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Identification
NameGemfibrozil
Accession NumberDB01241  (APRD00293)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol. These decreases occur primarily in the VLDL fraction and less frequently in the LDL fraction. Gemfibrozil increases HDL subfractions HDL2 and HDL3 as well as apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. Its mechanism of action has not been definitely established. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2,2-Dimethyl-5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)valeriansaeure
2,2-Dimethyl-5-(2,5-xylyloxy)valeriansaeure
2,2-Dimethyl-5-(2,5-xylyloxy)valeric acid
Gemfibrozil
Gemfibrozilo
Gemfibrozilum
Lopid
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dom-gemfibroziltablet600 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1998-10-222013-04-05Canada
Dom-gemfibrozilcapsule300 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2000-03-10Not applicableCanada
Gemfibrozil Cap 300mgcapsule300 mgoralOmni Laboratories Division, Warner Lambert Canada Inc.1990-12-312003-07-04Canada
Gemfibrozil Tab 600mgtablet600 mgoralOmni Laboratories Division, Warner Lambert Canada Inc.1991-12-312003-07-04Canada
Gemfibrozil-300 - Capcapsule300 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1995-12-312010-07-13Canada
Gemfibrozil-600 - Tab 600mgtablet600 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1995-12-312015-07-10Canada
Lopidtablet, film coated600 mg/1oralParke Davis Div Of Pfizer Inc2004-03-30Not applicableUs
Lopid 600mgtablet600 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1987-12-312013-07-18Canada
Lopid Cap 300mgcapsule300 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1984-12-312013-07-18Canada
Mylan-gemfibroziltablet600 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1997-01-14Not applicableCanada
Mylan-gemfibrozilcapsule300 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1997-01-10Not applicableCanada
Nu-gemfibrozil Cap 300mgcapsule300 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1994-12-312012-09-04Canada
Nu-gemfibrozil Tab 600mgtablet600 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1994-12-312012-09-04Canada
Penta-gemfibroziltablet600 mgoralPentapharm Ltd.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
PHL-gemfibrozilcapsule300 mgoralPharmel Inc2004-08-04Not applicableCanada
PHL-gemfibroziltablet600 mgoralPharmel Inc2004-08-042013-04-05Canada
PMS-gemfibrozilcapsule300 mgoralPharmascience Inc1999-05-04Not applicableCanada
PMS-gemfibroziltablet600 mgoralPharmascience Inc1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
Riva-gemfibroziltablet600 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2000-05-152013-07-31Canada
Scheinpharm Gemfibrozilcapsule300 mgoralSchein Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.2000-09-132003-11-13Canada
Teva-gemfibroziltablet600 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Teva-gemfibrozilcapsule300 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2000-02-29Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-gemfibroziltablet600 mgoralApotex Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-gemfibrozil Cap 300mg USPcapsule300 mgoralApotex Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralApotex Corp.1998-10-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2011-04-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-12-03Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC1998-10-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc1993-11-24Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2015-09-16Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-07-10Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1993-11-24Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-11-09Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2007-01-02Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2006-07-26Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, coated600 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2010-01-27Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-05Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-08-17Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-19Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2010-11-09Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-10-20Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1993-09-27Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-09-21Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, coated600 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2009-10-30Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2006-07-27Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-03-12Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-06-22Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralNorthstar Rx LLC2010-12-20Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralHikma Pharmaceutical2010-08-16Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-10-23Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2010-08-16Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2015-09-16Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-08-10Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-06-09Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralMed Health Pharma, LLC2011-07-04Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-12-17Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2006-07-27Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack1998-10-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.2011-04-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.1996-02-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-03-12Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2014-04-21Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet600 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2010-03-12Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, coated600 mg/1oralGlobal Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories Inc.2009-10-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services1998-10-01Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2004-02-06Not applicableUs
Gemfibroziltablet, film coated600 mg/1oralDAVA Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1993-09-27Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
GemlipidFarmellas Enterprises
Gen-FibroNot Available
GenlipTeofarma
JezilNot Available
LipurPfizer
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIQ8X02027X3
CAS number25812-30-0
WeightAverage: 250.3334
Monoisotopic: 250.15689457
Chemical FormulaC15H22O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=HEMJJKBWTPKOJG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H22O3/c1-11-6-7-12(2)13(10-11)18-9-5-8-15(3,4)14(16)17/h6-7,10H,5,8-9H2,1-4H3,(H,16,17)
IUPAC Name
5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid
SMILES
CC1=CC(OCCCC(C)(C)C(O)=O)=C(C)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenol ethers
Direct ParentPhenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of adult patients with very high elevations of serum triglyceride levels (types IV and V hyperlipidemia) who are at risk of developing pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) and who do not respond adequately to a strict diet.
PharmacodynamicsGemfibrozil, a fibric acid antilipemic agent similar to clofibrate, is used to treat hyperlipoproteinemia and as a second-line therapy for type IIb hypercholesterolemia. It acts to reduce triglyceride levels, reduce VLDL levels, reduce LDL levels (moderately), and increase HDL levels (moderately).
Mechanism of actionGemfibrozil increases the activity of extrahepatic lipoprotein lipase (LL), thereby increasing lipoprotein triglyceride lipolysis. It does so by activating Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) 'transcription factor ligand', a receptor that is involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, as well as adipose tissue differentiation. This increase in the synthesis of lipoprotein lipase thereby increases the clearance of triglycerides. Chylomicrons are degraded, VLDLs are converted to LDLs, and LDLs are converted to HDL. This is accompanied by a slight increase in secretion of lipids into the bile and ultimately the intestine. Gemfibrozil also inhibits the synthesis and increases the clearance of apolipoprotein B, a carrier molecule for VLDL.
Related Articles
AbsorptionWell absorbed from gastrointestinal tract (within 1-2 hours).
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding95%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Gemfibrozil mainly undergoes oxidation of a ring methyl group to successively form a hydroxymethyl and a carboxyl metabolite.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Gemfibrozil
Gemfibrozil 1-beta-glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationApproximately seventy percent of the administered human dose is excreted in the urine, mostly as the glucuronide conjugate, with less than 2% excreted as unchanged gemfibrozil.
Half life1.5 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 3162 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, joint and muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.977
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9213
Caco-2 permeable+0.7918
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5597
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8943
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8839
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8177
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7512
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6973
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8949
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8234
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7822
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8314
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6759
Rat acute toxicity2.2167 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9774
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8701
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral600 mg
Capsuleoral300 mg
Tabletoral600 mg/1
Tablet, coatedoral600 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral600 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Gemfibrozil powder2.88USD g
Lopid 600 mg tablet2.07USD tablet
Gemfibrozil 600 mg tablet1.8USD tablet
Apo-Gemfibrozil 600 mg Tablet0.65USD tablet
Mylan-Gemfibrozil 600 mg Tablet0.65USD tablet
Novo-Gemfibrozil 600 mg Tablet0.65USD tablet
Nu-Gemfibrozil 600 mg Tablet0.65USD tablet
Pms-Gemfibrozil 600 mg Tablet0.65USD tablet
Lopid 300 mg Capsule0.58USD capsule
Apo-Gemfibrozil 300 mg Capsule0.31USD capsule
Mylan-Gemfibrozil 300 mg Capsule0.31USD capsule
Novo-Gemfibrozil 300 mg Capsule0.31USD capsule
Nu-Gemfibrozil 300 mg Capsule0.31USD capsule
Pms-Gemfibrozil 300 mg Capsule0.31USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point62 °CPhysProp
boiling point158.5 °C at 2.00E-02 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility10 mg/mL (in base)Not Available
logP3.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0278 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.61ALOGPS
logP4.39ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.42ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity71.82 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.9 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Gianfranco Piccoli, Antonio Tarquini, Giovanni Frare, “Process for the preparation of gemfibrozil.” U.S. Patent US5654476, issued May, 1980.

US5654476
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesC10AB04
AHFS Codes
  • 24:06.06
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (260 KB)
MSDSDownload (74.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcipimoxAcipimox may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Gemfibrozil.
AgomelatineThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
AtorvastatinGemfibrozil may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Atorvastatin.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Bexarotene can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Bortezomib can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Bosentan can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Carvedilol can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Gemfibrozil.
ChlorpropamideGemfibrozil may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
CiprofibrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ciprofibrate is combined with Gemfibrozil.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Gemfibrozil resulting in a loss in efficacy.
ColchicineGemfibrozil may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Colchicine.
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Gemfibrozil resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CyclosporineCyclosporine may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Gemfibrozil.
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Diclofenac can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
DicoumarolGemfibrozil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Dronabinol can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
EluxadolineThe serum concentration of Eluxadoline can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Enzalutamide can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
EzetimibeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gemfibrozil is combined with Ezetimibe.
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
FluvastatinGemfibrozil may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Fluvastatin.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Fluvoxamine can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Imatinib can be reduced when Imatinib is used in combination with Gemfibrozil resulting in a loss in efficacy.
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Irinotecan can be increased when Irinotecan is used in combination with Gemfibrozil.
LacosamideThe serum concentration of Lacosamide can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
LovastatinGemfibrozil may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Lovastatin.
MontelukastThe serum concentration of Montelukast can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
OspemifeneThe serum concentration of Ospemifene can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Pantoprazole can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
ParecoxibThe serum concentration of Parecoxib can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
PirfenidoneThe serum concentration of Pirfenidone can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
PitavastatinGemfibrozil may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Pitavastatin.
PravastatinGemfibrozil may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Pravastatin.
RaltegravirRaltegravir may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Gemfibrozil.
RamelteonThe serum concentration of Ramelteon can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
RepaglinideThe serum concentration of Repaglinide can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
RosuvastatinGemfibrozil may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Rosuvastatin.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Sildenafil can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
SimvastatinGemfibrozil may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Simvastatin.
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
TorasemideThe metabolism of Torasemide can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
TreprostinilThe serum concentration of Treprostinil can be increased when it is combined with Gemfibrozil.
TroglitazoneThe metabolism of Troglitazone can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
Ursodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Ursodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Gemfibrozil.
Food Interactions
  • Take 30 minutes before meals.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fa...
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Clavey V, Copin C, Mariotte MC, Bauge E, Chinetti G, Fruchart J, Fruchart JC, Dallongeville J, Staels B: Cell culture conditions determine apolipoprotein CIII secretion and regulation by fibrates in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 1999;9(3):139-49. [PubMed:10494028 ]
  2. Bosse Y, Pascot A, Dumont M, Brochu M, Prud'homme D, Bergeron J, Despres JP, Vohl MC: Influences of the PPAR alpha-L162V polymorphism on plasma HDL(2)-cholesterol response of abdominally obese men treated with gemfibrozil. Genet Med. 2002 Jul-Aug;4(4):311-5. [PubMed:12172398 ]
  3. Pahan K, Jana M, Liu X, Taylor BS, Wood C, Fischer SM: Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, inhibits the induction of nitric-oxide synthase in human astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 29;277(48):45984-91. Epub 2002 Sep 18. [PubMed:12244038 ]
  4. Shoji Y, Sanekata A, Sato M, Imaizumi K: Preparation of antiserum against rat delta6-desaturase and its use to evaluate the desaturase protein levels in rats treated with gemfibrozil, a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003 May;67(5):1177-8. [PubMed:12834305 ]
  5. Rizvi F, Iftikhar M, George JP: Beneficial effects of fish liver preparations of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) versus gemfibrozil in high fat diet-induced lipid-intolerant rats. J Med Food. 2003 Summer;6(2):123-8. [PubMed:12935323 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Honkalammi J, Niemi M, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT: Gemfibrozil is a strong inactivator of CYP2C8 in very small multiple doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 May;91(5):846-55. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2011.313. [PubMed:22472994 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Sharma P, Holmes VE, Elsby R, Lambert C, Surry D: Validation of cell-based OATP1B1 assays to assess drug transport and the potential for drug-drug interaction to support regulatory submissions. Xenobiotica. 2010 Jan;40(1):24-37. doi: 10.3109/00498250903351013. [PubMed:19919292 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23