You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameAlitretinoin
Accession NumberDB00523  (APRD00017)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, investigational
Description

An important regulator of gene expression during growth and development, and in neoplasms. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal vitamin A, is essential for normal growth; and embryonic development. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of psoriasis; acne vulgaris; and several other skin diseases. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (leukemia, promyelocytic, acute). [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
9-cis-Retinoic acidNot AvailableIS
AlitretinoinGermanINN
AlitretinoínaSpanishINN
AlitrétinoïneFrenchINN
AlitretinoinumLatinINN
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
PanretinEisai
ToctinoBasilea
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number5300-03-8
WeightAverage: 300.4351
Monoisotopic: 300.20893014
Chemical FormulaC20H28O2
InChI KeySHGAZHPCJJPHSC-ZVCIMWCZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H28O2/c1-15(8-6-9-16(2)14-19(21)22)11-12-18-17(3)10-7-13-20(18,4)5/h6,8-9,11-12,14H,7,10,13H2,1-5H3,(H,21,22)/b9-6+,12-11+,15-8-,16-14+
IUPAC Name
(2E,4E,6Z,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid
SMILES
C\C(\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)=C\C=C\C(\C)=C\C(O)=O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassLipids
ClassPrenol Lipids
SubclassRetinoids
Direct parentRetinoids
Alternative parentsDiterpenes; Carbocyclic Fatty Acids; Branched Fatty Acids; Unsaturated Fatty Acids; Enones; Carboxylic Acids; Polyamines; Enolates
Substituentsenone; enolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid; carboxylic acid derivative
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the retinoids. These are compounds that are related to vitamin A, especially retinol.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor topical treatment of cutaneous lesions in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
PharmacodynamicsAlitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid) is a naturally-occurring endogenous retinoid indicated for topical treatment of cutaneous lesions in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Alitretinoin inhibits the growth of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells in vitro.
Mechanism of actionAlitretinoin binds to and activates all known intracellular retinoid receptor subtypes (RARa, RARb, RARg, RXRa, RXRb and RXRg). Once activated these receptors function as transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes that control the process of cellular differentiation and proliferation in both normal and neoplastic cells.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9925
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9311
Caco-2 permeable + 0.7603
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.6144
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.8912
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8088
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8639
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8221
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.6025
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9046
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8831
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9301
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9252
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8944
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.7081
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.5554
Rat acute toxicity 2.1455 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9562
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9538
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eisai inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
CreamTopical
GelTopical
LiquidTopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Retin-A Micro Pump 0.04% Gel 50 gm Bottle246.73USDbottle
Retin-A Micro Pump 0.1% Gel 50 gm Bottle246.73USDbottle
Retin-A Micro 0.04% Gel 45 gm Tube212.3USDtube
Retin-A Micro 0.1% Gel 45 gm Tube212.3USDtube
Retin-A 0.1% Cream 45 gm Tube211.1USDtube
Retin-A 0.05% Cream 45 gm Tube181.16USDtube
Retin-A 0.025% Cream 45 gm Tube163.07USDtube
Retin-A 0.025% Gel 45 gm Tube162.79USDtube
Retin-A 0.01% Gel 45 gm Tube161.48USDtube
Retin-A Micro 0.04% Gel 20 gm Tube123.7USDtube
Retin-A Micro 0.1% Gel 20 gm Tube117.51USDtube
Retin-A 0.1% Cream 20 gm Tube112.51USDtube
Retin-A 0.05% Cream 20 gm Tube97.85USDtube
Retin-A 0.025% Cream 20 gm Tube85.59USDtube
Retin-A 0.01% Gel 15 gm Tube75.83USDtube
Retin-A 0.025% Gel 15 gm Tube69.01USDtube
Panretin 0.1% gel41.0USDg
Vesanoid 10 mg capsule31.54USDcapsule
Retin-a micro 0.04% gel5.65USDg
Retin-a micro 0.1% gel5.65USDg
Retin-a micro pump 0.04% gel4.74USDg
Retin-a micro pump 0.1% gel4.74USDg
Retin-a 0.05% cream4.64USDg
Retin-a 0.1% cream4.51USDg
Renova 0.02% cream4.46USDg
Renova pump 0.02% cream4.28USDg
Retin-a 0.025% cream4.14USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States59326221996-08-032016-08-03
Canada23019072009-02-102018-08-18
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point189-190 °CNot Available
water solubility0.6 mg/LNot Available
logP4.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility4.77e-03 g/lALOGPS
logP5.66ALOGPS
logP5.01ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)5ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area37.3ChemAxon
rotatable bond count5ChemAxon
refractivity97.79ChemAxon
polarizability35.95ChemAxon
number of rings1ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Hector F. DeLuca, Praveen K. Tadikonda, “Method of synthesis of retinoic acid.” U.S. Patent US5808120, issued December, 1975.

US5808120
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
BindingDB31883
ChEBI50648
ChEMBLCHEMBL705
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000275
PharmGKBPA164746900
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic2/alitre.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/alitretinoin.html
WikipediaAlitretinoin
ATC CodesL01XX22D11AH04
AHFS Codes
  • 92:00.00
  • 84:16.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(21.8 KB)
MSDSshow(37.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Retinoic acid receptor alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoic acid receptor alpha P10276 Details

References:

  1. Baumann L, Vujevich J, Halem M, Martin LK, Kerdel F, Lazarus M, Pacheco H, Black L, Bryde J: Open-label pilot study of alitretinoin gel 0.1% in the treatment of photoaging. Cutis. 2005 Jul;76(1):69-73. Pubmed
  2. Milliano MT, Luxon BA: Rat hepatic stellate cells become retinoid unresponsive during activation. Hepatol Res. 2005 Nov;33(3):225-33. Epub 2005 Oct 25. Pubmed
  3. Rasooly R, Schuster GU, Gregg JP, Xiao JH, Chandraratna RA, Stephensen CB: Retinoid x receptor agonists increase bcl2a1 expression and decrease apoptosis of naive T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2005 Dec 15;175(12):7916-29. Pubmed
  4. Schrage K, Koopmans G, Joosten EA, Mey J: Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jan;23(2):285-95. Pubmed
  5. Ritter M, Kattmann D, Teichler S, Hartmann O, Samuelsson MK, Burchert A, Bach JP, Kim TD, Berwanger B, Thiede C, Jager R, Ehninger G, Schafer H, Ueki N, Hayman MJ, Eilers M, Neubauer A: Inhibition of retinoic acid receptor signaling by Ski in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 2006 Mar;20(3):437-43. Pubmed
  6. Cheng C, Michaels J, Scheinfeld N: Alitretinoin: a comprehensive review. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Mar;17(3):437-43. Pubmed
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha P19793 Details

References:

  1. Bartholin L, Powers SE, Melhuish TA, Lasse S, Weinstein M, Wotton D: TGIF inhibits retinoid signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Feb;26(3):990-1001. Pubmed
  2. Calleja C, Messaddeq N, Chapellier B, Yang H, Krezel W, Li M, Metzger D, Mascrez B, Ohta K, Kagechika H, Endo Y, Mark M, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P: Genetic and pharmacological evidence that a retinoic acid cannot be the RXR-activating ligand in mouse epidermis keratinocytes. Genes Dev. 2006 Jun 1;20(11):1525-38. Pubmed
  3. Zhelyaznik N, Mey J: Regulation of retinoic acid receptors alpha, beta and retinoid X receptor alpha after sciatic nerve injury. Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 15;141(4):1761-74. Epub 2006 Jun 19. Pubmed
  4. Fukasawa H, Kagechika H, Shudo K: [Retinoid therapy for autoimmune diseases] Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi. 2006 Jun;29(3):114-26. Pubmed
  5. Mizuguchi Y, Wada A, Nakagawa K, Ito M, Okano T: Antitumoral activity of 13-demethyl or 13-substituted analogues of all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid in the human myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Sep;29(9):1803-9. Pubmed
  6. Cheng C, Michaels J, Scheinfeld N: Alitretinoin: a comprehensive review. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Mar;17(3):437-43. Pubmed
  7. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. Pubmed

3. Retinoic acid receptor beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoic acid receptor beta P10826 Details

References:

  1. Mizuiri H, Yoshida K, Toge T, Oue N, Aung PP, Noguchi T, Yasui W: DNA methylation of genes linked to retinoid signaling in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: DNA methylation of CRBP1 and TIG1 is associated with tumor stage. Cancer Sci. 2005 Sep;96(9):571-7. Pubmed
  2. Milliano MT, Luxon BA: Rat hepatic stellate cells become retinoid unresponsive during activation. Hepatol Res. 2005 Nov;33(3):225-33. Epub 2005 Oct 25. Pubmed
  3. Liu Z, Zhang L, Ding F, Li J, Guo M, Li W, Wang Y, Yu Z, Zhan Q, Wu M, Liu Z: 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine induces retinoic acid receptor-beta(2) demethylation and growth inhibition in esophageal squamous carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2005 Dec 18;230(2):271-83. Pubmed
  4. Nalbandian A, Pang AL, Rennert OM, Chan WY, Ravindranath N, Djakiew D: A novel function of differentiation revealed by cDNA microarray profiling of p75NTR-regulated gene expression. Differentiation. 2005 Oct;73(8):385-96. Pubmed
  5. Husson M, Enderlin V, Delacourte A, Ghenimi N, Alfos S, Pallet V, Higueret P: Retinoic acid normalizes nuclear receptor mediated hypo-expression of proteins involved in beta-amyloid deposits in the cerebral cortex of vitamin A deprived rats. Neurobiol Dis. 2006 Jul;23(1):1-10. Epub 2006 Mar 10. Pubmed
  6. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. Pubmed

4. Retinoic acid receptor RXR-beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-beta P28702 Details

References:

  1. Brtko J: Role of retinoids and their cognate nuclear receptors in breast cancer chemoprevention. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2007 Mar;15(1):3-6. Pubmed
  2. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans RM, Lazar MA, Leid M, De Lera AR, Lotan R, Mangelsdorf DJ, Gronemeyer H: International Union of Pharmacology. LXIII. Retinoid X receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006 Dec;58(4):760-72. Pubmed
  3. Bergheim I, Wolfgarten E, Bollschweiler E, Holscher AH, Bode CH, Parlesak A: Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus. J Carcinog. 2005 Nov 8;4:20. Pubmed
  4. Schrage K, Koopmans G, Joosten EA, Mey J: Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jan;23(2):285-95. Pubmed
  5. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. Pubmed
  6. Cheng C, Michaels J, Scheinfeld N: Alitretinoin: a comprehensive review. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Mar;17(3):437-43. Pubmed
  7. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. Pubmed

5. Retinoic acid receptor gamma

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoic acid receptor gamma P13631 Details

References:

  1. Dzhagalov I, Chambon P, He YW: Regulation of CD8+ T lymphocyte effector function and macrophage inflammatory cytokine production by retinoic acid receptor gamma. J Immunol. 2007 Feb 15;178(4):2113-21. Pubmed
  2. Parrella E, Gianni M, Fratelli M, Barzago MM, Raska I Jr, Diomede L, Kurosaki M, Pisano C, Carminati P, Merlini L, Dallavalle S, Tavecchio M, Rochette-Egly C, Terao M, Garattini E: Antitumor activity of the retinoid-related molecules (E)-3-(4’-hydroxy-3’-adamantylbiphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid (ST1926) and 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) in F9 teratocarcinoma: Role of retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid-independent pathways. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;70(3):909-24. Epub 2006 Jun 20. Pubmed
  3. Li M, Hener P, Zhang Z, Kato S, Metzger D, Chambon P: Topical vitamin D3 and low-calcemic analogs induce thymic stromal lymphopoietin in mouse keratinocytes and trigger an atopic dermatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 1;103(31):11736-41. Epub 2006 Jul 31. Pubmed
  4. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. Pubmed
  5. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

6. Retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma P48443 Details

References:

  1. Adamczewski Z, Makarewicz J, Mikosinski S, Knapska-Kucharska M, Gunerska-Szadkowska A, Oszukowska L, Karwowska A, Lewinski A: [Application of 13-cis-retinoic acid in patients with 131I scintigraphically-negative metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma] Endokrynol Pol. 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):403-6. Pubmed
  2. Brtko J: Role of retinoids and their cognate nuclear receptors in breast cancer chemoprevention. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2007 Mar;15(1):3-6. Pubmed
  3. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans RM, Lazar MA, Leid M, De Lera AR, Lotan R, Mangelsdorf DJ, Gronemeyer H: International Union of Pharmacology. LXIII. Retinoid X receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006 Dec;58(4):760-72. Pubmed
  4. He JC, Lu TC, Fleet M, Sunamoto M, Husain M, Fang W, Neves S, Chen Y, Shankland S, Iyengar R, Klotman PE: Retinoic acid inhibits HIV-1-induced podocyte proliferation through the cAMP pathway. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Jan;18(1):93-102. Epub 2006 Dec 20. Pubmed
  5. Day RM, Lee YH, Park AM, Suzuki YJ: Retinoic acid inhibits airway smooth muscle cell migration. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006 Jun;34(6):695-703. Epub 2006 Feb 2. Pubmed
  6. Garnock-Jones KP, Perry CM: Alitretinoin: in severe chronic hand eczema. Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1625-34. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 P29373 Details

References:

  1. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. Pubmed
  2. Donato LJ, Noy N: Suppression of mammary carcinoma growth by retinoic acid: proapoptotic genes are targets for retinoic acid receptor and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II signaling. Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8193-9. Pubmed
  3. Bry K, Lappalainen U: Pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: the role of interleukin 1beta in the regulation of inflammation-mediated pulmonary retinoic acid pathways in transgenic mice. Semin Perinatol. 2006 Jun;30(3):121-8. Pubmed
  4. Wei T, Geiser AG, Qian HR, Su C, Helvering LM, Kulkarini NH, Shou J, N’Cho M, Bryant HU, Onyia JE: DNA microarray data integration by ortholog gene analysis reveals potential molecular mechanisms of estrogen-dependent growth of human uterine fibroids. BMC Womens Health. 2007 Apr 2;7:5. Pubmed
  5. Boorjian SA, Milowsky MI, Kaplan J, Albert M, Cobham MV, Coll DM, Mongan NP, Shelton G, Petrylak D, Gudas LJ, Nanus DM: Phase 1/2 clinical trial of interferon alpha2b and weekly liposome-encapsulated all-trans retinoic acid in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. J Immunother (1997). 2007 Sep;30(6):655-62. Pubmed

2. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 P29762 Details

References:

  1. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. Pubmed
  2. Goelden U, Pfoertner S, Hansen W, Toepfer T, von Knobloch R, Hofmann R, Buer J, Schrader AJ: Expression and functional influence of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II in renal cell carcinoma. Urol Int. 2005;75(3):269-76. Pubmed
  3. Levadoux-Martin M, Li Y, Blackburn A, Chabanon H, Hesketh JE: Perinuclear localisation of cellular retinoic acid binding protein I mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Feb 3;340(1):326-31. Pubmed
  4. Jetten AM: Multi-stage program of differentiation in human epidermal keratinocytes: regulation by retinoids. J Invest Dermatol. 1990 Nov;95(5 Suppl):44S-46S. Pubmed
  5. Bry K, Lappalainen U: Pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: the role of interleukin 1beta in the regulation of inflammation-mediated pulmonary retinoic acid pathways in transgenic mice. Semin Perinatol. 2006 Jun;30(3):121-8. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Schuetz EG, Yasuda K, Arimori K, Schuetz JD: Human MDR1 and mouse mdr1a P-glycoprotein alter the cellular retention and disposition of erythromycin, but not of retinoic acid or benzo(a)pyrene. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 Feb 15;350(2):340-7. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11