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Identification
NameAlitretinoin
Accession NumberDB00523  (APRD00017)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionAn important regulator of gene expression during growth and development, and in neoplasms. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal vitamin A, is essential for normal growth; and embryonic development. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of psoriasis; acne vulgaris; and several other skin diseases. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (leukemia, promyelocytic, acute). [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2e,4e,6Z,8e)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-2,4,6,8-nonatetraenoic acid
(7e,9Z,11e,13e)-Retinoic acid
9-cis-Retinoic acid
9-cis-Tretinoin
9(Z)-Retinoic acid
Alitretinoin
Alitretinoína
Alitrétinoïne
Alitretinoinum
Panretin
Panretyn
External Identifiers
  • BAL4079
  • CCRIS 7098
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Panretingel60 mg/60gtopicalEisai Inc.1999-02-03Not applicableUs
Panretingel0.1 %topicalLigand Pharmaceuticals Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Toctinocapsule10 mgoralGlaxosmithkline Inc2011-01-11Not applicableCanada
Toctinocapsule30 mgoralGlaxosmithkline Inc2010-11-19Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII1UA8E65KDZ
CAS number5300-03-8
WeightAverage: 300.4351
Monoisotopic: 300.20893014
Chemical FormulaC20H28O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=SHGAZHPCJJPHSC-ZVCIMWCZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H28O2/c1-15(8-6-9-16(2)14-19(21)22)11-12-18-17(3)10-7-13-20(18,4)5/h6,8-9,11-12,14H,7,10,13H2,1-5H3,(H,21,22)/b9-6+,12-11+,15-8-,16-14+
IUPAC Name
(2E,4E,6Z,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid
SMILES
C\C(\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)=C\C=C\C(\C)=C\C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassRetinoids
Direct ParentRetinoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Retinoid skeleton
  • Diterpenoid
  • Carbocyclic fatty acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor topical treatment of cutaneous lesions in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
PharmacodynamicsAlitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid) is a naturally-occurring endogenous retinoid indicated for topical treatment of cutaneous lesions in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Alitretinoin inhibits the growth of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells in vitro.
Mechanism of actionAlitretinoin binds to and activates all known intracellular retinoid receptor subtypes (RARa, RARb, RARg, RXRa, RXRb and RXRg). Once activated these receptors function as transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes that control the process of cellular differentiation and proliferation in both normal and neoplastic cells.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Retinol MetabolismMetabolicSMP00074
Vitamin A DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00336
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9925
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9311
Caco-2 permeable+0.7603
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6144
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8912
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8088
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8639
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8221
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6025
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8831
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9301
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9252
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8944
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7081
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5554
Rat acute toxicity2.1455 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9562
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9538
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eisai inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Geltopical0.1 %
Geltopical60 mg/60g
Capsuleoral10 mg
Capsuleoral30 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Retin-A Micro Pump 0.04% Gel 50 gm Bottle246.73USD bottle
Retin-A Micro Pump 0.1% Gel 50 gm Bottle246.73USD bottle
Retin-A Micro 0.04% Gel 45 gm Tube212.3USD tube
Retin-A Micro 0.1% Gel 45 gm Tube212.3USD tube
Retin-A 0.1% Cream 45 gm Tube211.1USD tube
Retin-A 0.05% Cream 45 gm Tube181.16USD tube
Retin-A 0.025% Cream 45 gm Tube163.07USD tube
Retin-A 0.025% Gel 45 gm Tube162.79USD tube
Retin-A 0.01% Gel 45 gm Tube161.48USD tube
Retin-A Micro 0.04% Gel 20 gm Tube123.7USD tube
Retin-A Micro 0.1% Gel 20 gm Tube117.51USD tube
Retin-A 0.1% Cream 20 gm Tube112.51USD tube
Retin-A 0.05% Cream 20 gm Tube97.85USD tube
Retin-A 0.025% Cream 20 gm Tube85.59USD tube
Retin-A 0.01% Gel 15 gm Tube75.83USD tube
Retin-A 0.025% Gel 15 gm Tube69.01USD tube
Panretin 0.1% gel41.0USD g
Vesanoid 10 mg capsule31.54USD capsule
Retin-a micro 0.04% gel5.65USD g
Retin-a micro 0.1% gel5.65USD g
Retin-a micro pump 0.04% gel4.74USD g
Retin-a micro pump 0.1% gel4.74USD g
Retin-a 0.05% cream4.64USD g
Retin-a 0.1% cream4.51USD g
Renova 0.02% cream4.46USD g
Renova pump 0.02% cream4.28USD g
Retin-a 0.025% cream4.14USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2301907 No2009-02-102018-08-18Canada
US5932622 No1996-08-032016-08-03Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point189-190 °CNot Available
water solubility0.6 mg/LNot Available
logP4.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00477 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.66ALOGPS
logP5.01ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity97.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.95 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Hector F. DeLuca, Praveen K. Tadikonda, “Method of synthesis of retinoic acid.” U.S. Patent US5808120, issued December, 1975.

US5808120
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesD11AH04L01XX22
AHFS Codes
  • 84:16.00
  • 92:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (21.8 KB)
MSDSDownload (37.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Alitretinoin.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Afatinib.
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Amiodarone.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AtenololThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Atenolol.
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.
AzelastineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Azelastine.
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.
BepridilThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Alitretinoin.
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Bosutinib.
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Bromocriptine.
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Cabazitaxel.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Canagliflozin.
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Citalopram.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ClotrimazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Clotrimazole.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Colchicine.
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Crizotinib.
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Alitretinoin.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Cyclosporine.
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Dactinomycin.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Alitretinoin.
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Alitretinoin.
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Alitretinoin.
DihydroergotamineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Diltiazem.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Dipyridamole.
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Alitretinoin.
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Dronedarone.
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Erythromycin.
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.
EstriolThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Estriol.
EstroneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Estrone.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Etravirine.
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.
FentanylThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Fexofenadine.
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Fidaxomicin.
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Gefitinib.
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Grepafloxacin.
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Haloperidol.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Hydrocortisone.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Imatinib.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Imipramine.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Indinavir.
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
IsavuconazoniumThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Isavuconazonium.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ivermectin.
KetamineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Lansoprazole.
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Levofloxacin.
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Lovastatin.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.
MethotrexateAlitretinoin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Methotrexate.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Metoprolol.
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Morphine.
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Nilotinib.
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Alitretinoin.
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Paclitaxel.
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ponatinib.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Pravastatin.
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Prazosin.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Prednisone.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Propranolol.
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Selegiline.
SertralineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Sorafenib.
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.
TacrineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Tacrolimus.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Taurocholic Acid.
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Temsirolimus.
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ticagrelor.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Tolvaptan.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Alitretinoin.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Venlafaxine.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Verapamil.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RX...
Gene Name:
RARA
Uniprot ID:
P10276
Molecular Weight:
50770.805 Da
References
  1. Baumann L, Vujevich J, Halem M, Martin LK, Kerdel F, Lazarus M, Pacheco H, Black L, Bryde J: Open-label pilot study of alitretinoin gel 0.1% in the treatment of photoaging. Cutis. 2005 Jul;76(1):69-73. [PubMed:16144296 ]
  2. Milliano MT, Luxon BA: Rat hepatic stellate cells become retinoid unresponsive during activation. Hepatol Res. 2005 Nov;33(3):225-33. Epub 2005 Oct 25. [PubMed:16253547 ]
  3. Rasooly R, Schuster GU, Gregg JP, Xiao JH, Chandraratna RA, Stephensen CB: Retinoid x receptor agonists increase bcl2a1 expression and decrease apoptosis of naive T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2005 Dec 15;175(12):7916-29. [PubMed:16339527 ]
  4. Schrage K, Koopmans G, Joosten EA, Mey J: Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jan;23(2):285-95. [PubMed:16420438 ]
  5. Ritter M, Kattmann D, Teichler S, Hartmann O, Samuelsson MK, Burchert A, Bach JP, Kim TD, Berwanger B, Thiede C, Jager R, Ehninger G, Schafer H, Ueki N, Hayman MJ, Eilers M, Neubauer A: Inhibition of retinoic acid receptor signaling by Ski in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 2006 Mar;20(3):437-43. [PubMed:16424870 ]
  6. Cheng C, Michaels J, Scheinfeld N: Alitretinoin: a comprehensive review. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Mar;17(3):437-43. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.3.437 . [PubMed:18321241 ]
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXR...
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular Weight:
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Bartholin L, Powers SE, Melhuish TA, Lasse S, Weinstein M, Wotton D: TGIF inhibits retinoid signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Feb;26(3):990-1001. [PubMed:16428452 ]
  2. Calleja C, Messaddeq N, Chapellier B, Yang H, Krezel W, Li M, Metzger D, Mascrez B, Ohta K, Kagechika H, Endo Y, Mark M, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P: Genetic and pharmacological evidence that a retinoic acid cannot be the RXR-activating ligand in mouse epidermis keratinocytes. Genes Dev. 2006 Jun 1;20(11):1525-38. [PubMed:16751185 ]
  3. Zhelyaznik N, Mey J: Regulation of retinoic acid receptors alpha, beta and retinoid X receptor alpha after sciatic nerve injury. Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 15;141(4):1761-74. Epub 2006 Jun 19. [PubMed:16782282 ]
  4. Fukasawa H, Kagechika H, Shudo K: [Retinoid therapy for autoimmune diseases]. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi. 2006 Jun;29(3):114-26. [PubMed:16819260 ]
  5. Mizuguchi Y, Wada A, Nakagawa K, Ito M, Okano T: Antitumoral activity of 13-demethyl or 13-substituted analogues of all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid in the human myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Sep;29(9):1803-9. [PubMed:16946489 ]
  6. Cheng C, Michaels J, Scheinfeld N: Alitretinoin: a comprehensive review. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Mar;17(3):437-43. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.3.437 . [PubMed:18321241 ]
  7. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. doi: 10.2165/11202200-000000000-00000. [PubMed:19678713 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence or presence of ho...
Gene Name:
RARB
Uniprot ID:
P10826
Molecular Weight:
50488.63 Da
References
  1. Mizuiri H, Yoshida K, Toge T, Oue N, Aung PP, Noguchi T, Yasui W: DNA methylation of genes linked to retinoid signaling in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: DNA methylation of CRBP1 and TIG1 is associated with tumor stage. Cancer Sci. 2005 Sep;96(9):571-7. [PubMed:16128742 ]
  2. Milliano MT, Luxon BA: Rat hepatic stellate cells become retinoid unresponsive during activation. Hepatol Res. 2005 Nov;33(3):225-33. Epub 2005 Oct 25. [PubMed:16253547 ]
  3. Liu Z, Zhang L, Ding F, Li J, Guo M, Li W, Wang Y, Yu Z, Zhan Q, Wu M, Liu Z: 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine induces retinoic acid receptor-beta(2) demethylation and growth inhibition in esophageal squamous carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2005 Dec 18;230(2):271-83. [PubMed:16297713 ]
  4. Nalbandian A, Pang AL, Rennert OM, Chan WY, Ravindranath N, Djakiew D: A novel function of differentiation revealed by cDNA microarray profiling of p75NTR-regulated gene expression. Differentiation. 2005 Oct;73(8):385-96. [PubMed:16316409 ]
  5. Husson M, Enderlin V, Delacourte A, Ghenimi N, Alfos S, Pallet V, Higueret P: Retinoic acid normalizes nuclear receptor mediated hypo-expression of proteins involved in beta-amyloid deposits in the cerebral cortex of vitamin A deprived rats. Neurobiol Dis. 2006 Jul;23(1):1-10. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [PubMed:16531051 ]
  6. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. doi: 10.2165/11202200-000000000-00000. [PubMed:19678713 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (By similarity). Specifically bin...
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular Weight:
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Brtko J: Role of retinoids and their cognate nuclear receptors in breast cancer chemoprevention. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2007 Mar;15(1):3-6. [PubMed:17491551 ]
  2. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans RM, Lazar MA, Leid M, De Lera AR, Lotan R, Mangelsdorf DJ, Gronemeyer H: International Union of Pharmacology. LXIII. Retinoid X receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006 Dec;58(4):760-72. [PubMed:17132853 ]
  3. Bergheim I, Wolfgarten E, Bollschweiler E, Holscher AH, Bode CH, Parlesak A: Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus. J Carcinog. 2005 Nov 8;4:20. [PubMed:16277658 ]
  4. Schrage K, Koopmans G, Joosten EA, Mey J: Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jan;23(2):285-95. [PubMed:16420438 ]
  5. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. [PubMed:16109390 ]
  6. Cheng C, Michaels J, Scheinfeld N: Alitretinoin: a comprehensive review. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Mar;17(3):437-43. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.3.437 . [PubMed:18321241 ]
  7. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. doi: 10.2165/11202200-000000000-00000. [PubMed:19678713 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, acts m...
Gene Name:
RARG
Uniprot ID:
P13631
Molecular Weight:
50341.405 Da
References
  1. Dzhagalov I, Chambon P, He YW: Regulation of CD8+ T lymphocyte effector function and macrophage inflammatory cytokine production by retinoic acid receptor gamma. J Immunol. 2007 Feb 15;178(4):2113-21. [PubMed:17277115 ]
  2. Parrella E, Gianni M, Fratelli M, Barzago MM, Raska I Jr, Diomede L, Kurosaki M, Pisano C, Carminati P, Merlini L, Dallavalle S, Tavecchio M, Rochette-Egly C, Terao M, Garattini E: Antitumor activity of the retinoid-related molecules (E)-3-(4'-hydroxy-3'-adamantylbiphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid (ST1926) and 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) in F9 teratocarcinoma: Role of retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid-independent pathways. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;70(3):909-24. Epub 2006 Jun 20. [PubMed:16788091 ]
  3. Li M, Hener P, Zhang Z, Kato S, Metzger D, Chambon P: Topical vitamin D3 and low-calcemic analogs induce thymic stromal lymphopoietin in mouse keratinocytes and trigger an atopic dermatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 1;103(31):11736-41. Epub 2006 Jul 31. [PubMed:16880407 ]
  4. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. doi: 10.2165/11202200-000000000-00000. [PubMed:19678713 ]
  5. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXR...
Gene Name:
RXRG
Uniprot ID:
P48443
Molecular Weight:
50870.72 Da
References
  1. Adamczewski Z, Makarewicz J, Mikosinski S, Knapska-Kucharska M, Gunerska-Szadkowska A, Oszukowska L, Karwowska A, Lewinski A: [Application of 13-cis-retinoic acid in patients with 131I scintigraphically-negative metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Endokrynol Pol. 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):403-6. [PubMed:17006844 ]
  2. Brtko J: Role of retinoids and their cognate nuclear receptors in breast cancer chemoprevention. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2007 Mar;15(1):3-6. [PubMed:17491551 ]
  3. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans RM, Lazar MA, Leid M, De Lera AR, Lotan R, Mangelsdorf DJ, Gronemeyer H: International Union of Pharmacology. LXIII. Retinoid X receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006 Dec;58(4):760-72. [PubMed:17132853 ]
  4. He JC, Lu TC, Fleet M, Sunamoto M, Husain M, Fang W, Neves S, Chen Y, Shankland S, Iyengar R, Klotman PE: Retinoic acid inhibits HIV-1-induced podocyte proliferation through the cAMP pathway. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Jan;18(1):93-102. Epub 2006 Dec 20. [PubMed:17182884 ]
  5. Day RM, Lee YH, Park AM, Suzuki YJ: Retinoic acid inhibits airway smooth muscle cell migration. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006 Jun;34(6):695-703. Epub 2006 Feb 2. [PubMed:16456186 ]
  6. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. doi: 10.2165/11202200-000000000-00000. [PubMed:19678713 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports retinoic acid to the nucleus. Regulates the access of retinoic acid to the nuclear retinoic acid receptors.
Gene Name:
CRABP2
Uniprot ID:
P29373
Molecular Weight:
15692.925 Da
References
  1. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. [PubMed:16109390 ]
  2. Donato LJ, Noy N: Suppression of mammary carcinoma growth by retinoic acid: proapoptotic genes are targets for retinoic acid receptor and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II signaling. Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8193-9. [PubMed:16166294 ]
  3. Bry K, Lappalainen U: Pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: the role of interleukin 1beta in the regulation of inflammation-mediated pulmonary retinoic acid pathways in transgenic mice. Semin Perinatol. 2006 Jun;30(3):121-8. [PubMed:16813970 ]
  4. Wei T, Geiser AG, Qian HR, Su C, Helvering LM, Kulkarini NH, Shou J, N'Cho M, Bryant HU, Onyia JE: DNA microarray data integration by ortholog gene analysis reveals potential molecular mechanisms of estrogen-dependent growth of human uterine fibroids. BMC Womens Health. 2007 Apr 2;7:5. [PubMed:17407572 ]
  5. Boorjian SA, Milowsky MI, Kaplan J, Albert M, Cobham MV, Coll DM, Mongan NP, Shelton G, Petrylak D, Gudas LJ, Nanus DM: Phase 1/2 clinical trial of interferon alpha2b and weekly liposome-encapsulated all-trans retinoic acid in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. J Immunother. 2007 Sep;30(6):655-62. [PubMed:17667529 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Cytosolic CRABPs may regulate the access of retinoic acid to the nuclear retinoic acid receptors.
Gene Name:
CRABP1
Uniprot ID:
P29762
Molecular Weight:
15565.45 Da
References
  1. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. [PubMed:16109390 ]
  2. Goelden U, Pfoertner S, Hansen W, Toepfer T, von Knobloch R, Hofmann R, Buer J, Schrader AJ: Expression and functional influence of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II in renal cell carcinoma. Urol Int. 2005;75(3):269-76. [PubMed:16215318 ]
  3. Levadoux-Martin M, Li Y, Blackburn A, Chabanon H, Hesketh JE: Perinuclear localisation of cellular retinoic acid binding protein I mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Feb 3;340(1):326-31. [PubMed:16376305 ]
  4. Jetten AM: Multi-stage program of differentiation in human epidermal keratinocytes: regulation by retinoids. J Invest Dermatol. 1990 Nov;95(5 Suppl):44S-46S. [PubMed:16788631 ]
  5. Bry K, Lappalainen U: Pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: the role of interleukin 1beta in the regulation of inflammation-mediated pulmonary retinoic acid pathways in transgenic mice. Semin Perinatol. 2006 Jun;30(3):121-8. [PubMed:16813970 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Schuetz EG, Yasuda K, Arimori K, Schuetz JD: Human MDR1 and mouse mdr1a P-glycoprotein alter the cellular retention and disposition of erythromycin, but not of retinoic acid or benzo(a)pyrene. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 Feb 15;350(2):340-7. [PubMed:9473310 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 29, 2016 02:25