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Identification
NameAgomelatine
Accession NumberDB06594
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Agomelatine is structurally closely related to melatonin. Agomelatine is a potent agonist at melatonin receptors and an antagonist at serotonin-2C (5-HT2C) receptors, tested in an animal model of depression. Agomelatine was discovered and developed by the European pharmaceutical company Servier Laboratories Ltd. Servier continue to develop the drug and conduct phase III trials in the European Union. In 2005 Servier submitted Agomelatine to the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). On 27 July 2006 the Committee for Medical Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the EMEA recommended a refusal of the marketing authorisation of Valdoxan/Thymanax. The major concern was that efficacy had not been sufficiently shown. In 2006 Servier sold the rights to develop Agomelatine in the US to Novartis.

The development for the US market was discontinued in October 2011. It is currently sold in Australia under the Valdoxan trade name.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Valdoxan
External Identifiers
  • S-20098
  • S20098
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
MelitorServier Laboratories Ltd.
ValdoxanServier Laboratories Ltd.
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII137R1N49AD
CAS number138112-76-2
WeightAverage: 243.301
Monoisotopic: 243.125928793
Chemical FormulaC15H17NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=YJYPHIXNFHFHND-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H17NO2/c1-11(17)16-9-8-13-5-3-4-12-6-7-14(18-2)10-15(12)13/h3-7,10H,8-9H2,1-2H3,(H,16,17)
IUPAC Name
N-[2-(7-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)ethyl]acetamide
SMILES
COC1=CC2=C(C=CC=C2CCNC(C)=O)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as naphthalenes. These are compounds containing a naphthalene moiety, which consists of two fused benzene rings.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassNaphthalenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentNaphthalenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Naphthalene
  • Phenethylamine
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Acetamide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationAgomelatine is indicated for the treatment of major depressive episodes in adults.
PharmacodynamicsAgomelatine resynchronises circadian rhythms in animal models of delayed sleep phase syndrome and other circadian rhythm disruptions. It increases noradrenaline and dopamine release specifically in the frontal cortex and has no influence on the extracellular levels of serotonin. Agomelatine has shown an antidepressant-like effect in animal models of depression (learned helplessness test, despair test, chronic mild stress) as well as in models with circadian rhythm desynchronisation and in models related to stress and anxiety. In humans, agomelatine has positive phase shifting properties; it induces a phase advance of sleep, body temperature decline and melatonin onset. Controlled studies in humans have shown that agomelatine is as effective as the SSRI antidepressants paroxetine and sertraline in the treatment of major depression
Mechanism of actionThe novel antidepressant agent, agomelatine, behaves as an agonist at melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) and as an antagonist at serotonin (5-HT)(2C) receptors.
Related Articles
AbsorptionBioavailability is less than 5%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding> 95%
Metabolism

Hepatic (90% CYP1A2 and 10% CYP2C9).

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life<2 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9923
Caco-2 permeable+0.7464
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5356
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6423
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6412
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5291
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7647
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.7219
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7276
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8543
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7758
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5445
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7478
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7746
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5467
Ames testAMES toxic0.6796
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8958
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8296
Rat acute toxicity2.2095 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9236
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6648
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility~0.5 mg/ml in 1:1 EtOH:PBS (pH 7.2); ~30 mg/ml in EtOH, DMF & DMSONot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00776 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.83ALOGPS
logP2.04ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.96ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.94ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity71.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.18 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Jean-Claude Souvie, Isaac Gonzalez Blanco, Gilles Thominot, Genevieve Chapuis, Stephane Horvath, Gerard Damien, “Process for the synthesis and crystalline form of agomelatine.” U.S. Patent US20050182276, issued August 18, 2005.

US20050182276
General References
  1. Millan MJ, Brocco M, Gobert A, Dekeyne A: Anxiolytic properties of agomelatine, an antidepressant with melatoninergic and serotonergic properties: role of 5-HT2C receptor blockade. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Feb;177(4):448-58. Epub 2004 Jul 31. [PubMed:15289999 ]
  2. Hardeland R, Poeggeler B, Srinivasan V, Trakht I, Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP: Melatonergic drugs in clinical practice. Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58(1):1-10. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1296459. [PubMed:18368944 ]
  3. Racagni G, Riva MA, Popoli M: The interaction between the internal clock and antidepressant efficacy. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Oct;22 Suppl 2:S9-S14. [PubMed:17917564 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN06AX22
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (15.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.
GemfibrozilThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
MethoxsalenThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Methoxsalen.
OfloxacinThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Ofloxacin.
PrimaquineThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Primaquine.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
TranylcypromineThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Tranylcypromine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modul...
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Millan MJ, Brocco M, Gobert A, Dekeyne A: Anxiolytic properties of agomelatine, an antidepressant with melatoninergic and serotonergic properties: role of 5-HT2C receptor blockade. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Feb;177(4):448-58. Epub 2004 Jul 31. [PubMed:15289999 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Organic cyclic compound binding
Specific Function:
High affinity receptor for melatonin. Likely to mediates the reproductive and circadian actions of melatonin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity.
Gene Name:
MTNR1A
Uniprot ID:
P48039
Molecular Weight:
39374.315 Da
References
  1. Millan MJ, Brocco M, Gobert A, Dekeyne A: Anxiolytic properties of agomelatine, an antidepressant with melatoninergic and serotonergic properties: role of 5-HT2C receptor blockade. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Feb;177(4):448-58. Epub 2004 Jul 31. [PubMed:15289999 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Melatonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
High affinity receptor for melatonin. Likely to mediates the reproductive and circadian actions of melatonin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity.
Gene Name:
MTNR1B
Uniprot ID:
P49286
Molecular Weight:
40187.895 Da
References
  1. Millan MJ, Brocco M, Gobert A, Dekeyne A: Anxiolytic properties of agomelatine, an antidepressant with melatoninergic and serotonergic properties: role of 5-HT2C receptor blockade. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Feb;177(4):448-58. Epub 2004 Jul 31. [PubMed:15289999 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Carney RM, Shelton RC: Agomelatine for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011 Oct;12(15):2411-9. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2011.607812. [PubMed:21916789 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Dolder CR, Nelson M, Snider M: Agomelatine treatment of major depressive disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Dec;42(12):1822-31. doi: 10.1345/aph.1L296. Epub 2008 Nov 25. [PubMed:19033480 ]
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Drug created on March 19, 2008 10:39 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:24