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Identification
NameCocaine
Accession NumberDB00907  (APRD00080)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, illicit
Description

An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(−)-cocaineNot AvailableNot Available
BenzoylmethylecgonineNot AvailableNot Available
beta-CocainNot AvailableNot Available
CocainNot AvailableNot Available
KokainNot AvailableNot Available
NeurocaineNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number50-36-2
WeightAverage: 303.3529
Monoisotopic: 303.147058165
Chemical FormulaC17H21NO4
InChI KeyZPUCINDJVBIVPJ-LJISPDSOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H21NO4/c1-18-12-8-9-13(18)15(17(20)21-2)14(10-12)22-16(19)11-6-4-3-5-7-11/h3-7,12-15H,8-10H2,1-2H3/t12-,13+,14-,15+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylate
SMILES
[H][C@]12CC[C@]([H])([C@H]([C@H](C1)OC(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1)C(=O)OC)N2C
Mass Specshow(2.96 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and Substituted Derivatives
SubclassBenzoic Acid and Derivatives
Direct parentBenzoic Acid Esters
Alternative parentsTropanes; Benzylethers; Piperidinecarboxylic Acids; Benzoyl Derivatives; Dicarboxylic Acids and Derivatives; Pyrrolidines; Tertiary Amines; Carboxylic Acid Esters; Dialkyl Ethers; Polyamines; Enolates
Substituentsbenzoyl; piperidine; dicarboxylic acid derivative; pyrrolidine; carboxylic acid ester; tertiary amine; ether; enolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid derivative; dialkyl ether; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities.
PharmacodynamicsCocaine is a local anesthetic indicated for the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities.
Mechanism of actionCocaine produces anesthesia by inhibiting excitation of nerve endings or by blocking conduction in peripheral nerves. This is achieved by reversibly binding to and inactivating sodium channels. Sodium influx through these channels is necessary for the depolarization of nerve cell membranes and subsequent propagation of impulses along the course of the nerve. Cocaine is the only local anesthetic with vasoconstrictive properties. This is a result of its blockade of norepinephrine reuptake in the autonomic nervous system. Cocaine binds differentially to the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transport proteins and directly prevents the re-uptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine into pre-synaptic neurons. Its effect on dopamine levels is most responsible for the addictive property of cocaine.
AbsorptionCocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. Cocaine is metabolized to benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, which are both excreted in the urine. In the presence of alcohol, a further active metabolite, cocaethylene is formed, and is more toxic then cocaine itself.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Cocaine
norcocaineDetails
Cocaine
Not Available
BenzoylecgonineDetails
Cocaine
Not Available
CocaethyleneDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life1 hour
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityIntense agitation, convulsions, hypertension, rhythm disturbance, coronary insufficiency, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and renal impairment. Oral mouse LD50 = 96 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Cocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00395
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.8644
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.8805
Caco-2 permeable + 0.7654
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8168
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.893
Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.6182
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.6856
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8627
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9341
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5614
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9383
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9237
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9408
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.7437
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9585
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.5319
Rat acute toxicity 2.6387 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.8463
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8042
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cocaine hydrochloride powder68.44USDg
Cocaine 10% solution10.68USDml
Cocaine 4% solution6.22USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point98 °CPhysProp
water solubility1800 mg/L (at 22 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.23ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.61 (at 15 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility5.03e+00 g/lALOGPS
logP1.97ALOGPS
logP2.28ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)8.85ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area55.84ChemAxon
rotatable bond count5ChemAxon
refractivity81.16ChemAxon
polarizability32.36ChemAxon
number of rings3ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Nobuyuki Shigetoh, Hiroshi Nakayama, Jinsei Miyazaki, Tadayasu Mitsumata, “Labelling colors for detecting cocaine or methamphetamine, method of preparing the same and detector for cocaine or methamphetamine.” U.S. Patent US5571727, issued October, 1981.

US5571727
General Reference
  1. Siegel RK, Elsohly MA, Plowman T, Rury PM, Jones RT: Cocaine in herbal tea. JAMA. 1986 Jan 3;255(1):40. Pubmed
  2. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fischman MW, Foltin R, Fowler JS, Franceschi D, Franceschi M, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Wong C, Ding YS, Hitzemann R, Pappas N: Effects of route of administration on cocaine induced dopamine transporter blockade in the human brain. Life Sci. 2000 Aug 11;67(12):1507-15. Pubmed
  3. Dimitrijevic N, Dzitoyeva S, Manev H: An automated assay of the behavioral effects of cocaine injections in adult Drosophila. J Neurosci Methods. 2004 Aug 30;137(2):181-4. Pubmed
  4. Uz T, Akhisaroglu M, Ahmed R, Manev H: The pineal gland is critical for circadian Period1 expression in the striatum and for circadian cocaine sensitization in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Dec;28(12):2117-23. Pubmed
  5. McClung CA, Sidiropoulou K, Vitaterna M, Takahashi JS, White FJ, Cooper DC, Nestler EJ: Regulation of dopaminergic transmission and cocaine reward by the Clock gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 28;102(26):9377-81. Epub 2005 Jun 20. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00110
KEGG CompoundC01416
BindingDB50006232
ChEBI27958
ChEMBLCHEMBL120901
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000834
PharmGKBPA449072
IUPHAR2286
Guide to Pharmacology2286
Drug Product Database2006308
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/cocaine.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cons/cocaine-hydrochloride-topical.html
WikipediaCocaine
ATC CodesN01BC01R02AD03S01HA01S02DA02
AHFS Codes
  • 52:16.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(104 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AtomoxetineCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) such as cocaine may increase the serum concentration of atomoxetine. Initiate atomoxetine at a reduced dose (patients up to 70kg: 0.5mg/kg/day; patients 70kg or more: 40mg/day) in patients receiving a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. The dose should only be increased to usual doses if symptoms fail to improve after 4 weeks. Patients established on atomoxetine therapy may require dosage reductions and should be monitored for increased levels/adverse effects with initiation/dose increase of a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor.
DisulfiramIncreases the cardiac toxicity of cocaine
IloperidoneCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) such as cocaine may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolite P88 may be increased. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolite P95 may be decreased. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone. Reduce iloperidone dose by half when administered with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor.
IobenguaneSympathomimetic that increase chances of producing a false negative imaging result
TamoxifenCocaine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TamsulosinCocaine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Cocaine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
TelithromycinTelithromycin may reduce clearance of Cocaine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Cocaine if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TetrabenazineCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) such as cocaine may increase the serum concentration of tetrabenazine. Specifically, concentrations of the active alpha- and beta-dihydrotetrabenazine metabolites may be increased. Patients receiving a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6 together with tetrabenazine should not exceed 50mg of tetrabenazine. Also, patients already taking tetrabenazine prior to starting a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor should have their tetrabenazine dose reduced by 50% upon initiation of the strong CYP2D6 inhibitor.
TolterodineCocaine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Tolterodine.
TramadolCocaine may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production.
TrimipramineThe strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, Cocaine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimipramine, a CYP2D6 substrate.
VenlafaxineCocaine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Venlafaxine, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Venlafaxine if Cocaine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of cocaine by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of cocaine if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZuclopenthixolCocaine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zuclopenthixol by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zuclopenthixol if cocaine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Zuclopenthixol acetateCocaine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zuclopenthixol by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zuclopenthixol if cocaine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Zuclopenthixol decanoateCocaine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zuclopenthixol by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zuclopenthixol if cocaine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter Q01959 Details

References:

  1. Wilson JM, Levey AI, Bergeron C, Kalasinsky K, Ang L, Peretti F, Adams VI, Smialek J, Anderson WR, Shannak K, Deck J, Niznik HB, Kish SJ: Striatal dopamine, dopamine transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter in chronic cocaine users. Ann Neurol. 1996 Sep;40(3):428-39. Pubmed
  2. Kim DI, Schweri MM, Deutsch HM: Synthesis and pharmacology of site specific cocaine abuse treatment agents: 8-substituted isotropane (3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) dopamine uptake inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 10;46(8):1456-64. Pubmed
  3. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Appel J, Houghten RA: Discovery of novel peptidic dopamine transporter ligands by screening a positional scanning combinatorial hexapeptide library. Synapse. 1999 Sep 1;33(3):239-46. Pubmed
  4. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed
  5. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. Pubmed

2. Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter P23975 Details

References:

  1. Galli A, DeFelice LJ, Duke BJ, Moore KR, Blakely RD: Sodium-dependent norepinephrine-induced currents in norepinephrine-transporter-transfected HEK-293 cells blocked by cocaine and antidepressants. J Exp Biol. 1995 Oct;198(Pt 10):2197-212. Pubmed
  2. Burchett SA, Bannon MJ: Serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine transporter mRNAs: heterogeneity of distribution and response to ‘binge’ cocaine administration. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997 Oct 3;49(1-2):95-102. Pubmed
  3. Zhao Y, Sun L: Perinatal cocaine exposure reduces myocardial norepinephrine transporter function in the neonatal rat. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2004 May-Jun;26(3):443-50. Pubmed
  4. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed

3. Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter P31645 Details

References:

  1. Patkar AA, Berrettini WH, Hoehe M, Thornton CC, Gottheil E, Hill K, Weinstein SP: Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and measures of impulsivity, aggression, and sensation seeking among African-American cocaine-dependent individuals. Psychiatry Res. 2002 Jun 1;110(2):103-15. Pubmed
  2. Barker EL, Moore KR, Rakhshan F, Blakely RD: Transmembrane domain I contributes to the permeation pathway for serotonin and ions in the serotonin transporter. J Neurosci. 1999 Jun 15;19(12):4705-17. Pubmed
  3. Corey JL, Quick MW, Davidson N, Lester HA, Guastella J: A cocaine-sensitive Drosophila serotonin transporter: cloning, expression, and electrophysiological characterization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Feb 1;91(3):1188-92. Pubmed
  4. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed
  5. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. Pubmed

4. Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha Q14524 Details

References:

  1. Antzelevitch C: Brugada syndrome. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006 Oct;29(10):1130-59. Pubmed
  2. Satish OS, Yeh KH, Wen MS: Brugada syndrome—an update. Chang Gung Med J. 2005 Feb;28(2):69-76. Pubmed
  3. Wright SN, Wang SY, Xiao YF, Wang GK: State-dependent cocaine block of sodium channel isoforms, chimeras, and channels coexpressed with the beta1 subunit. Biophys J. 1999 Jan;76(1 Pt 1):233-45. Pubmed

5. Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha Q9UI33 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

6. Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha Q9Y5Y9 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

7. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 P11229 Details

References:

  1. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed

8. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 P08172 Details

References:

  1. Carrera MR, Meijler MM, Janda KD: Cocaine pharmacology and current pharmacotherapies for its abuse. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Oct 1;12(19):5019-30. Pubmed
  2. Sharkey J, Ritz MC, Schenden JA, Hanson RC, Kuhar MJ: Cocaine inhibits muscarinic cholinergic receptors in heart and brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Sep;246(3):1048-52. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Ladona MG, Gonzalez ML, Rane A, Peter RM, de la Torre R: Cocaine metabolism in human fetal and adult liver microsomes is related to cytochrome P450 3A expression. Life Sci. 2000 Dec 15;68(4):431-43. Pubmed
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

3. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

4. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

References:

  1. Grundemann D, Koster S, Kiefer N, Breidert T, Engelhardt M, Spitzenberger F, Obermuller N, Schomig E: Transport of monoamine transmitters by the organic cation transporter type 2, OCT2. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):30915-20. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12