area73.16 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity97 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.59 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Michael R. Magruder, “Nalbuphine-narcotic analgesic composition and method of producing analgesia.” U.S. Patent US4366159, issued August, 1981.

US4366159
General References
  1. Gear RW, Miaskowski C, Gordon NC, Paul SM, Heller PH, Levine JD: The kappa opioid nalbuphine produces gender- and dose-dependent analgesia and antianalgesia in patients with postoperative pain. Pain. 1999 Nov;83(2):339-45. [PubMed:10534607 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN02AF02
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.12
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (51.4 KB)
MSDSDownload (74.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nalbuphine.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Acetazolamide.
AlvimopanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Alvimopan.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Amiloride.
Ammonium chlorideAmmonium chloride may increase the excretion rate of Nalbuphine which could result in a higher serum level.
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Nalbuphine.
AzelastineNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Nalbuphine.
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Bumetanide.
BuprenorphineNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
CathinoneCathinone may increase the analgesic activities of Nalbuphine.
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Chlorthalidone.
CyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Cyclothiazide.
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Desmopressin.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
EluxadolineNalbuphine may increase the activities of Eluxadoline.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Ethacrynic acid.
EthanolNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthoxzolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Ethoxzolamide.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Furosemide.
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Hydroflumethiazide.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Indapamide.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Nalbuphine.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
MethotrimeprazineNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Metolazone.
MetyrosineNalbuphine may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
MirtazapineNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MorphineNalbuphine may decrease the analgesic activities of Morphine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
NaltrexoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Nalbuphine can be decreased when used in combination with Naltrexone.
OrphenadrineNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
ParaldehydeNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineNalbuphine may increase the serotonergic activities of Paroxetine.
PegvisomantThe therapeutic efficacy of Pegvisomant can be decreased when used in combination with Nalbuphine.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
PramipexoleNalbuphine may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Nalbuphine.
RamosetronNalbuphine may increase the activities of Ramosetron.
RopiniroleNalbuphine may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineNalbuphine may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Nalbuphine.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Spironolactone.
SuccinylcholineSuccinylcholine may increase the bradycardic activities of Nalbuphine.
SuvorexantNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
ThalidomideNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
TicrynafenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Ticrynafen.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Torasemide.
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Triamterene.
TrichlormethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Trichlormethiazide.
ZolpidemNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synthetic opioids and for the psychoactive diterpene salvinorin A. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates th...
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular Weight:
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hoehe M, Duka T: Opiates increase plasma catecholamines in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1993;18(2):141-8. [PubMed:8388112 ]
  4. Chen SL, Huang EY, Chow LH, Tao PL: Dextromethorphan differentially affects opioid antinociception in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;144(3):400-4. [PubMed:15655510 ]
  5. Tao PL, Liang KW, Sung WY, Wu YT, Huang EY: Nalbuphine is effective in decreasing the rewarding effect induced by morphine in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Sep 15;84(2):175-81. Epub 2006 Mar 6. [PubMed:16517095 ]
  6. Smith MA, Greene-Naples JL, Lyle MA, Iordanou JC, Felder JN: The effects of repeated opioid administration on locomotor activity: I. Opposing actions of mu and kappa receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Aug;330(2):468-75. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.150011. Epub 2009 Apr 29. [PubMed:19403853 ]
  7. Mello NK, Mendelson JH, Sholar MB, Jaszyna-Gasior M, Goletiani N, Siegel AJ: Effects of the mixed mu/kappa opioid nalbuphine on cocaine-induced changes in subjective and cardiovascular responses in men. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Mar;30(3):618-32. [PubMed:15602503 ]
  8. Gear RW, Miaskowski C, Gordon NC, Paul SM, Heller PH, Levine JD: The kappa opioid nalbuphine produces gender- and dose-dependent analgesia and antianalgesia in patients with postoperative pain. Pain. 1999 Nov;83(2):339-45. [PubMed:10534607 ]
  9. Peng X, Knapp BI, Bidlack JM, Neumeyer JL: Pharmacological properties of bivalent ligands containing butorphan linked to nalbuphine, naltrexone, and naloxone at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. J Med Chem. 2007 May 3;50(9):2254-8. Epub 2007 Apr 4. [PubMed:17407276 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociati...
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Kishioka S, Ko MC, Woods JH: Diltiazem enhances the analgesic but not the respiratory depressant effects of morphine in rhesus monkeys. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 May 26;397(1):85-92. [PubMed:10844102 ]
  2. Hoehe M, Duka T: Opiates increase plasma catecholamines in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1993;18(2):141-8. [PubMed:8388112 ]
  3. Zernig G, Lewis JW, Woods JH: Clocinnamox inhibits the intravenous self-administration of opioid agonists in rhesus monkeys: comparison with effects on opioid agonist-mediated antinociception. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 Feb;129(3):233-42. [PubMed:9084061 ]
  4. Picker MJ: Discriminative stimulus effects of the mixed-opioid agonist/antagonist dezocine: cross-substitution by mu and delta opioid agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1009-17. [PubMed:9399970 ]
  5. McNicol ED, Boyce D, Schumann R, Carr DB: Mu-opioid antagonists for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD006332. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006332.pub2. [PubMed:18425947 ]
  6. Tao PL, Liang KW, Sung WY, Wu YT, Huang EY: Nalbuphine is effective in decreasing the rewarding effect induced by morphine in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Sep 15;84(2):175-81. Epub 2006 Mar 6. [PubMed:16517095 ]
  7. Smith MA, Greene-Naples JL, Lyle MA, Iordanou JC, Felder JN: The effects of repeated opioid administration on locomotor activity: I. Opposing actions of mu and kappa receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Aug;330(2):468-75. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.150011. Epub 2009 Apr 29. [PubMed:19403853 ]
  8. Mello NK, Mendelson JH, Sholar MB, Jaszyna-Gasior M, Goletiani N, Siegel AJ: Effects of the mixed mu/kappa opioid nalbuphine on cocaine-induced changes in subjective and cardiovascular responses in men. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Mar;30(3):618-32. [PubMed:15602503 ]
  9. Meerpohl JJ, Timmer A: [News from the cochrane library: mu opioid antagonists for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction]. Z Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep;46(9):917-21. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1027720. Epub 2008 Sep 22. [PubMed:18810678 ]
  10. Peng X, Knapp BI, Bidlack JM, Neumeyer JL: Pharmacological properties of bivalent ligands containing butorphan linked to nalbuphine, naltrexone, and naloxone at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. J Med Chem. 2007 May 3;50(9):2254-8. Epub 2007 Apr 4. [PubMed:17407276 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurot...
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular Weight:
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Chen JC, Smith ER, Cahill M, Cohen R, Fishman JB: The opioid receptor binding of dezocine, morphine, fentanyl, butorphanol and nalbuphine. Life Sci. 1993;52(4):389-96. [PubMed:8093631 ]
  2. De Souza EB, Schmidt WK, Kuhar MJ: Nalbuphine: an autoradiographic opioid receptor binding profile in the central nervous system of an agonist/antagonist analgesic. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Jan;244(1):391-402. [PubMed:2826773 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 25, 2013 09:06