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Identification
NameEnoxaparin
Accession NumberDB01225  (APRD00068)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin. Enoxaparin is used to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and is given as a subcutaneous injection. Enoxaparin binds to and accelerates the activity of antithrombin III. By activating antithrombin III, enoxaparin preferentially potentiates the inhibition of coagulation factors Xa and IIa. Factor Xa catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, so enoxaparin’s inhibition of this process results in decreased thrombin and ultimately the prevention of fibrin clot formation. Low molecular weight heparins are less effective at inactivating factor IIa due to their shorter length compared to unfractionated heparin.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Enoxaparin sodium
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection30 mg/.3mLsubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2015-02-20Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection40 mg/.4mLsubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection150 mg/mLsubcutaneousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2015-02-20Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2015-02-20Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection300 mg/3mLsubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection150 mg/mLsubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection300 mg/3mLsubcutaneousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2015-02-20Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection120 mg/.8mLsubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2015-02-20Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2015-02-20Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2015-02-20Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection80 mg/.8mLsubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2015-02-20Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection60 mg/.6mLsubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection30 mg/.3mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection40 mg/.4mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxsolution30 mgsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Lovenoxinjection60 mg/.6mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection100 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection40 mg/.4mLintravenous; subcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-10-06Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection300 mg/3mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection150 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection80 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection80 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-07-28Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection150 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection120 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxsolution100 mgsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2012-09-21Not applicableCanada
Lovenoxinjection60 mg/.6mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection40 mg/.4mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection120 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection300 mg/3mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxsolution80 mgsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2012-09-11Not applicableCanada
Lovenoxinjection30 mg/.3mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection100 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection30 mg/.3mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxsolution60 mgsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2012-11-13Not applicableCanada
Lovenoxinjection30 mg/.3mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection120 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-12-04Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection80 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection100 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection40 mg/.4mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection60 mg/.6mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection80 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxsolution40 mgsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1998-06-02Not applicableCanada
Lovenoxinjection100 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection100 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-11-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection40 mg/.4mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection60 mg/.6mLintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection80 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Lovenoxinjection60 mg/.6mLintravenous; subcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-05-17Not applicableUs
Lovenox Hpsolution90 mgsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Lovenox Hpsolution150 mgsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2012-12-07Not applicableCanada
Lovenox Hpsolution120 mgsubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2002-05-21Not applicableCanada
Lovenox With Preservative 300mg/3mlsolution100 mgintravenous; subcutaneousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1998-01-21Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection, solution40 mg/.4mLintravenous; subcutaneousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-09-26Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousSandoz Inc2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection80 mg/.8mLsubcutaneousWatson Pharma, Inc.2012-01-27Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection60 mg/.6mLsubcutaneousWatson Pharma, Inc.2012-01-27Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection, solution60 mg/.6mLintravenous; subcutaneousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-09-26Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection, solution30 mg/.3mLintravenous; subcutaneousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-09-26Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousSandoz Inc2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection40 mg/.4mLsubcutaneousWatson Pharma, Inc.2012-01-27Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection, solution150 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-09-26Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection150 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousSandoz Inc2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection30 mg/.3mLsubcutaneousWatson Pharma, Inc.2012-01-27Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection150 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection150 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousSandoz Inc2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection150 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousSandoz Inc2012-04-232017-11-30Us
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection, solution80 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-09-26Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection150 mg/mLsubcutaneousSandoz Inc2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection150 mg/mLsubcutaneousWatson Pharma, Inc.2012-01-27Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection150 mg/mLsubcutaneousSandoz Inc2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection120 mg/.8mLsubcutaneousWatson Pharma, Inc.2012-01-27Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection, solution120 mg/.8mLintravenous; subcutaneousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-09-26Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousSandoz Inc2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousWatson Pharma, Inc.2012-01-27Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLsubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin Sodiuminjection, solution100 mg/mLintravenous; subcutaneousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2014-09-26Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ClexaneNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII8NZ41MIK1O
CAS number9005-49-6
WeightNot Available
Chemical FormulaC26H42N2O37S5
InChI KeyInChIKey=HTTJABKRGRZYRN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChINot Available
IUPAC NameNot Available
SMILESNot Available
Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis, which may lead to pulmonary embolism, and also for the prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, when concurrently administered with aspirin.
PharmacodynamicsEnoxaparin is a highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from 3800 to 5000 daltons. Enoxaparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Enoxaparin is a well known and commonly used anticoagulant which has antithrombotic properties. Enoxaparin inhibits reactions that lead to the clotting of blood and the formation of fibrin clots both in vitro and in vivo. Enoxaparin acts at multiple sites in the normal coagulation system. Small amounts of enoxaparin in combination with antithrombin III (enoxaparin cofactor) can inhibit thrombosis by inactivating activated Factor X and inhibiting the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Once active thrombosis has developed, larger amounts of enoxaparin can inhibit further coagulation by inactivating thrombin and preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Enoxaparin also prevents the formation of a stable fibrin clot by inhibiting the activation of the fibrin stabilizing factor. Its use should be avoided in patients with a creatinine clearance less than 20mL/min. In these patients, unfractionated heparin should only be used. As for monitoring, active partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) will only increase at high doses of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). Therefore, monitoring aPTT is not recommended. However, anti-Xa activity can be measured to monitor the efficacy of the LMWH.
Mechanism of actionThe mechanism of action of enoxaparin is antithrombin-dependent. It acts mainly by accelerating the rate of the neutralization of certain activated coagulation factors by antithrombin, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The antithrombotic effect of enoxaparin is well correlated to the inhibition of factor Xa. Enoxaparin interacts with Antithrombin III, Prothrombin and Factor X. Enoxaparin binds to and accelerates the activity of antithrombin III. By activating antithrombin III, enoxaparin preferentially potentiates the inhibition of coagulation factors Xa and IIa.
Related Articles
AbsorptionMean absolute bioavailability of enoxaparin, after 1.5 mg/kg given subcutaneously, based on anti-Factor Xa activity is approximately 100% in healthy volunteers.
Volume of distribution
  • 4.3 L
Protein binding80% bound-albumin
Metabolism

Undergoes desulfation and polymerization via the liver

Route of eliminationEnoxaparin sodium is primarily metabolized in the liver by desulfation and/or depolymerization to lower molecular weight species with much reduced biological potency. Renal clearance of active fragments represents about 10% of the administered dose and total renal excretion of active and non-active fragments 40% of the dose.
Half life4.5 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityMouse, median lethal dose greater than 5000 mg/kg. Another side effect is heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT syndrome). HIT is caused by an immunological reaction that makes platelets form clots within the blood vessels, thereby using up coagulation factors.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9215
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8366
Caco-2 permeable-0.6496
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.698
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5818
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9771
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9454
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6694
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8196
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5842
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8157
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.771
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8869
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7655
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9194
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9232
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5957
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.694
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.851
Rat acute toxicity2.3846 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9589
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7157
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injectionsubcutaneous100 mg/mL
Injectionsubcutaneous120 mg/.8mL
Injectionsubcutaneous150 mg/mL
Injectionsubcutaneous30 mg/.3mL
Injectionsubcutaneous300 mg/3mL
Injectionsubcutaneous40 mg/.4mL
Injectionsubcutaneous60 mg/.6mL
Injectionsubcutaneous80 mg/.8mL
Injection, solutionintravenous; subcutaneous100 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous; subcutaneous120 mg/.8mL
Injection, solutionintravenous; subcutaneous150 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous; subcutaneous30 mg/.3mL
Injection, solutionintravenous; subcutaneous40 mg/.4mL
Injection, solutionintravenous; subcutaneous60 mg/.6mL
Injection, solutionintravenous; subcutaneous80 mg/.8mL
Injectionintravenous; subcutaneous100 mg/mL
Injectionintravenous; subcutaneous120 mg/.8mL
Injectionintravenous; subcutaneous150 mg/mL
Injectionintravenous; subcutaneous30 mg/.3mL
Injectionintravenous; subcutaneous300 mg/3mL
Injectionintravenous; subcutaneous40 mg/.4mL
Injectionintravenous; subcutaneous60 mg/.6mL
Injectionintravenous; subcutaneous80 mg/.8mL
Solutionsubcutaneous100 mg
Solutionsubcutaneous30 mg
Solutionsubcutaneous40 mg
Solutionsubcutaneous60 mg
Solutionsubcutaneous80 mg
Solutionsubcutaneous120 mg
Solutionsubcutaneous150 mg
Solutionsubcutaneous90 mg
Solutionintravenous; subcutaneous100 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lovenox 300 mg/3ml Solution 3ml Vial281.47USD vial
Lovenox 150 mg/ml Solution 1ml Syringe140.94USD syringe
Lovenox 100 mg/ml Solution 1ml Syringe93.93USD syringe
Lovenox 80 mg/0.8ml Solution 0.8ml Syringe75.14USD syringe
Lovenox 60 mg/0.6ml Solution 0.6ml Syringe56.36USD syringe
Lovenox 40 mg/0.4ml Solution 0.4ml Syringe37.53USD syringe
Lovenox Hp (0.8Ml/1Ml Syringe) 150 mg/ml Syringe34.63USD syringe
Lovenox 30 mg/0.3ml Solution 0.3ml Syringe28.15USD syringe
Lovenox (0.4 - 1 Ml Syringe) 100 mg/ml Syringe23.09USD syringe
Lovenox 100 mg/ml23.09USD syringe
Lovenox (0.3 Ml Syringe) 30 mg/syr Syringe6.97USD syringe
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2045433 No2002-07-302011-06-25Canada
US5389618 No1995-02-142012-02-14Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility> 200 mg/mLNot Available
logP-13.2Not Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
References
Synthesis Reference

Jorgen I. Nielsen, “Process of using light absorption to control enzymatic depolymerization of heparin to produce low molecular weight heparin.” U.S. Patent US5106734, issued May, 1981.

US5106734
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesB01AB05
AHFS Codes
  • 20:12.04.16
  • 92:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (1.44 MB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabAbciximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
AcenocoumarolAcenocoumarol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
AliskirenEnoxaparin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Aliskiren.
AlteplaseAlteplase may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Aminosalicylic AcidAminosalicylic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
AnagrelideAnagrelide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
AnistreplaseAnistreplase may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
ApixabanApixaban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
ArgatrobanEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Enoxaparin.
Bismuth SubsalicylateBismuth Subsalicylate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
BivalirudinEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.
CaffeineCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
CanagliflozinEnoxaparin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Canagliflozin.
CangrelorCangrelor may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
CelecoxibCelecoxib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
ChlorotrianiseneChlorotrianisene may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
CilostazolCilostazol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Citric AcidCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
ClopidogrelClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
CollagenaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Collagenase.
Collagenase clostridium histolyticumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Collagenase clostridium histolyticum.
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.
Dabigatran etexilateDabigatran etexilate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DalteparinDalteparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DanaparoidEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.
DasatinibDasatinib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DeferasiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Deferasirox.
Deoxycholic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Deoxycholic Acid.
DesirudinEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DiclofenacDiclofenac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DicoumarolDicoumarol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.
DiflunisalDiflunisal may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DihydrocodeineDihydrocodeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DrospirenoneDrospirenone may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
DydrogesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Dydrogesterone.
Edetic AcidEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EdoxabanEdoxaban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EplerenoneEnoxaparin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Eplerenone.
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epoprostenol is combined with Enoxaparin.
EptifibatideEptifibatide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EstradiolEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Estrone sulfateEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Ethinyl EstradiolEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Ethyl biscoumacetateEthyl biscoumacetate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Ethynodiol diacetateEthynodiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EtodolacEtodolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.
FenoprofenFenoprofen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
FloctafenineFloctafenine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Fondaparinux sodiumEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.
GestodeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Gestodene.
HeparinEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.
HomoharringtonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Homoharringtonine.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.
Ibritumomab tiuxetanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Ibritumomab.
IbrutinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibrutinib is combined with Enoxaparin.
IbuprofenIbuprofen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
IcosapentIcosapent may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Icosapent ethylIcosapent ethyl may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Enoxaparin.
IndomethacinIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
InfliximabInfliximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
KetoprofenKetoprofen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
KetorolacKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.
LimaprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Limaprost is combined with Enoxaparin.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.
MeloxicamMeloxicam may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
MestranolMestranol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
NabumetoneNabumetone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
NadroparinEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.
NaproxenNaproxen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
NintedanibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Nintedanib.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Norethindrone.
NorgestimateNorgestimate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Obinutuzumab.
Omega-3 fatty acidsOmega-3 fatty acids may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Omega-3-acid ethyl estersOmega-3-acid ethyl esters may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
OxaprozinOxaprozin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
PaliferminThe serum concentration of Palifermin can be increased when it is combined with Enoxaparin.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Pentosan PolysulfatePentosan Polysulfate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
PerindoprilEnoxaparin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.
PhenindionePhenindione may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
PhenprocoumonPhenprocoumon may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
PiroxicamPiroxicam may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
PrasugrelPrasugrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.
ReteplaseReteplase may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
RidogrelRidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
RivaroxabanEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.
SalsalateSalsalate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
SertralineSertraline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
StreptokinaseStreptokinase may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
SugammadexSugammadex may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
SulindacSulindac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
SulodexideSulodexide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
TenecteplaseTenecteplase may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
TiboloneTibolone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
TicagrelorTicagrelor may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
TiclopidineTiclopidine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
TinzaparinEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tinzaparin.
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
TirofibanTirofiban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
TolmetinTolmetin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
TositumomabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Tositumomab.
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Treprostinil is combined with Enoxaparin.
TriamtereneEnoxaparin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Triamterene.
UrokinaseUrokinase may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
ValsartanEnoxaparin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Valsartan.
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
VilazodoneVilazodone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Vitamin EVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
VorapaxarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vorapaxar is combined with Enoxaparin.
VortioxetineVortioxetine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
WarfarinEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid danshen, dong quai, evening primrose oil, gingko, policosanol, willow bark

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function:
Most important serine protease inhibitor in plasma that regulates the blood coagulation cascade. AT-III inhibits thrombin, matriptase-3/TMPRSS7, as well as factors IXa, Xa and XIa. Its inhibitory activity is greatly enhanced in the presence of heparin.
Gene Name:
SERPINC1
Uniprot ID:
P01008
Molecular Weight:
52601.935 Da
References
  1. Peng K, Wang C, Pang BS, Yang YH: [Effects of thrombolysis and anticoagulation on the functions of vascular endothelial cells and coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2005 Sep;28(9):596-9. [PubMed:16207425 ]
  2. Lee S, Gibson CM: Enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2007 May;5(3):387-99. [PubMed:17489664 ]
  3. Bisio A, Vecchietti D, Citterio L, Guerrini M, Raman R, Bertini S, Eisele G, Naggi A, Sasisekharan R, Torri G: Structural features of low-molecular-weight heparins affecting their affinity to antithrombin. Thromb Haemost. 2009 Nov;102(5):865-73. doi: 10.1160/TH09-02-0081. [PubMed:19888521 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Factor Xa is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that converts prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of factor Va, calcium and phospholipid during blood clotting.
Gene Name:
F10
Uniprot ID:
P00742
Molecular Weight:
54731.255 Da
References
  1. Graff J, Picard-Willems B, Harder S: Monitoring effects of direct FXa-inhibitors with a new one-step prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) assay: comparative in vitro investigation with heparin, enoxaparin, fondaparinux and DX 9065a. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Apr;45(4):237-43. [PubMed:17474542 ]
  2. Berges A, Laporte S, Epinat M, Zufferey P, Alamartine E, Tranchand B, Decousus H, Mismetti P: Anti-factor Xa activity of enoxaparin administered at prophylactic dosage to patients over 75 years old. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;64(4):428-38. Epub 2007 May 17. [PubMed:17509040 ]
  3. Sanchez-Pena P, Hulot JS, Urien S, Ankri A, Collet JP, Choussat R, Lechat P, Montalescot G: Anti-factor Xa kinetics after intravenous enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a population model analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Oct;60(4):364-73. [PubMed:16187968 ]
  4. Dalmora SL, Junior LB, Schmidt CA, Vaccari SF, Oliveira PR, Codevilla CF: Validation of the anti-factor Xa assay for the potency assessment of enoxaparin in pharmaceutical formulations. J AOAC Int. 2004 Nov-Dec;87(6):1305-8. [PubMed:15675440 ]
  5. Paige JT, Gouda BP, Gaitor-Stampley V, Scalia PG, Klainer TE, Raum WJ, Martin LF: No correlation between anti-factor Xa levels, low-molecular-weight heparin, and bleeding after gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007 Jul-Aug;3(4):469-75. Epub 2007 Jun 12. [PubMed:17567541 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
Other
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Molecular Weight:
83867.71 Da
References
  1. Rudolph TK, Rudolph V, Witte A, Klinke A, Szoecs K, Lau D, Heitzer T, Meinertz T, Baldus S: Liberation of vessel adherent myeloperoxidase by enoxaparin improves endothelial function. Int J Cardiol. 2010 Apr 1;140(1):42-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.10.035. Epub 2008 Dec 2. [PubMed:19049846 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 26, 2015 11:06