You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameClonazepam
Accession NumberDB01068  (APRD00054)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Illicit
Description

An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor responses. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,3-dihydro-7-Nitro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-2H-1,4.benzodiazepin-2-one
5-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-7-nitro-1,3-dihydro-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2-one
5-(2-Chlorophenyl)-7-nitro-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one
5-(O-Chlorophenyl)-7-nitro-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
CLONAZEPAM
Clonazepamum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Accel-clonazepamtablet2.0 mgoralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Accel-clonazepamtablet1.0 mgoralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Accel-clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Clonapamtablet2.0 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1997-02-28Not applicableCanada
Clonapamtablet1.0 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1997-01-31Not applicableCanada
Clonapamtablet0.5 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1997-01-31Not applicableCanada
Clonazepamtablet1 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-07-09Not applicableCanada
Clonazepamtablet1 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2010-10-202014-06-25Canada
Clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-07-09Not applicableCanada
Clonazepamtablet0.25 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-07-09Not applicableCanada
Clonazepamtablet2 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-07-09Not applicableCanada
Clonazepamtablet2 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2010-10-202014-06-25Canada
Clonazepam-0.5 - Tab 0.5mgtablet.5 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1996-12-042010-07-13Canada
Clonazepam-2 - Tab 2mgtablet2 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1996-12-042010-07-13Canada
Clonazepam-Rtablet0.5 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2010-10-202014-06-25Canada
Co Clonazepamtablet2.0 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals Company2006-02-01Not applicableCanada
Co Clonazepamtablet1.0 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals Company2006-02-01Not applicableCanada
Co Clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals Company2006-02-01Not applicableCanada
Dom-clonazepam - Tab 0.5mgtablet.5 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1996-08-14Not applicableCanada
Dom-clonazepam - Tab 2mgtablet2 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dom-clonazepam-R - Tab 0.5mgtablet.5 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1996-08-20Not applicableCanada
Klonopintablet1 mg/1oralGenentech, Inc.1975-06-02Not applicableUs
Klonopintablet1 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC1975-06-02Not applicableUs
Klonopintablet1 mg/1oralCardinal Health1982-01-01Not applicableUs
Klonopintablet.5 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC1975-06-02Not applicableUs
Klonopintablet.5 mg/1oralCardinal Health1982-01-01Not applicableUs
Klonopintablet2 mg/1oralGenentech, Inc.1975-06-02Not applicableUs
Klonopintablet.5 mg/1oralGenentech, Inc.1975-06-02Not applicableUs
Mylan-clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1997-03-20Not applicableCanada
Mylan-clonazepamtablet2 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1997-03-20Not applicableCanada
Nu-clonazepam - Tab 0.5mgtablet.5 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1995-12-312012-09-04Canada
Nu-clonazepam - Tab 2mgtablet2 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1995-12-312012-09-04Canada
PHL-clonazepam - 0.25mgtablet0.25 mgoralPharmel Inc1998-02-172009-10-30Canada
PHL-clonazepam - Tab 0.5mgtablet.5 mgoralPharmel Inc2003-04-08Not applicableCanada
PHL-clonazepam - Tab 1mgtablet1 mgoralPharmel Inc1997-11-28Not applicableCanada
PHL-clonazepam - Tab 2mgtablet2 mgoralPharmel Inc1997-11-28Not applicableCanada
PHL-clonazepam-Rtablet0.5 mgoralPharmel Inc2004-12-02Not applicableCanada
PMS-clonazepam Tab 0.5mgtablet0.5 mgoralPharmascience Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-clonazepam Tab 1.0mgtablet1 mgoralPharmascience Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-clonazepam Tab 2mgtablet2 mgoralPharmascience Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-clonazepam- Tab 0.25mgtablet0.25 mgoralPharmascience Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-clonazepam-R Tab 0.5mgtablet0.5 mgoralPharmascience Inc1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
Pro-clonazepamtablet2 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-09Not applicableCanada
Pro-clonazepamtablet1 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-09Not applicableCanada
Pro-clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-28Not applicableCanada
Ratio-clonazepamtablet2 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1994-12-312015-10-26Canada
Ratio-clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1994-12-312015-10-26Canada
Riva-clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2000-05-23Not applicableCanada
Riva-clonazepam 2 mgtablet2 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2000-05-23Not applicableCanada
Rivotril 0.5tabtablet0.5 mgoralHoffmann La Roche Limited1977-12-31Not applicableCanada
Rivotril 2tabtablet2 mgoralHoffmann La Roche Limited1977-12-31Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Clonazepamtablet2 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated1997-12-02Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Clonazepamtablet1 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated1997-12-02Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated1997-12-02Not applicableCanada
Teva-clonazepamtablet2 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1999-08-16Not applicableCanada
Teva-clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1999-08-16Not applicableCanada
Zym-clonazepamtablet1 mgoralZymcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-02-262014-06-16Canada
Zym-clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralZymcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-02-262010-02-12Canada
Zym-clonazepamtablet0.5 mgoralZymcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2010-03-122014-06-16Canada
Zym-clonazepamtablet2 mgoralZymcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-02-262014-06-16Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-clonazepam - Tab 0.5mgtablet.5 mgoralApotex Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-clonazepam - Tab 2mgtablet2 mgoralApotex Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating.125 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2005-08-10Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP1996-09-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1997-08-29Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1996-09-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating.5 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2005-08-11Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc1996-09-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-01-17Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralRebel Distributors2009-06-22Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating.25 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2005-08-05Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.1997-08-29Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-25Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralCardinal Health1997-08-29Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2013-10-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-10-20Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-06-17Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-04-02Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralRebel Distributors2009-06-22Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating.125 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2005-08-05Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.1997-08-29Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2014-06-01Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating.25 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-01-14Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2001-08-31Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2010-11-24Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-10-20Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2011-06-03Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC1996-09-17Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-05-14Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-12-19Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.1997-08-29Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.1997-07-15Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-06-26Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2001-08-31Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2007-08-02Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-07-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralRebel Distributors2009-06-22Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-06-22Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-06-16Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-12-31Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-05-14Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-12-19Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-10-20Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.1997-07-15Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-09-25Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2001-08-31Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2007-08-01Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-07-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralAccord Healthcare Inc.2010-11-24Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-09-22Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2014-11-11Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-06-03Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-12-31Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-12Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-09-25Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating2 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2005-08-05Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralActavis Elizabeth LLC2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.1997-07-15Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-05-16Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1996-09-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralAccord Healthcare Inc.2010-11-24Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating2 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2005-08-11Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralMedsource Pharmaceuticals2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc1996-09-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-12-31Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralCardinal Health1997-08-29Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2013-10-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-11Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-09-25Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating1 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2005-08-05Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralActavis Elizabeth LLC2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2016-02-05Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1997-08-29Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2011-12-07Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating.25 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2005-08-10Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2007-08-01Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP1996-09-17Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2011-12-07Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1997-08-29Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1996-09-17Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralAccord Healthcare Inc.2010-11-24Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating1 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2005-08-11Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc1996-09-17Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-01-17Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2006-06-28Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-09-25Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet, orally disintegrating.5 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2005-08-05Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet.5 mg/1oralActavis Elizabeth LLC2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralCardinal Health1997-08-29Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet1 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2013-10-18Not applicableUs
Clonazepamtablet2 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2009-02-13Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AntelepsinAWD
IktorivilRoche
RivotrilRoche
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII5PE9FDE8GB
CAS number1622-61-3
WeightAverage: 315.711
Monoisotopic: 315.041068908
Chemical FormulaC15H10ClN3O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=DGBIGWXXNGSACT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H10ClN3O3/c16-12-4-2-1-3-10(12)15-11-7-9(19(21)22)5-6-13(11)18-14(20)8-17-15/h1-7H,8H2,(H,18,20)
IUPAC Name
5-(2-chlorophenyl)-7-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
SMILES
[O-][N+](=O)C1=CC2=C(NC(=O)CN=C2C2=CC=CC=C2Cl)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzodiazepines
Sub Class1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1,4-benzodiazepine
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Organic nitrite
  • C-nitro compound
  • Lactam
  • Ketimine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Imine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationClonazepam is used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (petit mal variant), akinetic and myoclonic seizures. It can also be used for the treatment of panic disorders.
PharmacodynamicsClonazepam, a benzodiazepine, is used primarily as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of absence seizures, petit mal variant seizures (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome), akinetic and myoclonic seizures, and nocturnal myoclonus. It enhances the activity of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In animals, convulsions are antagonized occurs following administration of clonazepam. In humans, clonazepam suppresses the spike and wave discharge in absence seizures (petit mal) and decreases the frequency, amplitude, duration, and spread of discharge in minor motor seizures.
Mechanism of actionAllosteric interactions between central benzodiazepine receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors potentiate the effects of GABA. As GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, this results in increased inhibition of the ascending reticular activating system. Benzodiazepines, in this way, block the cortical and limbic arousal that occurs following stimulation of the reticular pathways.
Related Articles
AbsorptionClonazepam is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability of clonazepam is about 90%. Cmax, oral administration = 1 -4 hours.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding85% bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism

Hepatic (cytochrome P450, including CYP3A). Biotransformation occurs mainly by reduction of the 7-nitro group to the 4-amino derivative. This derivative can be acetylated, hydroxylated, and glucuronidated.

Route of eliminationClonazepam is highly metabolized, with less than 2% unchanged clonazepam being excreted in the urine. Metabolites of Klonopin are excreted by the kidneys. Clonazepam also undergoes acetylation via NAT2.
Half life30-40 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySomnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes. The most commonly reported adverse event when clonazepam is used for seizure disorders is CNS depression. LD50, oral, rats = >15000 mg/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9946
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9718
Caco-2 permeable+0.5313
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5594
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8474
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9157
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8179
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7777
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8934
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7295
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7646
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.5213
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8271
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.7441
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5565
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7255
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6778
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6417
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.6422 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9821
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral.5 mg
Tabletoral1.0 mg
Tabletoral2.0 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingoral.125 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingoral.25 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingoral.5 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingoral1 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingoral2 mg/1
Tabletoral.5 mg/1
Tabletoral1 mg/1
Tabletoral2 mg/1
Tabletoral0.5 mg
Tabletoral1 mg
Tabletoral2 mg
Tabletoral0.25 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Klonopin 2 mg tablet2.85USD tablet
Klonopin 1 mg tablet2.17USD tablet
Klonopin 0.5 mg tablet1.91USD tablet
ClonazePAM ODT 2 mg Dispersible Tablet1.67USD dispersible tablet
ClonazePAM ODT 0.25 mg Dispersible Tablet1.22USD dispersible tablet
ClonazePAM ODT 0.5 mg Dispersible Tablet1.18USD dispersible tablet
ClonazePAM ODT 0.125 mg Dispersible Tablet1.17USD dispersible tablet
ClonazePAM ODT 1 mg Dispersible Tablet1.1USD dispersible tablet
Clonazepam 2 mg tablet0.81USD tablet
Clonazepam 1 mg tablet0.63USD tablet
Clonazepam 0.5 mg tablet0.61USD tablet
Rivotril 2 mg Tablet0.38USD tablet
Rivotril 0.5 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Apo-Clonazepam 2 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Co Clonazepam 2 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Mylan-Clonazepam 2 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Novo-Clonazepam 2 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Phl-Clonazepam 2 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Pms-Clonazepam 2 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Ratio-Clonazepam 2 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Sandoz Clonazepam 2 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Co Clonazepam 1 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Phl-Clonazepam 1 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Pms-Clonazepam 1 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Sandoz Clonazepam 1 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Apo-Clonazepam 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Co Clonazepam 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Mylan-Clonazepam 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Novo-Clonazepam 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Phl-Clonazepam 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Phl-Clonazepam-R 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Pms-Clonazepam 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Pms-Clonazepam-R 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Ratio-Clonazepam 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Sandoz Clonazepam 0.5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Pms-Clonazepam 0.25 mg Tablet0.07USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point238-240Kariss, J. and Newmark, H.L.; US. Patents 3,116,203; December 31, 1963; and 3,123,529; March 3, 1964; both assigned to Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc. Keller, O., Steiger, N. and Sternbach, L.H.; U S . Patents 3,121,114; February 11, 1964; and 3,203890; August 31, 1965; both assigned to Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc. Focella, A. and Rachlin, A.I.; U.S. Patent 3,335,181; August 8, 1967; assigned to Hoffmann- LaRoche. Inc.
water solubility100 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP2.41HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0106 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.76ALOGPS
logP3.15ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area87.28 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity84.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.59 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-02a9-2492000000-109e2626e8a128b9e433View in MoNA
References
Synthesis Reference

Kariss, J. and Newmark, H.L.; US. Patents 3,116,203; December 31, 1963; and 3,123,529; March 3, 1964; both assigned to Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc.
Keller, O., Steiger, N. and Sternbach, L.H.; U S . Patents 3,121,114; February 11, 1964; and 3,203890; August 31, 1965; both assigned to Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc.
Focella, A. and Rachlin, A.I.; U.S. Patent 3,335,181; August 8, 1967; assigned to Hoffmann- LaRoche. Inc.

General References
  1. Dreifuss FE, Penry JK, Rose SW, Kupferberg HJ, Dyken P, Sato S: Serum clonazepam concentrations in children with absence seizures. Neurology. 1975 Mar;25(3):255-8. [PubMed:1089913 ]
  2. Robertson MD, Drummer OH: Postmortem drug metabolism by bacteria. J Forensic Sci. 1995 May;40(3):382-6. [PubMed:7782744 ]
  3. Rosen GM, Turner MJ 3rd: Synthesis of spin traps specific for hydroxyl radical. J Med Chem. 1988 Feb;31(2):428-32. [PubMed:2828624 ]
  4. Rosen GM, Demos HA, Rauckman EJ: Not all aromatic nitro compounds form free radicals. Toxicol Lett. 1984 Aug;22(2):145-52. [PubMed:6089382 ]
  5. Earley JV, Fryer RI, Ning RY: Quinazolines and 1,4-benzodiazepines. LXXXIX: Haptens useful in benzodiazepine immunoassay development. J Pharm Sci. 1979 Jul;68(7):845-50. [PubMed:458601 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN03AE01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (74.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AminophyllineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clonazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Aminophylline.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AzelastineClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clonazepam.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
BuprenorphineClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonazepam is combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
CosyntropinCosyntropin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Clonazepam.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
DyphyllineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clonazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Dyphylline.
EthanolClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Clonazepam can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Clonazepam.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
HydrocodoneClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Clonazepam.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clonazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.
MethadoneClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methadone.
MethotrimeprazineClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MetyrosineClonazepam may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
MirtazapineClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Clonazepam can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Clonazepam.
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
OrphenadrineClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
ParaldehydeClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonazepam is combined with Paroxetine.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Clonazepam.
PramipexoleClonazepam may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
RopiniroleClonazepam may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineClonazepam may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clonazepam.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium oxybateClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SuvorexantClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
TeduglutideThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be increased when it is combined with Teduglutide.
ThalidomideClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
TheophyllineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clonazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Theophylline.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
VigabatrinVigabatrin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonazepam.
YohimbineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clonazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Yohimbine.
ZolpidemClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benz...
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
References
  1. Carmel I, Fares FA, Leschiner S, Scherubl H, Weisinger G, Gavish M: Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in the regulation of proliferation of MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Jul 15;58(2):273-8. [PubMed:10423168 ]
  2. Bono F, Lamarche I, Prabonnaud V, Le Fur G, Herbert JM: Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor agonists exhibit potent antiapoptotic activities. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Nov 19;265(2):457-61. [PubMed:10558889 ]
  3. Bolger GT, Abraham S, Oz N, Weissman BA: Interactions between peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor ligands and an activator of voltage-operated calcium channels. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1990 Jan;68(1):40-5. [PubMed:1691678 ]
  4. Marano G, Massotti M, Spagnolo A, Carpi A: Enhancement of pharmacologically induced bronchoconstriction by Ro 5-4864. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990 Apr 10;179(1-2):237-40. [PubMed:2364987 ]
  5. Awad M, Gavish M: Solubilization of peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites from cat cerebral cortex. J Neurochem. 1989 Jun;52(6):1880-5. [PubMed:2723642 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Tassaneeyakul W, Birkett DJ, Miners JO: Inhibition of human hepatic cytochrome P4502E1 by azole antifungals, CNS-active drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Xenobiotica. 1998 Mar;28(3):293-301. [PubMed:9574817 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Arylamine n-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT2
Uniprot ID:
P11245
Molecular Weight:
33542.235 Da
References
  1. Olivera M, Martinez C, Gervasini G, Carrillo JA, Ramos S, Benitez J, Garcia-Martin E, Agundez JA: Effect of common NAT2 variant alleles in the acetylation of the major clonazepam metabolite, 7-aminoclonazepam. Drug Metab Lett. 2007 Jan;1(1):3-5. [PubMed:19356010 ]
  2. Miller ME, Garland WA, Min BH, Ludwick BT, Ballard RH, Levy RH: Clonazepam acetylation in fast and slow acetylators. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981 Sep;30(3):343-7. [PubMed:7273597 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Pacifici GM, Viani A, Rizzo G, Carrai M, Rane A: Plasma protein binding of clonazepam in hepatic and renal insufficiency and after hemodialysis. Ther Drug Monit. 1987 Dec;9(4):369-73. [PubMed:3424402 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23