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Identification
NameZopiclone
Accession NumberDB01198  (APRD00356)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionZopiclone is a novel hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. Its mechanism of action is based on modulating benzodiazepine receptors. In addition to zopiclone's benzodiazepine pharmacological properties it also has some barbiturate like properties.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+-)-zopiclone
(±)-zopiclone
6-(5-Chloro-2-pyridinyl)-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl 4-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate
Zopiclona
Zopiclone
Zopiclonum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Zopiclonetablet5 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2005-11-11Not applicableCanada
Act Zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2005-11-11Not applicableCanada
Ava-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-08-112014-08-21Canada
Ava-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-09-092014-08-21Canada
Dom-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1999-11-23Not applicableCanada
Dom-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2009-05-25Not applicableCanada
Imovane - Tab 5mgtablet5.0 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1998-02-10Not applicableCanada
Imovane 7.5 - Tab 7.5mgtablet7.5 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ipg-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipg-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Jamp-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-11-02Not applicableCanada
Jamp-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralJamp Pharma CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Jamp-zopiclone Tabletstablet7.5 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2014-11-19Not applicableCanada
Jamp-zopiclone Tabletstablet5 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2014-01-08Not applicableCanada
Mar-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-04-17Not applicableCanada
Mar-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-04-17Not applicableCanada
Mint-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-10-10Not applicableCanada
Mint-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-10-10Not applicableCanada
Mylan-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2007-06-27Not applicableCanada
Mylan-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1998-08-12Not applicableCanada
Novo-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralNovopharm Limited2004-08-192015-10-26Canada
Novo-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralNovopharm Limited2004-08-192015-10-26Canada
Ntp-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralTeva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ntp-zopiclonetablet3.75 mgoralTeva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ntp-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralTeva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Nu-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralNu Pharm IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Nu-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralNu Pharm IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Nu-zopiclone Tablets - 7.5mgtablet7.5 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1998-03-052012-09-04Canada
PHL-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralPharmel Inc2009-08-28Not applicableCanada
PHL-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralPharmel Inc2009-09-09Not applicableCanada
PMS-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralPharmascience Inc1999-08-04Not applicableCanada
PMS-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralPharmascience Inc2001-02-15Not applicableCanada
Priva-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralPharmapar Inc2015-06-03Not applicableCanada
Priva-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralPharmapar Inc2015-06-03Not applicableCanada
Pro-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-09Not applicableCanada
Pro-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-09Not applicableCanada
Q-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralQd Pharmaceuticals UlcNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Q-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralQd Pharmaceuticals Ulc2011-11-242015-08-21Canada
Ran-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2005-07-05Not applicableCanada
Ran-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2005-07-05Not applicableCanada
Ratio-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2001-04-18Not applicableCanada
Ratio-zopiclonetablet3.75 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2002-07-29Not applicableCanada
Ratio-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2002-12-18Not applicableCanada
Rhovanetablet7.5 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
Riva Zopiclonetablet5 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2006-10-10Not applicableCanada
Riva Zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2008-11-14Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Zopiclonetablet5 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2004-08-18Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2004-08-18Not applicableCanada
Septa-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralSepta Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-02-25Not applicableCanada
Septa-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralSepta Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-02-25Not applicableCanada
Si-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralSilas Healthcare IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Si-zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralSilas Healthcare IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Zoclonetablet7.5 mgoralPrempharm Inc2004-09-162005-08-05Canada
Zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2010-09-032014-06-25Canada
Zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralAbri Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralSanis Health Inc2010-02-25Not applicableCanada
Zopiclonetablet5 mgoralApotex IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Zopiclonetablet5 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-06-11Not applicableCanada
Zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralApotex IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Zopiclonetablet5 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-06-11Not applicableCanada
Zopiclonetablet5 mgoralSanis Health Inc2010-02-25Not applicableCanada
Zopiclonetablet5 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2010-09-032014-06-25Canada
Zopiclonetablet5 mgoralAbri Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Zopiclonetablet7.5 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Zopiclone-7.5 - Tab 7.5mgtablet7.5 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1997-06-252010-07-13Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-zopiclonetablet5 mgoralApotex Inc2002-06-04Not applicableCanada
Apo-zopiclone - Tab 7.5mgtablet7.5 mgoralApotex Inc1996-09-19Not applicableCanada
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AmobanNot Available
ImovaneNot Available
ZimovaneNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII03A5ORL08Q
CAS number43200-80-2
WeightAverage: 388.808
Monoisotopic: 388.105066147
Chemical FormulaC17H17ClN6O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=GBBSUAFBMRNDJC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H17ClN6O3/c1-22-6-8-23(9-7-22)17(26)27-16-14-13(19-4-5-20-14)15(25)24(16)12-3-2-11(18)10-21-12/h2-5,10,16H,6-9H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
6-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-7-oxo-5H,6H,7H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl 4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate
SMILES
CN1CCN(CC1)C(=O)OC1N(C(=O)C2=NC=CN=C12)C1=NC=C(Cl)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyclopyrrolones. These are compounds belonging to a family of pyridin-2-ylpyrrole based chemicals. The pyrrole is usually fused to a benzene, pyrimidine, or dithiin.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyrrolopyrazines
Sub ClassCyclopyrrolones
Direct ParentCyclopyrrolones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cyclopyrrolone
  • Piperazine-1-carboxylic acid
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • N-methylpiperazine
  • Aminopyridine
  • Imidolactam
  • Pyridine
  • Pyrazine
  • Piperazine
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Lactam
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the short-term treatment of insomnia.
PharmacodynamicsZopiclone is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic from the pyrazolopyrimidine class and is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. While Zopiclone is a hypnotic agent with a chemical structure unrelated to benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other drugs with known hypnotic properties, it interacts with the gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine (GABABZ) receptor complex. Subunit modulation of the GABABZ receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex is hypothesized to be responsible for some of the pharmacological properties of benzodiazepines, which include sedative, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive effects in animal models. Zopiclone binds selectively to the brain alpha subunit of the GABA A omega-1 receptor.
Mechanism of actionZopiclone exerts its action by binding on the benzodiazepine receptor complex and modulation of the GABABZ receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex. Both zopiclone and benzodiazepines act indiscriminately at the benzodiazepine binding site on α1, α2, α3 and α5 GABAA containing receptors as full agonists causing an enhancement of the inhibitory actions of GABA to produce the therapeutic (hypnotic and anxiolytic) and adverse effects of zopiclone.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed following oral administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingApproximately 45%
Metabolism

Extensively metabolized in the liver via decarboxylation (major pathway), demethylation, and side chain oxidation. Metabolites include an N-oxide derivative (weakly active; approximately 12% of a dose) and an N-desmethyl metabolite (inactive; approximately 16%). Approximately 50% of a dose is converted to other inactive metabolites via decarboxylation. Hepatic microsomal enzymes are apparently not involved in zopiclone clearance.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Zopiclone
Zopiclone N-oxideDetails
Zopiclone
Carbon dioxideDetails
Zopiclone
zopiclone-N-oxideDetails
Zopiclone
N-desmethylzopicloneDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeElimination half life is approximately 5 hours (range 3.8 to 6.5 hours) and is prolonged to 11.9 hours in patients with hepatic insufficiency.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityRare individual instances of fatal outcomes following overdose with racemic zopiclone have been reported in European postmarketing reports, most often associated with overdose with other CNS-depressant agent. Signs and symptoms of overdose effects of CNS depressants can be expected to present as exaggerations of the pharmacological effects noted in preclinical testing.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable+0.5805
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6917
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6381
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6785
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7158
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6775
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8995
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.689
Ames testAMES toxic0.5332
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9174
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9941
Rat acute toxicity2.6411 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7838
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5688
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral5.0 mg
Tabletoral7.5 mg
Tabletoral5 mg
Tabletoral3.75 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Imovane 7.5 mg Tablet1.41USD tablet
Imovane 5 mg Tablet1.11USD tablet
Apo-Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Co Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Mylan-Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Novo-Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Nu-Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Pms-Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Ran-Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Ratio-Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Rhovane 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Sandoz Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Zopiclone 7.5 mg Tablet0.49USD tablet
Apo-Zopiclone 5 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Co Zopiclone 5 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Mylan-Zopiclone 5 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Novo-Zopiclone 5 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Pms-Zopiclone 5 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Ran-Zopiclone 5 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Ratio-Zopiclone 5 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Sandoz Zopiclone 5 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Zopiclone 5 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point178 °CPhysProp
water solubility0.151 mg/mL at 25 °CMEYLAN,WM et al. (1996)
logP0.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.885 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.97ALOGPS
logP0.81ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.04ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.89ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area91.76 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity95.89 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0007-6950000000-c1583a92e3cbc5066186View in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Thomas Jerussi, “Compositions comprising zopiclone derivatives and methods of making and using the same.” U.S. Patent US20040147521, issued July 29, 2004.

US20040147521
General References
  1. Liu HJ, Sato K, Shih HC, Shibuya T, Kawamoto H, Kitagawa H: Pharmacologic studies of the central action of zopiclone: effects on locomotor activity and brain monoamines in rats. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1985 Mar;23(3):121-8. [PubMed:2581904 ]
  2. Sato K, Hong YL, Yang MS, Shibuya T, Kawamoto H, Kitagawa H: Pharmacologic studies of central actions of zopiclone: influence on brain monoamines in rats under stressful condition. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1985 Apr;23(4):204-10. [PubMed:2860074 ]
  3. Dundar Y, Dodd S, Strobl J, Boland A, Dickson R, Walley T: Comparative efficacy of newer hypnotic drugs for the short-term management of insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Jul;19(5):305-22. [PubMed:15252823 ]
  4. Blanchard JC, Julou L: Suriclone: a new cyclopyrrolone derivative recognizing receptors labeled by benzodiazepines in rat hippocampus and cerebellum. J Neurochem. 1983 Mar;40(3):601-7. [PubMed:6298365 ]
  5. Julou L, Bardone MC, Blanchard JC, Garret C, Stutzmann JM: Pharmacological studies on zopiclone. Pharmacology. 1983;27 Suppl 2:46-58. [PubMed:6142468 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN05CF01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Acepromazine.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Aceprometazine.
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with adipiplon.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Alfaxalone.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Zopiclone.
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Zopiclone.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Amisulpride.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Amobarbital.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Amoxapine.
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Amperozide.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Aripiprazole.
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Articaine.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Azaperone.
AzelastineZopiclone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Zopiclone.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Baclofen.
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Barbital.
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Zopiclone.
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Benzyl alcohol.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Boceprevir.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zopiclone.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Brimonidine.
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Bromazepam.
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Brompheniramine.
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Brotizolam.
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Zopiclone.
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buprenorphine is combined with Zopiclone.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Zopiclone.
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Zopiclone.
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Butacaine.
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Butalbital.
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Butamben.
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Butethal.
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Zopiclone.
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Zopiclone.
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Carbinoxamine.
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Carfentanil.
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Carisoprodol.
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Cetirizine.
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Chloral hydrate.
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Zopiclone.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Zopiclone.
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Zopiclone.
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Zopiclone.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Chlorprothixene.
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Chlorzoxazone.
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Zopiclone.
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Citalopram.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Clemastine.
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Clidinium.
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Clobazam.
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with clomethiazole.
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Clonazepam.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Clonidine.
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Zopiclone.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Zopiclone.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Zopiclone.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Zopiclone.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Zopiclone.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Cyproheptadine.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Dantrolene.
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Zopiclone.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Dapoxetine.
DapsoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapsone is combined with Zopiclone.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with deramciclane.
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Zopiclone.
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Desipramine.
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Desloratadine.
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Detomidine.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Zopiclone.
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Dextromoramide.
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Zopiclone.
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Dezocine.
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Zopiclone.
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Difenoxin.
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Dihydrocodeine.
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Dihydroetorphine.
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Dihydromorphine.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Zopiclone.
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Zopiclone.
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Doramectin.
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Doxepin.
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zopiclone.
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Doxylamine.
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with DPDPE.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zopiclone.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droperidol is combined with Zopiclone.
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Drotebanol.
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Zopiclone.
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ecgonine.
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Efavirenz.
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zopiclone.
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Entacapone.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Escitalopram.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Estazolam.
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Zopiclone.
EthanolZopiclone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Zopiclone.
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Zopiclone.
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ethosuximide.
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ethotoin.
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ethyl carbamate.
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ethylmorphine.
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Etidocaine.
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Etifoxine.
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Etizolam.
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Zopiclone.
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Etoperidone.
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Etorphine.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ezogabine.
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Felbamate.
FelodipineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Felodipine.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fencamfamine.
FenfluramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fenfluramine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Zopiclone.
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fexofenadine.
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Flibanserin.
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fludiazepam.
FlumazenilFlumazenil may decrease the sedative activities of Zopiclone.
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Flunarizine.
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Flunitrazepam.
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Zopiclone.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Zopiclone.
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Zopiclone.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fluspirilene.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Fospropofol.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Zopiclone.
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Glutethimide.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Guanfacine.
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Zopiclone.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Zopiclone.
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Zopiclone.
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Heroin.
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Hexobarbital.
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrocodone is combined with Zopiclone.
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Zopiclone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zopiclone.
HydroxyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Hydroxyzine.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Iloperidone.
ImatinibThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Imipramine.
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Indalpine.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zopiclone.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ketamine.
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ketazolam.
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ketobemidone.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Lamotrigine.
LapatinibThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Lapatinib.
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levetiracetam.
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Zopiclone.
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levocabastine.
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levocetirizine.
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levodopa.
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Zopiclone.
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Zopiclone.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Lithium.
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Lofentanil.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Loratadine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Zopiclone.
LosartanThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Losartan.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Zopiclone.
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Lu AA21004.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Lurasidone.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zopiclone.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Maprotiline.
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Meclizine.
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Medetomidine.
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Zopiclone.
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Melperone.
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Zopiclone.
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Zopiclone.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Zopiclone.
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Metaxalone.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Zopiclone.
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Methadyl Acetate.
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Methapyrilene.
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Methaqualone.
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Methocarbamol.
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Zopiclone.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Zopiclone.
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Methsuximide.
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Zopiclone.
MetyrosineZopiclone may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Zopiclone.
MifepristoneThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Mifepristone.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Milnacipran.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zopiclone.
MirtazapineZopiclone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Zopiclone.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Molindone.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Zopiclone.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zopiclone.
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Nabilone.
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Zopiclone.
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.
NicotineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Nitrazepam.
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Zopiclone.
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Nitrous oxide.
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Normethadone.
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Nortriptyline.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Olanzapine.
OlaparibThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Olopatadine.
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Zopiclone.
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Opium.
OrphenadrineZopiclone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orphenadrine is combined with Zopiclone.
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Osanetant.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Zopiclone.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Oxprenolol.
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Zopiclone.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Zopiclone.
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Zopiclone.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Paliperidone.
ParaldehydeZopiclone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paraldehyde is combined with Zopiclone.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Paroxetine.
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Zopiclone.
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Zopiclone.
PerampanelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Perampanel.
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Perospirone.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Zopiclone.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Zopiclone.
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Zopiclone.
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Phenoxyethanol.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Zopiclone.
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Pioglitazone.
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Pipamperone.
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Pipotiazine.
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Pizotifen.
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Pomalidomide.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
PramipexoleZopiclone may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Pramocaine.
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Prazepam.
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Zopiclone.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Prilocaine.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Primidone.
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zopiclone.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Zopiclone.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Zopiclone.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Promethazine.
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Zopiclone.
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Zopiclone.
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Propoxycaine.
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Protriptyline.
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with PSD502.
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Quazepam.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Quetiapine.
QuinineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Quinine.
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Rabeprazole.
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ramelteon.
RanolazineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Zopiclone.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Zopiclone.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Zopiclone.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Zopiclone.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Romifidine.
RopiniroleZopiclone may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Zopiclone.
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
RotigotineZopiclone may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zopiclone.
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Scopolamine.
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Zopiclone.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Sertindole.
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Sevoflurane.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Sodium Nitrite.
Sodium oxybateZopiclone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Zopiclone.
SorafenibThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Stiripentol.
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Zopiclone.
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Zopiclone.
SuvorexantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Suvorexant.
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Tamoxifen.
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Tapentadol.
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Tasimelteon.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Telaprevir.
TelithromycinThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Telithromycin.
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Zopiclone.
TeriflunomideThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Teriflunomide.
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Tetrabenazine.
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Tetracaine.
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Tetrodotoxin.
ThalidomideZopiclone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Zopiclone.
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Zopiclone.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Zopiclone.
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Zopiclone.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Thiothixene.
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Tiagabine.
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Tiletamine.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Tizanidine.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Tolcapone.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Topiramate.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Zopiclone.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Zopiclone.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Trazodone.
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Zopiclone.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Zopiclone.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Zopiclone.
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Trimipramine.
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Triprolidine.
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zopiclone.
ValsartanThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Vigabatrin.
VilazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Vilazodone.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Xylazine.
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Zopiclone.
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ziconotide.
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ziprasidone.
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Zolazepam.
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Zopiclone.
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Zonisamide.
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Zotepine.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Zuclopenthixol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638 ]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287 ]
  3. Sanger DJ: The pharmacology and mechanisms of action of new generation, non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents. CNS Drugs. 2004;18 Suppl 1:9-15; discussion 41, 43-5. [PubMed:15291009 ]
  4. Skerritt JH, Johnston GA: Enhancement of GABA binding by benzodiazepines and related anxiolytics. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 May 6;89(3-4):193-8. [PubMed:6135616 ]
  5. Ramerstorfer J, Furtmuller R, Vogel E, Huck S, Sieghart W: The point mutation gamma 2F77I changes the potency and efficacy of benzodiazepine site ligands in different GABAA receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 25;636(1-3):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Mar 19. [PubMed:20303942 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638 ]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287 ]
  3. Ramerstorfer J, Furtmuller R, Vogel E, Huck S, Sieghart W: The point mutation gamma 2F77I changes the potency and efficacy of benzodiazepine site ligands in different GABAA receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 25;636(1-3):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Mar 19. [PubMed:20303942 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638 ]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287 ]
  3. Ramerstorfer J, Furtmuller R, Vogel E, Huck S, Sieghart W: The point mutation gamma 2F77I changes the potency and efficacy of benzodiazepine site ligands in different GABAA receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 25;636(1-3):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Mar 19. [PubMed:20303942 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638 ]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287 ]
  3. Skerritt JH, Johnston GA: Enhancement of GABA binding by benzodiazepines and related anxiolytics. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 May 6;89(3-4):193-8. [PubMed:6135616 ]
  4. Ramerstorfer J, Furtmuller R, Vogel E, Huck S, Sieghart W: The point mutation gamma 2F77I changes the potency and efficacy of benzodiazepine site ligands in different GABAA receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 25;636(1-3):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Mar 19. [PubMed:20303942 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benz...
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Lalovic B, Phillips B, Risler LL, Howald W, Shen DD: Quantitative contribution of CYP2D6 and CYP3A to oxycodone metabolism in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):447-54. [PubMed:15039299 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Lalovic B, Phillips B, Risler LL, Howald W, Shen DD: Quantitative contribution of CYP2D6 and CYP3A to oxycodone metabolism in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):447-54. [PubMed:15039299 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23