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Identification
NameOrlistat
Accession NumberDB01083  (APRD00255)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Orlistat is a drug designed to treat obesity. Its primary function is preventing the absorption of fats from the human diet, thereby reducing caloric intake. Orlistat works by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides in the intestine. Without this enzyme, triglycerides from the diet are prevented from being hydrolyzed into absorbable free fatty acids and are excreted undigested.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Tetrahydrolipstatin
Orlipastat
Orlipastatum
Tetrahydrolipstatin
Xenical
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Xenicalcapsule120 mg/1oralGenentech, Inc.2010-12-17Not applicableUs
Xenicalcapsule120 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2010-12-17Not applicableUs
Xenical 120mg Capsulecapsule120 mgoralHoffmann La Roche Limited1999-06-03Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Allicapsule60 mg/1oralGlaxo Smith Kline Consumer Healthcare Lp2007-02-07Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII95M8R751W8
CAS number96829-58-2
WeightAverage: 495.7348
Monoisotopic: 495.392373811
Chemical FormulaC29H53NO5
InChI KeyInChIKey=AHLBNYSZXLDEJQ-FWEHEUNISA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H53NO5/c1-5-7-9-11-12-13-14-15-16-18-24(34-29(33)26(30-22-31)20-23(3)4)21-27-25(28(32)35-27)19-17-10-8-6-2/h22-27H,5-21H2,1-4H3,(H,30,31)/t24-,25-,26-,27-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-1-[(2S,3S)-3-hexyl-4-oxooxetan-2-yl]tridecan-2-yl (2S)-2-formamido-4-methylpentanoate
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCC[C@@H](C[C@@H]1OC(=O)[[email protected]]1CCCCCC)OC(=O)[[email protected]](CC(C)C)NC=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid esters. These are ester derivatives of alpha amino acids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-formyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid ester
  • N-formyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Fatty acyl
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Beta_propiolactone
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Oxetane
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor obesity management including weight loss and weight maintenance when used in conjunction with a reduced-calorie diet. Also used to reduce the risk for weight regain after prior weight loss. Use of orlistat is pending revision due to reports of liver-related adverse events.
PharmacodynamicsOrlistat is a lipase inhibitor for obesity management that acts by inhibiting the absorption of dietary fats. At the recommended therapeutic dose of 120 mg three times a day, orlistat inhibits dietary fat absorption by approximately 30%. It works by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, an enzyme that breaks down fat in the intestine. Without this enzyme, fat from the diet is excreted undigested and not absorbed by the body. Because some vitamins are fat soluble, the effect of orlistat is to reduce their body absorption. Therefore the drug should only be taken in conjuction with fatty meals, and a multivitamin tablet containing these vitamins (D E K and beta-carotene) should be taken once a day, at least 2 hours before or after taking the drug. In the March 15, 2004 issue of Cancer Research, [1] Steven J. Kridel et al. state that orlistat may also inhibit growth of prostate cancer, and in theory may be useful in treating other cancers, by interfering with the metabolism of fats.
Mechanism of actionOrlistat is a reversible inhibitor of lipases. It exerts its therapeutic activity in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine by forming a covalent bond with the active serine residue site of gastric and pancreatic lipases. The inactivated enzymes are thus unavailable to hydrolyze dietary fat in the form of triglycerides into absorbable free fatty acids and monoglycerides. As undigested triglycerides are not absorbed, the resulting caloric deficit may have a positive effect on weight control.
Related Articles
AbsorptionSystemic absorption of orlistat is minimal, however systemic absorption of the drug is not needed for activity.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding>99% bound to plasma proteins (lipoproteins and albumin were major binding proteins).
Metabolism

Metabolized primarily within the gastrointestinal wall forming relatively inactive metabolites. Metabolites M1 (4-member lactone ring hydrolyzed) and M3 (M1 with N-formyl leucine moiety cleaved) accounted for approximately 42% of total radioactivity in plasma. M1 and M3 have an open beta-lactone ring and extremely weak lipase inhibitory activity (1000- and 2500-fold less than orlistat, respectively).

Route of eliminationFollowing a single oral dose of 360 mg 14C-orlistat in both normal weight and obese subjects, fecal excretion of the unabsorbed drug was found to be the major route of elimination. Orlistat and its M1 and M3 metabolites were also subject to biliary excretion.
Half life1 to 2 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityThe results of a massive overdose of Xenical are unknown, although the drug seems relatively harmless.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9728
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5923
Caco-2 permeable-0.5611
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5411
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6242
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5301
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9097
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.854
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.826
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5867
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8458
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8305
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8869
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7315
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.907
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7333
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8628
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7808
Rat acute toxicity2.3363 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9671
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9395
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral60 mg/1
Capsuleoral120 mg/1
Capsuleoral120 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Xenical 120 mg capsule4.44USD capsule
Alli 60 mg capsule0.67USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2258095 No2000-02-222018-01-24Canada
CA2383036 No2006-01-102020-09-11Canada
US4598089 No1992-12-182009-12-18Us
US6004996 Yes1998-07-062018-07-06Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityPractically insolubleNot Available
logP8.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.19e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP7.61ALOGPS
logP8.11ChemAxon
logS-6.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area81.7 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count23ChemAxon
Refractivity139.94 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability61.12 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Vilmos Keri, “Preparation of orlistat and orlistat crystalline forms.” U.S. Patent US20030149095, issued August 07, 2003.

US20030149095
General References
  1. Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin MN, Sjostrom L: XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):155-61. [PubMed:14693982 ]
  2. Mancini MC, Halpern A: Pharmacological treatment of obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2006 Apr;50(2):377-89. Epub 2006 May 23. [PubMed:16767304 ]
  3. Menendez JA, Vellon L, Lupu R: Antitumoral actions of the anti-obesity drug orlistat (XenicalTM) in breast cancer cells: blockade of cell cycle progression, promotion of apoptotic cell death and PEA3-mediated transcriptional repression of Her2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene. Ann Oncol. 2005 Aug;16(8):1253-67. Epub 2005 May 3. [PubMed:15870086 ]
  4. Garcia SB, Barros LT, Turatti A, Martinello F, Modiano P, Ribeiro-Silva A, Vespucio MV, Uyemura SA: The anti-obesity agent Orlistat is associated to increase in colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical carcinogen. Cancer Lett. 2006 Aug 28;240(2):221-4. Epub 2005 Dec 27. [PubMed:16377080 ]
  5. Drew BS, Dixon AF, Dixon JB: Obesity management: update on orlistat. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):817-21. [PubMed:18200802 ]
  6. Wong NN, Cheng-Lai A: Orlistat. Heart Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr;2(2):174-81. [PubMed:11728255 ]
  7. Hvizdos KM, Markham A: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of obesity. Drugs. 1999 Oct;58(4):743-60. [PubMed:10551441 ]
  8. Lucas KH, Kaplan-Machlis B: Orlistat--a novel weight loss therapy. Ann Pharmacother. 2001 Mar;35(3):314-28. [PubMed:11261530 ]
  9. Curran MP, Scott LJ: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of patients with obesity. Drugs. 2004;64(24):2845-64. [PubMed:15563254 ]
  10. Ballinger A, Peikin SR: Orlistat: its current status as an anti-obesity drug. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Apr 12;440(2-3):109-17. [PubMed:12007529 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA08AB01
AHFS Codes
  • 56:92.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (82.5 KB)
MSDSDownload (114 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetazolamideThe serum concentration of Acetazolamide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
AlfacalcidolThe serum concentration of Alfacalcidol can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
AmiodaroneOrlistat can cause a decrease in the absorption of Amiodarone resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CalcitriolThe serum concentration of Calcitriol can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Carbamazepine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
CholecalciferolThe serum concentration of Cholecalciferol can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Clobazam can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
ClonazepamThe serum concentration of Clonazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
DelorazepamThe serum concentration of Delorazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
DihydrotachysterolThe serum concentration of Dihydrotachysterol can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
DoxercalciferolThe serum concentration of Doxercalciferol can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
ErgocalciferolThe serum concentration of Ergocalciferol can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Eslicarbazepine acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
EthosuximideThe serum concentration of Ethosuximide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
EthotoinThe serum concentration of Ethotoin can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
EzogabineThe serum concentration of Ezogabine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Felbamate can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
FlunarizineThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
GabapentinThe serum concentration of Gabapentin can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
LacosamideThe serum concentration of Lacosamide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Levothyroxine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
Magnesium SulfateThe serum concentration of Magnesium Sulfate can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
MephenytoinThe serum concentration of Mephenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Meprobamate can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
MethsuximideThe serum concentration of Methsuximide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
MethylphenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Methylphenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Nitrazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
OxcarbazepineThe serum concentration of Oxcarbazepine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
ParicalcitolThe serum concentration of Paricalcitol can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
PerampanelThe serum concentration of Perampanel can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
PhensuximideThe serum concentration of Phensuximide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
PhylloquinoneThe serum concentration of Phylloquinone can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
PregabalinThe serum concentration of Pregabalin can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Primidone can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
ProgabideThe serum concentration of Progabide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Propafenone can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Stiripentol can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
TalampanelThe serum concentration of Talampanel can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
ThiopentalThe serum concentration of Thiopental can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
TiagabineThe serum concentration of Tiagabine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
TopiramateThe serum concentration of Topiramate can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
tramiprosateThe serum concentration of tramiprosate can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
TrimethadioneThe serum concentration of Trimethadione can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
VigabatrinThe serum concentration of Vigabatrin can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
Vitamin AThe serum concentration of Vitamin A can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
Vitamin EThe serum concentration of Vitamin E can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
WarfarinOrlistat may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
ZonisamideThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
Food Interactions
  • Take with meals, or upto 1 hour after a meal. If patient misses a meal, or has a fat-free meal, he/she may skip the corresponding dose.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PNLIP
Uniprot ID:
P16233
Molecular Weight:
51156.48 Da
References
  1. Uusitupa M: New aspects in the management of obesity: operation and the impact of lipase inhibitors. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1999 Feb;10(1):3-7. [PubMed:10095983 ]
  2. Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W: New approaches in the pharmacological treatment of obesity. Eur J Nutr. 1999 Feb;38(1):1-13. [PubMed:10338682 ]
  3. Bray GA: Drug treatment of obesity. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Apr;13(1):131-48. [PubMed:10932681 ]
  4. Bray GA: A concise review on the therapeutics of obesity. Nutrition. 2000 Oct;16(10):953-60. [PubMed:11054601 ]
  5. Gomis Barbara R: [Pharmacological treatment of obesity]. Rev Med Univ Navarra. 2004 Apr-Jun;48(2):63-5. [PubMed:15382615 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  7. Drew BS, Dixon AF, Dixon JB: Obesity management: update on orlistat. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):817-21. [PubMed:18200802 ]
  8. Wong NN, Cheng-Lai A: Orlistat. Heart Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr;2(2):174-81. [PubMed:11728255 ]
  9. Nelson RH, Miles JM: The use of orlistat in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia and Type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005 Nov;6(14):2483-91. [PubMed:16259579 ]
  10. Heck AM, Yanovski JA, Calis KA: Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Mar;20(3):270-9. [PubMed:10730683 ]
  11. Henness S, Perry CM: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of obesity. Drugs. 2006;66(12):1625-56. [PubMed:16956313 ]
  12. Ballinger A, Peikin SR: Orlistat: its current status as an anti-obesity drug. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Apr 12;440(2-3):109-17. [PubMed:12007529 ]
  13. McNeely W, Benfield P: Orlistat. Drugs. 1998 Aug;56(2):241-9; discussion 250. [PubMed:9711448 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LIPF
Uniprot ID:
P07098
Molecular Weight:
45237.375 Da
References
  1. Drew BS, Dixon AF, Dixon JB: Obesity management: update on orlistat. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):817-21. [PubMed:18200802 ]
  2. Wong NN, Cheng-Lai A: Orlistat. Heart Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr;2(2):174-81. [PubMed:11728255 ]
  3. Bray GA: Lifestyle and pharmacological approaches to weight loss: efficacy and safety. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Nov;93(11 Suppl 1):S81-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-1294. [PubMed:18987274 ]
  4. Nelson RH, Miles JM: The use of orlistat in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia and Type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005 Nov;6(14):2483-91. [PubMed:16259579 ]
  5. Heck AM, Yanovski JA, Calis KA: Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Mar;20(3):270-9. [PubMed:10730683 ]
  6. Henness S, Perry CM: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of obesity. Drugs. 2006;66(12):1625-56. [PubMed:16956313 ]
  7. Curran MP, Scott LJ: Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of patients with obesity. Drugs. 2004;64(24):2845-64. [PubMed:15563254 ]
  8. Ballinger A, Peikin SR: Orlistat: its current status as an anti-obesity drug. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Apr 12;440(2-3):109-17. [PubMed:12007529 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
Gene Name:
FASN
Uniprot ID:
P49327
Molecular Weight:
273424.06 Da
References
  1. Kridel SJ, Axelrod F, Rozenkrantz N, Smith JW: Orlistat is a novel inhibitor of fatty acid synthase with antitumor activity. Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 15;64(6):2070-5. [PubMed:15026345 ]
  2. Knowles LM, Axelrod F, Browne CD, Smith JW: A fatty acid synthase blockade induces tumor cell-cycle arrest by down-regulating Skp2. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 16;279(29):30540-5. Epub 2004 May 11. [PubMed:15138278 ]
  3. Menendez JA, Vellon L, Lupu R: Antitumoral actions of the anti-obesity drug orlistat (XenicalTM) in breast cancer cells: blockade of cell cycle progression, promotion of apoptotic cell death and PEA3-mediated transcriptional repression of Her2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene. Ann Oncol. 2005 Aug;16(8):1253-67. Epub 2005 May 3. [PubMed:15870086 ]
  4. Kremer L, de Chastellier C, Dobson G, Gibson KJ, Bifani P, Balor S, Gorvel JP, Locht C, Minnikin DE, Besra GS: Identification and structural characterization of an unusual mycobacterial monomeromycolyl-diacylglycerol. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Aug;57(4):1113-26. [PubMed:16091048 ]
  5. Purohit VC, Richardson RD, Smith JW, Romo D: Practical, catalytic, asymmetric synthesis of beta-lactones via a sequential ketene dimerization/hydrogenation process: inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase. J Org Chem. 2006 Jun 9;71(12):4549-58. [PubMed:16749788 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Novotna A, Doricakova A, Vrzal R, Maurel P, Pavek P, Dvorak Z: Investigation of Orlistat effects on PXR activation and CYP3A4 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human intestinal LS174T cells. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2010 Oct 9;41(2):276-80. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2010.06.019. Epub 2010 Jul 3. [PubMed:20599501 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Phospholipase a2 activity
Specific Function:
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory response.
Gene Name:
PLA2G4A
Uniprot ID:
P47712
Molecular Weight:
85238.2 Da
References
  1. Filippatos TD, Gazi IF, Liberopoulos EN, Athyros VG, Elisaf MS, Tselepis AD, Kiortsis DN: The effect of orlistat and fenofibrate, alone or in combination, on small dense LDL and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Aug;193(2):428-37. Epub 2006 Sep 5. [PubMed:16911813 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 24, 2016 03:05