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Identification
NameClomipramine
Accession NumberDB01242  (APRD00253, DB07600)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
Description

Clomipramine, the 3-chloro analog of imipramine, is a dibenzazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, clomipramine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, clomipramine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as clomipramine, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Clomipramine may be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette’s disorder). Unlabeled indications include panic disorder, chronic pain (e.g. central pain, idiopathic pain disorder, tension headache, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain), cataplexy and associated narcolepsy, autistic disorder, trichotillomania, onchophagia, stuttering, premature ejaculation, and premenstrual syndrome. Clomipramine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
3-(3-chloro-10,11-dihydro-5H-Dibenzo[b,F]azepin-5-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-1-propanamine
3-(3-CHLORO-5H-dibenzo[b,F]azepin-5-yl)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine
3-Chloroimipramine
Chlorimipramine
Clomipramina
Clomipramine
Clomipraminum
g 34586
Monochlorimipramine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Clomipraminetablet10 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2003-02-202016-02-19Canada
Act Clomipraminetablet50 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2003-02-202016-02-19Canada
Act Clomipraminetablet25 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2003-02-202016-02-19Canada
Altius-clomipraminetablet25 mgoralAspri Pharma Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Altius-clomipraminetablet10 mgoralAspri Pharma Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Altius-clomipraminetablet50 mgoralAspri Pharma Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Anafraniltablet25 mgoralAspri Pharma Canada Inc1973-12-31Not applicableCanada
Anafranilcapsule75 mg/1oralMallinckrodt, Inc.2011-03-18Not applicableUs
Anafranilcapsule50 mg/1oralMallinckrodt, Inc.2011-03-18Not applicableUs
Anafranilcapsule25 mg/1oralMallinckrodt, Inc.2011-03-18Not applicableUs
Anafraniltablet50 mgoralAspri Pharma Canada Inc1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Anafraniltablet10 mgoralAspri Pharma Canada Inc1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mg/1oralMallinckrodt, Inc.2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule75 mg/1oralMallinckrodt, Inc.2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mg/1oralMallinckrodt, Inc.2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Tablets 10mgtablet10 mgoralPrempharm Inc1997-01-052005-08-05Canada
Clomipramine Tablets 25mgtablet25 mgoralPrempharm Inc1997-01-052005-08-05Canada
Clomipramine Tablets 50mgtablet50 mgoralPrempharm Inc1997-01-052005-08-05Canada
Clomipramine-10 - Tab 10mgtablet10 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1995-12-312010-07-13Canada
Clomipramine-25 - Tab 25mgtablet25 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1995-12-312010-07-13Canada
Clomipramine-50 - Tab 50mgtablet50 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1995-12-312010-07-13Canada
Dom-clomipraminetablet50 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1999-03-10Not applicableCanada
Dom-clomipraminetablet25 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1999-03-10Not applicableCanada
Gen-clomipramine - Tab 10mgtablet10 mgoralGenpharm Ulc1994-12-312009-08-05Canada
Gen-clomipramine - Tab 25mgtablet25 mgoralGenpharm Ulc1994-12-312009-08-05Canada
Gen-clomipramine - Tab 50mgtablet50 mgoralGenpharm Ulc1994-12-312009-08-05Canada
Med Clomipramine Tablets - 25mgtablet25 mgoralMedican Pharma Incorporated1996-08-302011-03-29Canada
Med Clomipramine Tablets - 50mgtablet50 mgoralMedican Pharma Incorporated1996-08-302011-03-29Canada
Novo-clopamine Tab 10mgtablet10 mgoralNovopharm Limited1997-01-062015-10-26Canada
Novo-clopamine Tablets - 25mgtablet25 mgoralNovopharm Limited1995-12-312015-10-26Canada
Novo-clopamine Tablets- 50mgtablet50 mgoralNovopharm Limited1995-12-312015-10-26Canada
Penta-clomipramine - 25mgtablet25 mgoralPentapharm Ltd.1997-06-252004-07-30Canada
Penta-clomipramine - 50mgtablet50 mgoralPentapharm Ltd.1997-06-252004-07-30Canada
PMS-clomipraminetablet50 mgoralPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-clomipraminetablet25 mgoralPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-clomipraminetablet10 mgoralPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-clomipramine Tablets 10mgtablet10 mgoralApotex Inc1993-12-312016-06-30Canada
Apo-clomipramine Tablets 25mgtablet25 mgoralApotex Inc1993-12-312016-06-30Canada
Apo-clomipramine Tablets 50mgtablet50 mgoralApotex Inc1993-12-312016-06-30Canada
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule75 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-05-11Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule75 mg/1oralSandoz Inc1996-03-29Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mg/1oralSandoz Inc1996-03-29Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mg/1oralSandoz Inc1996-03-29Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-08-29Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule75 mg/1oralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-08-29Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mg/1oralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule75 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-05-11Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mg/1oralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-05-11Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-08-06Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
HydiphenArzneimittelwerk Dresden
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Clomipramine Hydrochloride
17321-77-6
Thumb
  • InChI Key: WIMWMKZEIBHDTH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 350.131654192
  • Average Mass: 351.313
DBSALT000028
Categories
UNIINUV44L116D
CAS number303-49-1
WeightAverage: 314.852
Monoisotopic: 314.154976453
Chemical FormulaC19H23ClN2
InChI KeyInChIKey=GDLIGKIOYRNHDA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H23ClN2/c1-21(2)12-5-13-22-18-7-4-3-6-15(18)8-9-16-10-11-17(20)14-19(16)22/h3-4,6-7,10-11,14H,5,8-9,12-13H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
(3-{14-chloro-2-azatricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(11),3,5,7,12,14-hexaen-2-yl}propyl)dimethylamine
SMILES
CN(C)CCCN1C2=CC=CC=C2CCC2=C1C=C(Cl)C=C2
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzazepines. These are compounds with two benzene rings connected by an azepine ring. Azepine is an unsaturated seven-member heterocycle with one nitrogen atom replacing a carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzazepines
Sub ClassDibenzazepines
Direct ParentDibenzazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dibenzazepine
  • Alkyldiarylamine
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Azepine
  • Benzenoid
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationMay be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette’s disorder). Unlabeled indications include: depression, panic disorder, chronic pain (e.g. central pain, idiopathic pain disorder, tension headache, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain), cataplexy and associated narcolepsy (limited evidence), autistic disorder (limited evidence), trichotillomania (limited evidence), onchophagia (limited evidence), stuttering (limited evidence), premature ejaculation, and premenstrual syndrome.
PharmacodynamicsClomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, is the 3-chloro derivative of Imipramine. It was thought that tricyclic antidepressants work exclusively by inhibiting the re-uptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin by nerve cells. However, this response occurs immediately, yet mood does not lift for around two weeks. It is now thought that changes occur in receptor sensitivity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, a part of the brain involved in emotions. Presynaptic receptors are affected: α1 and β1 receptors are sensitized, α2 receptors are desensitized (leading to increased noradrenaline production). Tricyclics are also known as effective analgesics for different types of pain, especially neuropathic or neuralgic pain.
Mechanism of actionClomipramine is a strong, but not completely selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI), as the active main metabolite desmethyclomipramine acts preferably as an inhibitor of noradrenaline reuptake. α1-receptor blockage and β-down-regulation have been noted and most likely play a role in the short term effects of clomipramine. A blockade of sodium-channels and NDMA-receptors might, as with other tricyclics, account for its effect in chronic pain, in particular the neuropathic type.
Related Articles
AbsorptionWell absorbed from the GI tract following oral administration. Bioavailability is approximately 50% orally due to extensive first-pass metabolism. Bioavailability is not affected by food. Peak plasma concentrations occurred 2-6 hours following oral administration of a single 50 mg dose. The peak plasma concentration ranged from 56 ng/mL to 154 mg/mL (mean, 92 ng/mL). There are large interindividual variations in plasma concentrations occur, partly due to genetic differences in clomipramine metabolism. On average, steady state plasma concentrations are achieved in 1-2 weeks following multiple dose oral administration. Smoking appears to lower the steady-state plasma concentration of clomipramine, but not its active metabolite desmethylclomipramine.
Volume of distribution

~ 17 L/kg (range: 9-25 L/kg).
Clomipramine is capable of distributing into the cerebrospinal fluid, the brain, and into breast milk.

Protein bindingClomipramine is approximately 97-98% bound to plasma proteins, principally to albumin and possibly to α1-acid glycoprotein. Desmethylclomipramine is 97-99% bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism

Extensively metabolized in the liver. The main active metabolite is desmethylclomipramine, which is formed by N-demethylation of clomipramine via CYP2C19, 3A4 and 1A2. Other metabolites and their glucuronide conjugates are also produced. Other metabolites of clomipramine include 8-hydroxyclomipramine formed via 8-hydroxylation, 2-hydroxyclomipramine formed via 2-hydroxylation, and clomipramine N-oxide formed by N-oxidation. Desmethylclomipramine is further metabolized to 8-hydroxydesmethylclomipramine and didesmethylclomipramine, which are formed by 8-hydroxylation and N-demethylation, respectively. 8-Hydroxyclomipramine and 8-hydroxydesmethylclomipramine are pharmacologically active; however, their clinical contribution remains unknown.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Clomipramine
desmethylclomipramineDetails
Clomipramine
2-hydroxyclomipramineDetails
Clomipramine
8-hydroxyclomipramineDetails
Clomipramine
Not Available
clomipramine N-oxideDetails
desmethylclomipramine
didesmethylclomipramineDetails
2-hydroxyclomipramine
2-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramineDetails
2-hydroxyclomipramine
Not Available
2-hydroxyclomipramine glucuronideDetails
8-hydroxyclomipramine
Not Available
8-hydroxyclomipramine glucuronideDetails
8-hydroxyclomipramine
Not Available
8-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramineDetails
2-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramine
Not Available
2-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramine glucuronideDetails
8-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramine
Not Available
8-hyroxydesmethyl clomipramine glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationUrine (51-60%) and feces via biliary elimination (24-32%)
Half lifeFollowing oral administration of a single 150 mg dose of clomipramine, the average elimination half-life of clomipramine was 32 hours (range: 19-37 hours) and of desmethylclomipramine was 69 hours (range: 54-77 hours). Elimination half-life may vary substantially with different doses due to saturable kinetics (i.e. metabolism).
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySigns and symptoms vary in severity depending upon factors such as the amount of drug absorbed, the age of the patient, and the time elapsed since drug ingestion. Critical manifestations of overdose include cardiac dysrhythmias, severe hypotension, convulsions, and CNS depression including coma. Changes in the electrocardiogram, particularly in QRS axis or width, are clinically significant indicators of tricyclic toxicity. In U.S. clinical trials, 2 deaths occurred in 12 reported cases of acute overdosage with Anafranil either alone or in combination with other drugs. One death involved a patient suspected of ingesting a dose of 7000 mg. The second death involved a patient suspected of ingesting a dose of 5750 mg. Side effects include: sedation, hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, postural hypotension, tachycardia, hypertension, ECG changes, heart failure, impaired memory and delirium, and precipitation of hypomanic or manic episodes in bipolar depression. Withdrawal symptoms include gastrointestinal disturbances, anxiety, and insomnia.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Clomipramine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00639
SNP Mediated Effects
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene symbol: CYP2D6
UniProt: P10635
rs3892097 CYP2D6*4A AllelePoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effects18070221
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene symbol: CYP2D6
UniProt: P10635
rs3892097 CYP2D6*4C > TThose that are homozygous for the poorly metabolizing CYP2D6 alleles are at an increased risk of side effects and decrease drug metabolism18070221
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene symbol: CYP2D6
UniProt: P10635
rs3892097 CYP2D6*4C > TThose that are homozygous for the poorly metabolizing CYP2D6 alleles are at an increased risk of side effects and decrease drug metabolism9918137
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9843
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9793
Caco-2 permeable+0.8391
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7618
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8573
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8387
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.852
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7875
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8374
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9176
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7971
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6074
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8735
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8971
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9967
Rat acute toxicity2.7426 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.889
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8029
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral10 mg
Tabletoral25 mg
Tabletoral50 mg
Capsuleoral25 mg/1
Capsuleoral50 mg/1
Capsuleoral75 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Clomipramine hcl powder17.88USD g
Anafranil 25 mg capsule13.51USD capsule
Anafranil 50 mg capsule13.51USD capsule
Anafranil 75 mg capsule13.24USD capsule
ClomiPRAMINE HCl 75 mg capsule1.55USD capsule
Clomipramine 75 mg capsule1.33USD capsule
Clomipramine 50 mg capsule1.01USD capsule
ClomiPRAMINE HCl 25 mg capsule0.88USD capsule
Anafranil 50 mg Tablet0.77USD tablet
Clomipramine 25 mg capsule0.75USD capsule
ClomiPRAMINE HCl 50 mg capsule0.57USD capsule
Apo-Clomipramine 50 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Co Clomipramine 50 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Anafranil 25 mg Tablet0.42USD tablet
Anafranil 10 mg Tablet0.31USD tablet
Apo-Clomipramine 25 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Co Clomipramine 25 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Apo-Clomipramine 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
Co Clomipramine 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point191.5-192Schindler, W. and Dietrich, H.; US. Patent 3,515,785; June 2,1970; assigned to Geigy Chemical Corp.
boiling point160-170 °C at 3.00E-01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility0.294 mg/LNot Available
logP5.19HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0144 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.04ALOGPS
logP4.88ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area6.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity95.41 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-066r-6391000000-e57dc447a97807ce527aView in MoNA
References
Synthesis Reference

Schindler, W. and Dietrich, H.; US. Patent 3,515,785; June 2,1970; assigned to Geigy Chemical Corp.

General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN06AA04
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.04.28
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (712 KB)
MSDSDownload (74.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Acepromazine.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Acetophenazine.
Acetylsalicylic acidClomipramine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AclidiniumAclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clomipramine.
AltretamineAltretamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Clomipramine.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Amisulpride.
AmphetamineClomipramine may increase the stimulatory activities of Amphetamine.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
AzelastineClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clomipramine.
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Batimastat.
BenzquinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Benzquinamide.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
Botulinum Toxin Type AClomipramine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.
Botulinum Toxin Type BClomipramine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type B.
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
BuprenorphineClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
BupropionThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.
ButabarbitalThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Butabarbital.
ButethalThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Butethal.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Carphenazine.
CathinoneClomipramine may increase the stimulatory activities of Cathinone.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Chlormezanone.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorpropamideClomipramine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Chlorprothixene.
CimetidineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.
Cimetropium BromideClomipramine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cimetropium Bromide.
CinacalcetThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Cinacalcet.
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Citalopram.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CodeineThe therapeutic efficacy of Codeine can be decreased when used in combination with Clomipramine.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapoxetine is combined with Clomipramine.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Desmopressin.
DexmethylphenidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmethylphenidate is combined with Clomipramine.
DicoumarolClomipramine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DipivefrinThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Clomipramine.
DofetilideClomipramine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Clomipramine.
EliglustatThe serum concentration of Eliglustat can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
EluxadolineClomipramine may increase the activities of Eluxadoline.
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Escitalopram.
EthanolClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Fencamfamine.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Clomipramine.
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluoxetine is combined with Clomipramine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Fluphenazine.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Fluspirilene.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Clomipramine.
Glucagon recombinantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Glucagon recombinant.
GoserelinClomipramine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
GranisetronGranisetron may increase the serotonergic activities of Clomipramine.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Haloperidol.
HeptabarbitalThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Heptabarbital.
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
HydrocodoneClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
IcosapentClomipramine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Icosapent.
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Clomipramine.
Ipratropium bromideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clomipramine.
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.
ItoprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Itopride can be decreased when used in combination with Clomipramine.
LeuprolideClomipramine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the serotonergic activities of Clomipramine.
LiothyronineLiothyronine may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Clomipramine.
LithiumLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Clomipramine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Clomipramine.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Loxapine.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Mesoridazine.
MethohexitalThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Methohexital.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Methotrimeprazine.
Methylene blueClomipramine may increase the serotonergic activities of Methylene blue.
MethylphenidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenidate is combined with Clomipramine.
MetoclopramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoclopramide is combined with Clomipramine.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
MetyrosineClomipramine may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MexiletineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.
MianserinMianserin may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clomipramine.
MidodrineClomipramine may increase the activities of Midodrine.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clomipramine.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Milnacipran.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
MirabegronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Mirabegron.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Molindone.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Morphine.
MoxonidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Moxonidine can be decreased when used in combination with Clomipramine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
NebivololThe serum concentration of Nebivolol can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
NicorandilClomipramine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicorandil.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Olanzapine.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Ondansetron.
OrciprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Orciprenaline.
OrphenadrineClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Paliperidone.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.
ParaldehydeClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paroxetine is combined with Clomipramine.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Perphenazine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the serotonergic activities of Clomipramine.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Pimozide.
PiperacetazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Piperacetazine.
Potassium ChlorideClomipramine may increase the ulcerogenic activities of Potassium Chloride.
PramipexoleClomipramine may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clomipramine.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Primidone.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Prochlorperazine.
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Clomipramine.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Promazine.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Quetiapine.
QuinidineClomipramine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
RamosetronClomipramine may increase the activities of Ramosetron.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Remoxipride.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Reserpine.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Risperidone.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RopiniroleClomipramine may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineClomipramine may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clomipramine.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SecretinThe therapeutic efficacy of Secretin can be decreased when used in combination with Clomipramine.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Sertindole.
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertraline is combined with Clomipramine.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
St. John's WortThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with St. John's Wort.
SulpirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulpiride can be decreased when used in combination with Clomipramine.
SuvorexantClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TacrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clomipramine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Tamoxifen can be reduced when Tamoxifen is used in combination with Clomipramine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.
Tedizolid PhosphateTedizolid Phosphate may increase the serotonergic activities of Clomipramine.
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.
ThalidomideClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Thiothixene.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TiotropiumClomipramine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tiotropium.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Topiramate.
TramadolClomipramine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the serotonergic activities of Clomipramine.
TrichlormethiazideThe serum concentration of Trichlormethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Triflupromazine.
UmeclidiniumUmeclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clomipramine.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.
YohimbineThe serum concentration of Yohimbine can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Ziprasidone.
ZolpidemClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided throughout treatment, grapefruit can modify serum levels of clomipramine and its metabolite desmethyl-clomipramine.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin an...
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Alvarez JC, Gluck N, Arnulf I, Quintin P, Leboyer M, Pecquery R, Launay JM, Perez-Diaz F, Spreux-Varoquaux O: Decreased platelet serotonin transporter sites and increased platelet inositol triphosphate levels in patients with unipolar depression: effects of clomipramine and fluoxetine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Dec;66(6):617-24. [PubMed:10613618 ]
  2. Borkowska A, Pilaczynska E, Araszkiewicz A, Rybakowski J: [The effect of sertraline on cognitive functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder]. Psychiatr Pol. 2002 Nov-Dec;36(6 Suppl):289-95. [PubMed:12647451 ]
  3. Suhara T, Takano A, Sudo Y, Ichimiya T, Inoue M, Yasuno F, Ikoma Y, Okubo Y: High levels of serotonin transporter occupancy with low-dose clomipramine in comparative occupancy study with fluvoxamine using positron emission tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;60(4):386-91. [PubMed:12695316 ]
  4. Larsen AK, Brennum LT, Egebjerg J, Sanchez C, Halldin C, Andersen PH: Selectivity of (3)H-MADAM binding to 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters in vitro and in vivo in mice; correlation with behavioural effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;141(6):1015-23. Epub 2004 Mar 1. [PubMed:14993096 ]
  5. Malizia AL, Melichar JM, Brown DJ, Gunn RN, Reynolds A, Jones T, Nutt DJ: Demonstration of clomipramine and venlafaxine occupation at serotonin reuptake sites in man in vivo. J Psychopharmacol. 1997;11(3):279-81. [PubMed:9305421 ]
  6. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821 ]
  7. Gillman PK: Tricyclic antidepressant pharmacology and therapeutic drug interactions updated. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;151(6):737-48. Epub 2007 Apr 30. [PubMed:17471183 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates...
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Hentall ID, Kurle PJ, White TR: Correlations between serotonin level and single-cell firing in the rat's nucleus raphe magnus. Neuroscience. 2000;95(4):1081-8. [PubMed:10682715 ]
  2. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. [PubMed:1296670 ]
  3. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. [PubMed:14501155 ]
  4. Trifunovic RD, Brodie MS: The effects of clomipramine on the excitatory action of ethanol on dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jan;276(1):34-40. [PubMed:8558452 ]
  5. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. [PubMed:9862411 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins ...
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. [PubMed:9862411 ]
  2. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. [PubMed:14501155 ]
  3. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. [PubMed:1296670 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modul...
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. [PubMed:9862411 ]
  2. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. [PubMed:14501155 ]
  3. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. [PubMed:1296670 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821 ]
  2. Jungkun G, Kuss HJ, Gsell W: Long-term effects of tricyclic antidepressants on norepinephrine kinetics in humans. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2001;108(3):349-62. [PubMed:11341486 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular Weight:
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Baranczyk-Kuzma A, Sawicki J, Kuzma M, Jagiello J: [Tricyclic antidepressants as inhibitors of brain glutathione-S-transferase]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2001 Dec;11(66):472-5. [PubMed:11899840 ]
  2. Baranczyk-Kuzma A, Kuzma M, Gutowicz M, Kazmierczak B, Sawicki J: Glutathione S-transferase pi as a target for tricyclic antidepressants in human brain. Acta Biochim Pol. 2004;51(1):207-12. [PubMed:15094841 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  3. The P450 Program [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  3. Source [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. The P450 Program [Link]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on January 12, 2016 15:50