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Identification
NameClomipramine
Accession NumberDB01242  (APRD00253, DB07600)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Clomipramine, the 3-chloro analog of imipramine, is a dibenzazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, clomipramine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, clomipramine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as clomipramine, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Clomipramine may be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette’s disorder). Unlabeled indications include panic disorder, chronic pain (e.g. central pain, idiopathic pain disorder, tension headache, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain), cataplexy and associated narcolepsy, autistic disorder, trichotillomania, onchophagia, stuttering, premature ejaculation, and premenstrual syndrome. Clomipramine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
3-(3-chloro-10,11-dihydro-5H-Dibenzo[b,F]azepin-5-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-1-propanamineNot AvailableNot Available
3-(3-CHLORO-5H-dibenzo[b,F]azepin-5-yl)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amineNot AvailableNot Available
3-ChloroimipramineNot AvailableNot Available
ChlorimipramineNot AvailableNot Available
ClomipraminaSpanishINN
ClomipramineNot AvailableNot Available
ClomipraminumLatinINN
g 34586Not AvailableNot Available
MonochlorimipramineNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Anafranilcapsule25 mgoralMallinckrodt, Inc.2011-03-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Anafranilcapsule50 mgoralMallinckrodt, Inc.2011-03-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Anafranilcapsule75 mgoralMallinckrodt, Inc.2011-03-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Anafraniltablet50 mgoralSunovion Pharmaceuticals Canada IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Anafraniltablet10 mgoralSunovion Pharmaceuticals Canada IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Anafraniltablet25 mgoralSunovion Pharmaceuticals Canada IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-05-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-05-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule75 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-05-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mgoralSandoz Inc1996-03-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mgoralSandoz Inc1996-03-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule75 mgoralSandoz Inc1996-03-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-08-06Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mgoralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mgoralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule75 mgoralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-09-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mgoralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule75 mgoralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mgoralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mgoralbryant ranch prepack1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mgoralbryant ranch prepack1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule50 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2014-09-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2014-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Clomipramine Hydrochloridecapsule25 mgoralCarilion Materials Management1996-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
HydiphenArzneimittelwerk Dresden
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Clomipramine Hydrochloride
17321-77-6
Thumb
  • InChI Key: WIMWMKZEIBHDTH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 350.131654192
  • Average Mass: 351.313
DBSALT000028
Categories
CAS number303-49-1
WeightAverage: 314.852
Monoisotopic: 314.154976453
Chemical FormulaC19H23ClN2
InChI KeyGDLIGKIOYRNHDA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H23ClN2/c1-21(2)12-5-13-22-18-7-4-3-6-15(18)8-9-16-10-11-17(20)14-19(16)22/h3-4,6-7,10-11,14H,5,8-9,12-13H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
(3-{14-chloro-2-azatricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(11),3,5,7,12,14-hexaen-2-yl}propyl)dimethylamine
SMILES
CN(C)CCCN1C2=CC=CC=C2CCC2=C1C=C(Cl)C=C2
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzazepines. These are compounds with two benzene rings connected by an azepine ring. Azepine is an unsaturated seven-member heterocycle with one nitrogen atom replacing a carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzazepines
Sub ClassDibenzazepines
Direct ParentDibenzazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dibenzazepine
  • Alkyldiarylamine
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Azepine
  • Benzenoid
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationMay be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette’s disorder). Unlabeled indications include: depression, panic disorder, chronic pain (e.g. central pain, idiopathic pain disorder, tension headache, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain), cataplexy and associated narcolepsy (limited evidence), autistic disorder (limited evidence), trichotillomania (limited evidence), onchophagia (limited evidence), stuttering (limited evidence), premature ejaculation, and premenstrual syndrome.
PharmacodynamicsClomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, is the 3-chloro derivative of Imipramine. It was thought that tricyclic antidepressants work exclusively by inhibiting the re-uptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin by nerve cells. However, this response occurs immediately, yet mood does not lift for around two weeks. It is now thought that changes occur in receptor sensitivity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, a part of the brain involved in emotions. Presynaptic receptors are affected: α1 and β1 receptors are sensitized, α2 receptors are desensitized (leading to increased noradrenaline production). Tricyclics are also known as effective analgesics for different types of pain, especially neuropathic or neuralgic pain.
Mechanism of actionClomipramine is a strong, but not completely selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI), as the active main metabolite desmethyclomipramine acts preferably as an inhibitor of noradrenaline reuptake. α1-receptor blockage and β-down-regulation have been noted and most likely play a role in the short term effects of clomipramine. A blockade of sodium-channels and NDMA-receptors might, as with other tricyclics, account for its effect in chronic pain, in particular the neuropathic type.
AbsorptionWell absorbed from the GI tract following oral administration. Bioavailability is approximately 50% orally due to extensive first-pass metabolism. Bioavailability is not affected by food. Peak plasma concentrations occurred 2-6 hours following oral administration of a single 50 mg dose. The peak plasma concentration ranged from 56 ng/mL to 154 mg/mL (mean, 92 ng/mL). There are large interindividual variations in plasma concentrations occur, partly due to genetic differences in clomipramine metabolism. On average, steady state plasma concentrations are achieved in 1-2 weeks following multiple dose oral administration. Smoking appears to lower the steady-state plasma concentration of clomipramine, but not its active metabolite desmethylclomipramine.
Volume of distribution

~ 17 L/kg (range: 9-25 L/kg).
Clomipramine is capable of distributing into the cerebrospinal fluid, the brain, and into breast milk.

Protein bindingClomipramine is approximately 97-98% bound to plasma proteins, principally to albumin and possibly to α1-acid glycoprotein. Desmethylclomipramine is 97-99% bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism

Extensively metabolized in the liver. The main active metabolite is desmethylclomipramine, which is formed by N-demethylation of clomipramine via CYP2C19, 3A4 and 1A2. Other metabolites and their glucuronide conjugates are also produced. Other metabolites of clomipramine include 8-hydroxyclomipramine formed via 8-hydroxylation, 2-hydroxyclomipramine formed via 2-hydroxylation, and clomipramine N-oxide formed by N-oxidation. Desmethylclomipramine is further metabolized to 8-hydroxydesmethylclomipramine and didesmethylclomipramine, which are formed by 8-hydroxylation and N-demethylation, respectively. 8-Hydroxyclomipramine and 8-hydroxydesmethylclomipramine are pharmacologically active; however, their clinical contribution remains unknown.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Clomipramine
desmethylclomipramineDetails
Clomipramine
2-hydroxyclomipramineDetails
Clomipramine
8-hydroxyclomipramineDetails
Clomipramine
Not Available
clomipramine N-oxideDetails
desmethylclomipramine
didesmethylclomipramineDetails
2-hydroxyclomipramine
2-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramineDetails
2-hydroxyclomipramine
Not Available
2-hydroxyclomipramine glucuronideDetails
8-hydroxyclomipramine
Not Available
8-hydroxyclomipramine glucuronideDetails
8-hydroxyclomipramine
Not Available
8-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramineDetails
2-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramine
Not Available
2-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramine glucuronideDetails
8-hydroxydesmethyl clomipramine
Not Available
8-hyroxydesmethyl clomipramine glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationUrine (51-60%) and feces via biliary elimination (24-32%)
Half lifeFollowing oral administration of a single 150 mg dose of clomipramine, the average elimination half-life of clomipramine was 32 hours (range: 19-37 hours) and of desmethylclomipramine was 69 hours (range: 54-77 hours). Elimination half-life may vary substantially with different doses due to saturable kinetics (i.e. metabolism).
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySigns and symptoms vary in severity depending upon factors such as the amount of drug absorbed, the age of the patient, and the time elapsed since drug ingestion. Critical manifestations of overdose include cardiac dysrhythmias, severe hypotension, convulsions, and CNS depression including coma. Changes in the electrocardiogram, particularly in QRS axis or width, are clinically significant indicators of tricyclic toxicity. In U.S. clinical trials, 2 deaths occurred in 12 reported cases of acute overdosage with Anafranil either alone or in combination with other drugs. One death involved a patient suspected of ingesting a dose of 7000 mg. The second death involved a patient suspected of ingesting a dose of 5750 mg. Side effects include: sedation, hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, postural hypotension, tachycardia, hypertension, ECG changes, heart failure, impaired memory and delirium, and precipitation of hypomanic or manic episodes in bipolar depression. Withdrawal symptoms include gastrointestinal disturbances, anxiety, and insomnia.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Clomipramine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00639
SNP Mediated Effects
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene symbol: CYP2D6
UniProt: P10635
rs3892097 CYP2D6*4A AllelePoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for adverse side effects18070221
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene symbol: CYP2D6
UniProt: P10635
rs3892097 CYP2D6*4C > TThose that are homozygous for the poorly metabolizing CYP2D6 alleles are at an increased risk of side effects and decrease drug metabolism18070221
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Gene symbol: CYP2D6
UniProt: P10635
rs3892097 CYP2D6*4C > TThose that are homozygous for the poorly metabolizing CYP2D6 alleles are at an increased risk of side effects and decrease drug metabolism9918137
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9843
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9793
Caco-2 permeable+0.8391
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7618
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8573
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8387
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.852
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7875
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8374
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9176
CYP450 2D6 substrateInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7971
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6074
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8735
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8971
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9967
Rat acute toxicity2.7426 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.889
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8029
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral25 mg
Capsuleoral50 mg
Capsuleoral75 mg
Tabletoral10 mg
Tabletoral25 mg
Tabletoral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Clomipramine hcl powder17.88USD g
Anafranil 25 mg capsule13.51USD capsule
Anafranil 50 mg capsule13.51USD capsule
Anafranil 75 mg capsule13.24USD capsule
ClomiPRAMINE HCl 75 mg capsule1.55USD capsule
Clomipramine 75 mg capsule1.33USD capsule
Clomipramine 50 mg capsule1.01USD capsule
ClomiPRAMINE HCl 25 mg capsule0.88USD capsule
Anafranil 50 mg Tablet0.77USD tablet
Clomipramine 25 mg capsule0.75USD capsule
ClomiPRAMINE HCl 50 mg capsule0.57USD capsule
Apo-Clomipramine 50 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Co Clomipramine 50 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Anafranil 25 mg Tablet0.42USD tablet
Anafranil 10 mg Tablet0.31USD tablet
Apo-Clomipramine 25 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Co Clomipramine 25 mg Tablet0.23USD tablet
Apo-Clomipramine 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
Co Clomipramine 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point191.5-192Schindler, W. and Dietrich, H.; US. Patent 3,515,785; June 2,1970; assigned to Geigy Chemical Corp.
boiling point160-170 °C at 3.00E-01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility0.294 mg/LNot Available
logP5.19HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0144 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.04ALOGPS
logP4.88ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area6.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity95.41 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraMS
References
Synthesis Reference

Schindler, W. and Dietrich, H.; US. Patent 3,515,785; June 2,1970; assigned to Geigy Chemical Corp.

General Reference
  1. FDA label
External Links
ATC CodesN06AA04
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.04.28
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (712 KB)
MSDSDownload (74.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcepromazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
AcetophenazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
AclidiniumMay enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents.
AltretamineMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
AmisulprideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
AmphetamineTricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines. Tricyclic Antidepressants may also potentiate the cardiovascular effects of Amphetamines.
AripiprazoleSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
BatimastatMay increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
BenzquinamideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
BuprenorphineCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine.
BupropionMay decrease the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
ButabarbitalMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
ButethalMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
CarbamazepineCarBAMazepine may increase the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE.
CarphenazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
CathinoneTricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines. Tricyclic Antidepressants may also potentiate the cardiovascular effects of Amphetamines.
ChlormezanoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ChlorpromazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ChlorprothixeneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
CimetidineMay decrease the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
CinacalcetMay increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
CitalopramTricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Citalopram. Tricyclic Antidepressants may increase the serum concentration of Citalopram. Citalopram may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
ClozapineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
CodeineCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Codeine. These CYP2D6 inhibitors may prevent the metabolic conversion of codeine to its active metabolite morphine.
DabrafenibMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP2C19 Substrates.
DapoxetineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonin Modulators.
DarunavirMay increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates.
DeferasiroxMay increase the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates.
DesmopressinTricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Desmopressin.
DexmethylphenidateMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Dexmethylphenidate may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
DoxylamineMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
DronabinolMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
DroperidolSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
DuloxetineMay enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. DULoxetine may decrease the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
EliglustatCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat.
EscitalopramTricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Escitalopram. Escitalopram may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
FencamfamineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
FesoterodineCYP2D6 Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine.
FluoxetineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. FLUoxetine may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
FlupentixolSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
FluphenazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
FluspirileneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
FluvoxamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. FluvoxaMINE may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
HaloperidolSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
HeptabarbitalMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
HexobarbitalMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
HydrocodoneCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
IsoflurophateMay increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
ItoprideAnticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Itopride.
LinezolidMay enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
LithiumMay enhance the neurotoxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
LoxapineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
LULICONAZOLEMay increase the serum concentration of CYP2C19 Substrates.
Magnesium SulfateMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
MesoridazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
MethohexitalMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
MethotrimeprazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
MethylphenidateMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Methylphenidate may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
MetoclopramideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
MetoprololCYP2D6 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Metoprolol.
MetyrosineCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Metyrosine.
MianserinMay enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents.
MifepristoneMay enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying).
MilnacipranClomiPRAMINE may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Milnacipran. Specifically, the incidence of euphoria and postural hypotension were higher in patients changing from clomipramine to milnacipran. ClomiPRAMINE may enhance the serotonergic effect of Milnacipran. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
MirabegronAnticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mirabegron.
MolindoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
NabiloneMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
NebivololCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Nebivolol.
OlanzapineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
OndansetronSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
OrphenadrineCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine.
PaliperidoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PanobinostatMay increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates.
ParoxetineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. PARoxetine may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
Peginterferon alfa-2bMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Peginterferon Alfa-2b may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates.
PentobarbitalMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
PerampanelMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
PerphenazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PimozideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PiperacetazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
Potassium ChlorideAnticholinergic Agents may enhance the ulcerogenic effect of Potassium Chloride.
PramipexoleCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole.
PramlintideMay enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. These effects are specific to the GI tract.
PrimidoneMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
ProchlorperazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PromazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PropafenoneMay increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate).
QuetiapineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
QuinidineTricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
RemoxiprideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ReserpineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
RisperidoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
RopiniroleCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole.
RotigotineCNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine.
RufinamideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced.
SecobarbitalMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
SecretinAnticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Secretin.
SertindoleSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
SertralineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Sertraline may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
SimeprevirMay increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
SulpirideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
SuvorexantCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant.
TamoxifenCYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Tamoxifen. Specifically, CYP2D6 inhibitors may decrease the metabolic formation of highly potent active metabolites.
TapentadolMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants.
TeriflunomideMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates.
ThalidomideCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide.
ThioridazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ThiothixeneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
TiotropiumAnticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Tiotropium.
TopiramateAnticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Topiramate.
TramadolTricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the neuroexcitatory and/or seizure-potentiating effect of TraMADol. TraMADol may enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
TrifluoperazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
TriflupromazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
VemurafenibMay increase the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates.
YohimbineTricyclic Antidepressants may increase the serum concentration of Yohimbine.
ZiprasidoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ZolpidemCNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem.
ZuclopenthixolSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided throughout treatment, grapefruit can modify serum levels of clomipramine and its metabolite desmethyl-clomipramine.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

Targets

1. Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter P31645 Details

References:

  1. Alvarez JC, Gluck N, Arnulf I, Quintin P, Leboyer M, Pecquery R, Launay JM, Perez-Diaz F, Spreux-Varoquaux O: Decreased platelet serotonin transporter sites and increased platelet inositol triphosphate levels in patients with unipolar depression: effects of clomipramine and fluoxetine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Dec;66(6):617-24. Pubmed
  2. Borkowska A, Pilaczynska E, Araszkiewicz A, Rybakowski J: [The effect of sertraline on cognitive functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder] Psychiatr Pol. 2002 Nov-Dec;36(6 Suppl):289-95. Pubmed
  3. Suhara T, Takano A, Sudo Y, Ichimiya T, Inoue M, Yasuno F, Ikoma Y, Okubo Y: High levels of serotonin transporter occupancy with low-dose clomipramine in comparative occupancy study with fluvoxamine using positron emission tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;60(4):386-91. Pubmed
  4. Larsen AK, Brennum LT, Egebjerg J, Sanchez C, Halldin C, Andersen PH: Selectivity of (3)H-MADAM binding to 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters in vitro and in vivo in mice; correlation with behavioural effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;141(6):1015-23. Epub 2004 Mar 1. Pubmed
  5. Malizia AL, Melichar JM, Brown DJ, Gunn RN, Reynolds A, Jones T, Nutt DJ: Demonstration of clomipramine and venlafaxine occupation at serotonin reuptake sites in man in vivo. J Psychopharmacol. 1997;11(3):279-81. Pubmed
  6. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. Pubmed
  7. Gillman PK: Tricyclic antidepressant pharmacology and therapeutic drug interactions updated. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;151(6):737-48. Epub 2007 Apr 30. Pubmed

2. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A P28223 Details

References:

  1. Hentall ID, Kurle PJ, White TR: Correlations between serotonin level and single-cell firing in the rat’s nucleus raphe magnus. Neuroscience. 2000;95(4):1081-8. Pubmed
  2. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. Pubmed
  3. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. Pubmed
  4. Trifunovic RD, Brodie MS: The effects of clomipramine on the excitatory action of ethanol on dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jan;276(1):34-40. Pubmed
  5. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. Pubmed

3. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B P41595 Details

References:

  1. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. Pubmed
  2. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. Pubmed
  3. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. Pubmed

4. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C P28335 Details

References:

  1. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. Pubmed
  2. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. Pubmed
  3. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. Pubmed

5. Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter P23975 Details

References:

  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. Pubmed
  2. Jungkun G, Kuss HJ, Gsell W: Long-term effects of tricyclic antidepressants on norepinephrine kinetics in humans. J Neural Transm. 2001;108(3):349-62. Pubmed

6. Glutathione S-transferase P

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase P P09211 Details

References:

  1. Baranczyk-Kuzma A, Sawicki J, Kuzma M, Jagiello J: [Tricyclic antidepressants as inhibitors of brain glutathione-S-transferase] Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2001 Dec;11(66):472-5. Pubmed
  2. Baranczyk-Kuzma A, Kuzma M, Gutowicz M, Kazmierczak B, Sawicki J: Glutathione S-transferase pi as a target for tricyclic antidepressants in human brain. Acta Biochim Pol. 2004;51(1):207-12. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

7. Transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Aquifex aeolicus (strain VF5)

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Transporter O67854 Details

References:

  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Application available online: The P450 Program
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. http://www.mentalhealth.com/drug/p30-a01.html Source
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Application available online: The P450 Program
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Serum albumin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serum albumin P02768 Details

References:

  1. FDA label

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 08, 2014 11:10