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Identification
NameCocaine
Accession NumberDB00907  (APRD00080)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Illicit
Description

An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(-)-CocaineNot AvailableNot Available
(−)-cocaineNot AvailableNot Available
[1R-(Exo,exo)]-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid, methyl esterNot AvailableNot Available
2-Methyl-3beta-hydroxy-1alphah,5alphah-tropane-2beta-carboxylate benzoate (ester)Not AvailableNot Available
BenzoylmethylecgonineNot AvailableNot Available
beta-CocainNot AvailableNot Available
CocainNot AvailableNot Available
CocainaNot AvailableNot Available
CocaineNot AvailableNot Available
CocainumNot AvailableNot Available
KokainNot AvailableNot Available
L-CocainNot AvailableNot Available
L-CocaineNot AvailableNot Available
Methyl [1R-(exo,exo)]-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylateNot AvailableNot Available
Methyl benzoylecgonineNot AvailableNot Available
NeurocaineNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number50-36-2
WeightAverage: 303.3529
Monoisotopic: 303.147058165
Chemical FormulaC17H21NO4
InChI KeyZPUCINDJVBIVPJ-LJISPDSOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H21NO4/c1-18-12-8-9-13(18)15(17(20)21-2)14(10-12)22-16(19)11-6-4-3-5-7-11/h3-7,12-15H,8-10H2,1-2H3/t12-,13+,14-,15+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylate
SMILES
[H][C@]12CC[C@]([H])([C@H]([C@H](C1)OC(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1)C(=O)OC)N2C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentBenzoic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzoate ester
  • Tropane alkaloid
  • Piperidinecarboxylic acid
  • Benzylether
  • Benzoyl
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Piperidine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Methyl ester
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities.
PharmacodynamicsCocaine is a local anesthetic indicated for the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities.
Mechanism of actionCocaine produces anesthesia by inhibiting excitation of nerve endings or by blocking conduction in peripheral nerves. This is achieved by reversibly binding to and inactivating sodium channels. Sodium influx through these channels is necessary for the depolarization of nerve cell membranes and subsequent propagation of impulses along the course of the nerve. Cocaine is the only local anesthetic with vasoconstrictive properties. This is a result of its blockade of norepinephrine reuptake in the autonomic nervous system. Cocaine binds differentially to the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transport proteins and directly prevents the re-uptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine into pre-synaptic neurons. Its effect on dopamine levels is most responsible for the addictive property of cocaine.
AbsorptionCocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. Cocaine is metabolized to benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, which are both excreted in the urine. In the presence of alcohol, a further active metabolite, cocaethylene is formed, and is more toxic then cocaine itself.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Cocaine
norcocaineDetails
Cocaine
Not Available
BenzoylecgonineDetails
Cocaine
Not Available
CocaethyleneDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life1 hour
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityIntense agitation, convulsions, hypertension, rhythm disturbance, coronary insufficiency, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and renal impairment. Oral mouse LD50 = 96 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8644
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8805
Caco-2 permeable+0.7654
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8168
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.893
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6182
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6856
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8627
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9341
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5614
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9383
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9237
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9408
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7437
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9585
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.5319
Rat acute toxicity2.6387 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8463
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8042
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cocaine hydrochloride powder68.44USD g
Cocaine 10% solution10.68USD ml
Cocaine 4% solution6.22USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point98 °CPhysProp
water solubility1800 mg/L (at 22 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.23ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.61 (at 15 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.03 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.97ALOGPS
logP2.28ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.85ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area55.84 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity81.16 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.36 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (2.96 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Nobuyuki Shigetoh, Hiroshi Nakayama, Jinsei Miyazaki, Tadayasu Mitsumata, “Labelling colors for detecting cocaine or methamphetamine, method of preparing the same and detector for cocaine or methamphetamine.” U.S. Patent US5571727, issued October, 1981.

US5571727
General Reference
  1. Siegel RK, Elsohly MA, Plowman T, Rury PM, Jones RT: Cocaine in herbal tea. JAMA. 1986 Jan 3;255(1):40. Pubmed
  2. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fischman MW, Foltin R, Fowler JS, Franceschi D, Franceschi M, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Wong C, Ding YS, Hitzemann R, Pappas N: Effects of route of administration on cocaine induced dopamine transporter blockade in the human brain. Life Sci. 2000 Aug 11;67(12):1507-15. Pubmed
  3. Dimitrijevic N, Dzitoyeva S, Manev H: An automated assay of the behavioral effects of cocaine injections in adult Drosophila. J Neurosci Methods. 2004 Aug 30;137(2):181-4. Pubmed
  4. Uz T, Akhisaroglu M, Ahmed R, Manev H: The pineal gland is critical for circadian Period1 expression in the striatum and for circadian cocaine sensitization in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Dec;28(12):2117-23. Pubmed
  5. McClung CA, Sidiropoulou K, Vitaterna M, Takahashi JS, White FJ, Cooper DC, Nestler EJ: Regulation of dopaminergic transmission and cocaine reward by the Clock gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 28;102(26):9377-81. Epub 2005 Jun 20. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesN01BC01R02AD03S01HA01S02DA02
AHFS Codes
  • 52:16.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (104 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
AmphetamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
AprepitantMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
AripiprazoleCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole.
AtomoxetineCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of AtoMOXetine.
BenzphetamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
ChlorphentermineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
ClenbuterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
CodeineCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Codeine. These CYP2D6 inhibitors may prevent the metabolic conversion of codeine to its active metabolite morphine.
ConivaptanMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
DasatinibMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
DobutamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DofetilideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide.
DopamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DronabinolMay enhance the tachycardic effect of Cannabinoid-Containing Products.
EliglustatCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat.
EpinephrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
FenoterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
FesoterodineCYP2D6 Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine.
FormoterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
FosaprepitantMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
HydrocodoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Hydrocodone.
IloperidoneCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolite P88 may be increased. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolite P95 may be decreased. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone.
IobenguaneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Iobenguane I 123.
IsoprenalineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
IvacaftorMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
LabetalolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
LinezolidMay enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics.
LomitapideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide.
LULICONAZOLEMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
MephentermineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MequitazineCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mequitazine.
MetaraminolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MethamphetamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MethoxamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MetoprololCYP2D6 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Metoprolol.
MidodrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MifepristoneMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
NabiloneMay enhance the tachycardic effect of Cannabinoid-Containing Products.
NaphazolineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
NebivololCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nebivolol.
NorepinephrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
OrciprenalineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
OxymetazolineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PhenmetrazineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PhentermineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PhenylephrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PhenylpropanolamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PimozideCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide.
PropafenoneCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Propafenone.
RitodrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
SalmeterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
SimeprevirMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
TamoxifenCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Tamoxifen. Specifically, strong CYP2D6 inhibitors may decrease the metabolic formation of highly potent active metabolites.
TamsulosinCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin.
TerbutalineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
TetrabenazineCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrabenazine. Specifically, concentrations of the active alpha- and beta-dihydrotetrabenazine metabolites may be increased.
ThioridazineCYP2D6 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Thioridazine.
TramadolCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may diminish the therapeutic effect of TraMADol. These CYP2D6 inhibitors may prevent the metabolic conversion of tramadol to its active metabolite that accounts for much of its opioid-like effects.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter Q01959 Details

References:

  1. Wilson JM, Levey AI, Bergeron C, Kalasinsky K, Ang L, Peretti F, Adams VI, Smialek J, Anderson WR, Shannak K, Deck J, Niznik HB, Kish SJ: Striatal dopamine, dopamine transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter in chronic cocaine users. Ann Neurol. 1996 Sep;40(3):428-39. Pubmed
  2. Kim DI, Schweri MM, Deutsch HM: Synthesis and pharmacology of site specific cocaine abuse treatment agents: 8-substituted isotropane (3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) dopamine uptake inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 10;46(8):1456-64. Pubmed
  3. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Appel J, Houghten RA: Discovery of novel peptidic dopamine transporter ligands by screening a positional scanning combinatorial hexapeptide library. Synapse. 1999 Sep 1;33(3):239-46. Pubmed
  4. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed
  5. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. Pubmed

2. Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter P23975 Details

References:

  1. Galli A, DeFelice LJ, Duke BJ, Moore KR, Blakely RD: Sodium-dependent norepinephrine-induced currents in norepinephrine-transporter-transfected HEK-293 cells blocked by cocaine and antidepressants. J Exp Biol. 1995 Oct;198(Pt 10):2197-212. Pubmed
  2. Burchett SA, Bannon MJ: Serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine transporter mRNAs: heterogeneity of distribution and response to ‘binge’ cocaine administration. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997 Oct 3;49(1-2):95-102. Pubmed
  3. Zhao Y, Sun L: Perinatal cocaine exposure reduces myocardial norepinephrine transporter function in the neonatal rat. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2004 May-Jun;26(3):443-50. Pubmed
  4. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed

3. Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter P31645 Details

References:

  1. Patkar AA, Berrettini WH, Hoehe M, Thornton CC, Gottheil E, Hill K, Weinstein SP: Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and measures of impulsivity, aggression, and sensation seeking among African-American cocaine-dependent individuals. Psychiatry Res. 2002 Jun 1;110(2):103-15. Pubmed
  2. Barker EL, Moore KR, Rakhshan F, Blakely RD: Transmembrane domain I contributes to the permeation pathway for serotonin and ions in the serotonin transporter. J Neurosci. 1999 Jun 15;19(12):4705-17. Pubmed
  3. Corey JL, Quick MW, Davidson N, Lester HA, Guastella J: A cocaine-sensitive Drosophila serotonin transporter: cloning, expression, and electrophysiological characterization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Feb 1;91(3):1188-92. Pubmed
  4. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed
  5. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. Pubmed

4. Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha Q14524 Details

References:

  1. Antzelevitch C: Brugada syndrome. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006 Oct;29(10):1130-59. Pubmed
  2. Satish OS, Yeh KH, Wen MS: Brugada syndrome—an update. Chang Gung Med J. 2005 Feb;28(2):69-76. Pubmed
  3. Wright SN, Wang SY, Xiao YF, Wang GK: State-dependent cocaine block of sodium channel isoforms, chimeras, and channels coexpressed with the beta1 subunit. Biophys J. 1999 Jan;76(1 Pt 1):233-45. Pubmed

5. Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha Q9UI33 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

6. Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha Q9Y5Y9 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

7. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 P11229 Details

References:

  1. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed

8. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 P08172 Details

References:

  1. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed
  2. Sharkey J, Ritz MC, Schenden JA, Hanson RC, Kuhar MJ: Cocaine inhibits muscarinic cholinergic receptors in heart and brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Sep;246(3):1048-52. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Ladona MG, Gonzalez ML, Rane A, Peter RM, de la Torre R: Cocaine metabolism in human fetal and adult liver microsomes is related to cytochrome P450 3A expression. Life Sci. 2000 Dec 15;68(4):431-43. Pubmed
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

3. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

4. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

References:

  1. Grundemann D, Koster S, Kiefer N, Breidert T, Engelhardt M, Spitzenberger F, Obermuller N, Schomig E: Transport of monoamine transmitters by the organic cation transporter type 2, OCT2. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):30915-20. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12