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Identification
NameLithium
Accession NumberDB01356
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Lithium was used during the 19th century to treat gout. Lithium salts such as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), lithium citrate, and lithium orotate are mood stabilizers. They are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, since unlike most other mood altering drugs, they counteract both mania and depression. Lithium can also be used to augment other antidepressant drugs. It is also sometimes prescribed as a preventive treatment for migraine disease and cluster headaches. The active principle in these salts is the lithium ion Li+, which having a smaller diameter, can easily displace K+ and Na+ and even Ca+2, in spite of its greater charge, occupying their sites in several critical neuronal enzymes and neurotransmitter receptors.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Li(+)
Lithium cation
Lithium ion
Lithium, ion
Lithium, ion (li1+)
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Carbolith Cap 150mgcapsule150 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Carbolith Cap 300mgcapsule300 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1971-12-31Not applicableCanada
Carbolith Capsules 600mgcapsule600 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dom-lithium Carbonatecapsule600 mgoralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mgoralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mgoralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Duralith Tab 300mgtablet (extended-release)300 mgoralJanssen Inc1985-12-312010-02-12Canada
Euro Lithiumcapsule300 mgoralEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2008-02-262013-07-10Canada
Euro Lithiumcapsule150 mgoralEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2008-02-262013-07-10Canada
Lithanecapsule300 mgoralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Lithanecapsule150 mgoralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Lithiumsolution8 meq/5mLoralCardinal Health1982-04-292016-04-05Us
Lithiumsolution8 meq/5mLoralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1982-04-292016-04-23Us
Lithiumsolution300 mg/5mLoralPrecision Dose Inc.2012-10-252016-04-05Us
Lithiumsolution8 meq/5mLoralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1982-04-292016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated150 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1987-01-282016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1oralCardinal Health1987-07-282016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet300 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1982-06-142016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-012016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1987-07-282016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-182016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated150 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1987-01-282016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated150 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.1987-01-282016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet300 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC1982-01-292016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet300 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1982-01-292016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated150 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1987-01-282016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.1980-11-262016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1980-11-262016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated600 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1987-01-282016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-062016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated600 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1987-01-282016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc1980-11-262016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals1980-11-262016-04-05Us
Lithizine Cap 150mgcapsule150 mgoralLabs Maney Paul Labs, Division Of 471449 (Ont) Ltee/Ltd.1975-12-311997-08-19Canada
Lithizine Cap 300mgcapsule300 mgoralLabs Maney Paul Labs, Division Of 471449 (Ont) Ltee/Ltd.1975-12-311997-08-19Canada
Lithmaxtablet (extended-release)300 mgoralAa Pharma Inc2005-04-06Not applicableCanada
Lithobidtablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-07-012016-04-05Us
Lithobidtablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralNOVEN THERAPEUTICS, LLC1979-04-272016-04-05Us
Pal-lithium Carbonatecapsule600 mgoralPaladin Labs Inc1998-03-032007-08-03Canada
Pal-lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mgoralPaladin Labs Inc1998-03-032007-08-03Canada
Pal-lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mgoralPaladin Labs Inc1998-03-032007-08-03Canada
PHL-lithium Carbonatecapsule600 mgoralPharmel Inc1998-02-172014-09-08Canada
PHL-lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mgoralPharmel Inc1998-02-172014-09-08Canada
PHL-lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mgoralPharmel Inc1998-02-172014-09-08Canada
PMS-lithium Carbonate - Cap 150mgcapsule150 mgoralPharmascience Inc1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-lithium Carbonate - Cap 300mgcapsule300 mgoralPharmascience Inc1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-lithium Carbonate - Cap 600mgcapsule600 mgoralPharmascience Inc1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-lithium Citratesyrup8 mmoloralPharmascience Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mgoralApotex Inc2001-02-12Not applicableCanada
Apo-lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mgoralApotex Inc2001-02-12Not applicableCanada
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc2004-01-052016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-06-222016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet300 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-072016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2009-12-152016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralHetero Drugs Limited2009-09-252016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2012-03-052015-12-29Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet300 mg/1oralCardinal Health1982-01-292016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2004-10-282016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralHetero Drugs Limited2009-09-252016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule600 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-12-152016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-08-092016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-03-012016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-092016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-01-012016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2015-08-042016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-04-162016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2004-01-052016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-12-152016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-07-252016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-12-052016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-272016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2009-12-152016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2015-08-042016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-05-272016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule600 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-03-312016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-12-152016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule600 mg/1oralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2002-05-012016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-01-162016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-08-102016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2009-12-152016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralHikma Pharmaceutical2002-06-272016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-03-312016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-182016-03-12Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2003-03-012016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-01-012016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-04-202016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2007-07-192016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2010-12-272016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-01-132016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2003-02-242016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2003-03-012016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2003-03-012016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2009-12-152016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule600 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2009-02-032016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-10-132016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2016-03-112016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2003-06-172016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet300 mg/1oralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2010-12-282016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-012016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-05-172016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2016-01-192016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2003-02-242016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2002-09-062016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-012016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-132016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet300 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2010-07-082016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release450 mg/1oralCardinal Health2003-06-172016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2009-02-032016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-062016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2004-10-282016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc2004-10-282016-04-23Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-082016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule300 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2003-03-012016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-10-202016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralCardinal Health2004-10-282016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule150 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2009-02-032016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonatecapsule600 mg/1oralHetero Drugs Limited2009-09-252016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonate ERtablet450 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2011-02-142016-04-05Us
Lithium Carbonate ERtablet450 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2015-06-082016-04-05Us
Lithium Hydroxide Monohydratesolution8 meq/5mLoralMorton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1986-05-212016-04-05Us
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
EskalithNot Available
LithoTabNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Lithium carbonate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001075
Lithium citrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001430
Lithium hydroxide monohydrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001239
Categories
UNII9FN79X2M3F
CAS number7439-93-2
WeightAverage: 6.941
Monoisotopic: 7.016004049
Chemical FormulaLi
InChI KeyInChIKey=HBBGRARXTFLTSG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Li/q+1
IUPAC Name
lithium(1+) ion
SMILES
[Li+]
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkali metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkali metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkali metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkali metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkali metal
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationLithium is used as a mood stabilizer, and is used for treatment of depression and mania. It is often used in bipolar disorder treatment.
PharmacodynamicsAlthough lithium has been used for over 50 years in treatment of bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action is still unknown. Lithium's therapeutic action may be due to a number of effects, ranging from inhibition of enzymes such as glycogen synthase kinase 3, inositol phosphatases, or modulation of glutamate receptors.
Mechanism of actionThe precise mechanism of action of Li+ as a mood-stabilizing agent is currently unknown. It is possible that Li+ produces its effects by interacting with the transport of monovalent or divalent cations in neurons. An increasing number of scientists have come to the conclusion that the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is the key factor in understanding how lithium works. Lithium has been shown to change the inward and outward currents of glutamate receptors (especially GluR3), without a shift in reversal potential. Lithium has been found to exert a dual effect on glutamate receptors, acting to keep the amount of glutamate active between cells at a stable, healthy level, neither too much nor too little. It is postulated that too much glutamate in the space between neurons causes mania, and too little, depression. Another mechanism by which lithium might help to regulate mood include the non-competitive inhibition of an enzyme called inositol monophosphatase. Alternately lithium's action may be enhanced through the deactivation of the GSK-3B enzyme. The regulation of GSK-3B by lithium may affect the circadian clock. GSK-3 is known for phosphorylating and thus inactivating glycogen synthase. GSK-3B has also been implicated in the control of cellular response to damaged DNA. GSK-3 normally phosphorylates beta catenin, which leads to beta catenin degratation. When GSK-3 is inhibited, beta catenin increases and transgenic mice with overexpression of beta catenin express similar behaviour to mice treated with lithium. These results suggest that increase of beta catenin may be a possible pathway for the therapeutic action of lithium.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8382
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9708
Caco-2 permeable+0.7056
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8831
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9869
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9855
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9199
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8465
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.823
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8094
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8854
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9224
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9559
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9487
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9853
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9015
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9663
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.623
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9031
Rat acute toxicity2.0881 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9462
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9716
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral300 mg
Capsuleoral600 mg
Capsuleoral150 mg
Solutionoral300 mg/5mL
Solutionoral8 meq/5mL
Capsuleoral150 mg/1
Capsuleoral300 mg/1
Capsuleoral600 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral150 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral300 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral600 mg/1
Tabletoral300 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral300 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral450 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral300 mg/1
Tabletoral450 mg/1
Tablet (extended-release)oral300 mg
Syruporal8 mmol
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Eskalith cr 450 mg tablet0.8USD tablet
Lithium Carbonate 450 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.56USD tab
Lithium Carbonate 300 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.5USD tab
Lithium Carbonate 600 mg capsule0.44USD capsule
Lithium Carbonate 300 mg capsule0.29USD capsule
Lithium Carbonate 300 mg tablet0.29USD tablet
Lithate 20 mg capsule0.28USD capsule
Lithium carb powder reagent0.27USD g
Lithium carbonate 300 mg tab0.22USD each
Lithium Carbonate 150 mg capsule0.21USD capsule
Lithium Citrate 8meq/5ml Syrup0.15USD ml
Lithium citrate 8 meq/5 ml sol0.14USD ml
Pms-Lithium Carbonate 600 mg Capsule0.14USD capsule
Carbolith 150 mg Capsule0.13USD capsule
Lithate 5 mg capsule0.12USD capsule
Lithane 150 mg Capsule0.11USD capsule
Lithane 300 mg Capsule0.11USD capsule
Carbolith 300 mg Capsule0.1USD capsule
Apo-Lithium Carbonate 150 mg Capsule0.06USD capsule
Apo-Lithium Carbonate 300 mg Capsule0.06USD capsule
Pms-Lithium Carbonate 150 mg Capsule0.06USD capsule
Pms-Lithium Carbonate 300 mg Capsule0.06USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point0.512 g·cm −3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-d37172edddcf6ff27879View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-d37172edddcf6ff27879View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-d37172edddcf6ff27879View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-00619c7d65eb4b7f8f3dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-00619c7d65eb4b7f8f3dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-00619c7d65eb4b7f8f3dView in MoNA
References
Synthesis Reference

Jean-Paul Gabano, “Electrolyte for a lithium/thionyl chloride electric cell, a method of preparing said electrolyte and an electric cell which includes said electrolyte.” U.S. Patent US4375502, issued 0000.

US4375502
General References
  1. Quiroz JA, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA Jr, Manji HK: Novel insights into lithium's mechanism of action: neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. Neuropsychobiology. 2010;62(1):50-60. doi: 10.1159/000314310. Epub 2010 May 7. [PubMed:20453535 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN05AN01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:28.00
  • 92:02.00*
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (200 KB)
MSDSDownload (72.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcepromazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Acepromazine.
AcetazolamideThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Acetazolamide.
AcetophenazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Acetophenazine.
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Aminophylline.
AmisulprideLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Amisulpride.
AmitriptylineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Amitriptyline.
AmoxapineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Amoxapine.
AmphetamineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of Amphetamine.
AripiprazoleLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Aripiprazole.
Atracurium besylateLithium may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
Azilsartan medoxomilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.
BenazeprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Benazepril.
BenzphetamineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of Benzphetamine.
BenzquinamideLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Benzquinamide.
BrexpiprazoleLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Brexpiprazole.
BumetanideThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Bumetanide.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Caffeine.
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Lithium.
CarphenazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Carphenazine.
CathinoneLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of Cathinone.
CelecoxibThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Celecoxib.
ChlormezanoneLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Chlormezanone.
ChlorothiazideChlorothiazide may decrease the excretion rate of Lithium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ChlorpromazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Chlorpromazine.
ChlorprothixeneLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Chlorprothixene.
ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone may decrease the excretion rate of Lithium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.
Cisatracurium besylateLithium may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium besylate.
CitalopramLithium may increase the serotonergic activities of Citalopram.
ClomipramineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Clomipramine.
ClozapineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Clozapine.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapoxetine is combined with Lithium.
DesipramineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Desipramine.
DesmopressinThe therapeutic efficacy of Desmopressin can be decreased when used in combination with Lithium.
DextroamphetamineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of Dextroamphetamine.
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.
DiclofenamideThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Diclofenamide.
DiflunisalThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Diflunisal.
DiltiazemDiltiazem may increase the neurotoxic activities of Lithium.
DofetilideLithium may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DoxepinLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Doxepin.
DroperidolLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Droperidol.
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Dyphylline.
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.
EnalaprilatThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Enalaprilat.
EplerenoneThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Eplerenone.
EprosartanThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Eprosartan.
EscitalopramLithium may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.
Etacrynic acidThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Ethacrynic acid.
EthoxzolamideThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Ethoxzolamide.
EtodolacThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Etodolac.
FencamfamineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Fencamfamine.
FenoprofenThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Fenoprofen.
FloctafenineThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Floctafenine.
FluoxetineLithium may increase the serotonergic activities of Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Flupentixol.
FluphenazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Fluphenazine.
FlurbiprofenThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Flurbiprofen.
FluspirileneLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Fluspirilene.
FluvoxamineLithium may increase the serotonergic activities of Fluvoxamine.
FosinoprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Fosinopril.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosphenytoin is combined with Lithium.
FurosemideThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Furosemide.
GoserelinLithium may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
GranisetronGranisetron may increase the serotonergic activities of Lithium.
HaloperidolLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Haloperidol.
HydrochlorothiazideHydrochlorothiazide may decrease the excretion rate of Lithium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IbuprofenThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Ibuprofen.
ImipramineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Imipramine.
IndapamideIndapamide may decrease the excretion rate of Lithium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
InfliximabThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Infliximab.
IrbesartanThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Irbesartan.
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Lithium.
KetoprofenThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Ketoprofen.
KetorolacThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.
LeuprolideLithium may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LinezolidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linezolid is combined with Lithium.
LisdexamfetamineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of Lisdexamfetamine.
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.
LoxapineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Loxapine.
LurasidoneLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Lurasidone.
Mefenamic acidThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Mefenamic acid.
MeloxicamThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Meloxicam.
MesoridazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Mesoridazine.
MethamphetamineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of Methamphetamine.
MethazolamideThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Methazolamide.
MethotrimeprazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MethyclothiazideMethyclothiazide may decrease the excretion rate of Lithium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyldopa is combined with Lithium.
MetoclopramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Metoclopramide.
MetolazoneMetolazone may decrease the excretion rate of Lithium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lithium.
MoexiprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Moexipril.
MolindoneLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Molindone.
NabumetoneThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Nabumetone.
NaproxenThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Naproxen.
NortriptylineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Nortriptyline.
OlanzapineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Olanzapine.
OlmesartanThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Olmesartan.
OndansetronLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Ondansetron.
OxaprozinThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Oxaprozin.
PaliperidoneLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Paliperidone.
PancuroniumLithium may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.
ParoxetineLithium may increase the serotonergic activities of Paroxetine.
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.
PerphenazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Perphenazine.
PhendimetrazineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of Phendimetrazine.
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Lithium.
PhentermineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of Phentermine.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenytoin is combined with Lithium.
PimozideLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Pimozide.
PiperacetazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Piperacetazine.
PiroxicamThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Piroxicam.
Polystyrene sulfonateThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Polystyrene sulfonate.
Potassium IodidePotassium Iodide may increase the hypothyroid activities of Lithium.
ProcarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procarbazine is combined with Lithium.
ProchlorperazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Prochlorperazine.
PromazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Promazine.
ProtriptylineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Protriptyline.
QuetiapineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Quetiapine.
QuinaprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Quinapril.
RamiprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Ramipril.
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Lithium.
RemoxiprideLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Remoxipride.
ReserpineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Reserpine.
RisperidoneLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Risperidone.
RocuroniumLithium may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.
Salmon CalcitoninThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Salmon Calcitonin.
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Lithium.
SertindoleLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Sertindole.
SertralineLithium may increase the serotonergic activities of Sertraline.
Sodium bicarbonateSodium bicarbonate may increase the excretion rate of Lithium which could result in a higher serum level.
Sodium ChlorideSodium Chloride may increase the excretion rate of Lithium which could result in a higher serum level.
SuccinylcholineLithium may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Succinylcholine.
SulpirideLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Sulpiride.
Tedizolid PhosphateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tedizolid Phosphate is combined with Lithium.
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Theophylline.
ThioridazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Thioridazine.
ThiothixeneLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Thiothixene.
Tiaprofenic acidThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Tiaprofenic acid.
TolmetinThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Tolmetin.
TopiramateThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Topiramate.
TorasemideThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Torasemide.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Lithium.
TrandolaprilThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Trandolapril.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Lithium.
TrichlormethiazideTrichlormethiazide may decrease the excretion rate of Lithium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TrifluoperazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Triflupromazine.
TrimipramineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Trimipramine.
ValsartanThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Valsartan.
VecuroniumLithium may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.
VerapamilVerapamil may increase the neurotoxic activities of Lithium.
VilazodoneLithium may increase the serotonergic activities of Vilazodone.
VortioxetineLithium may increase the serotonergic activities of Vortioxetine.
ZiprasidoneLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Ziprasidone.
ZonisamideThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Zonisamide.
ZuclopenthixolLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
  • Avoid iodine supplements.
  • Do not change your salt intake from day to day without telling your doctor.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation. Drink plenty of liquids.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), EIF2B, CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC, AXIN1, DPYSL2/CRMP2, JUN, NFATC1/NFATC, MAPT/TAU and MACF1. Requires primed phosphorylation of the majo...
Gene Name:
GSK3B
Uniprot ID:
P49841
Molecular Weight:
46743.865 Da
References
  1. Borsotto M, Cavarec L, Bouillot M, Romey G, Macciardi F, Delaye A, Nasroune M, Bastucci M, Sambucy JL, Luan JJ, Charpagne A, Jouet V, Leger R, Lazdunski M, Cohen D, Chumakov I: PP2A-Bgamma subunit and KCNQ2 K+ channels in bipolar disorder. Pharmacogenomics J. 2007 Apr;7(2):123-32. Epub 2006 May 30. [PubMed:16733521 ]
  2. Adli M, Hollinde DL, Stamm T, Wiethoff K, Tsahuridu M, Kirchheiner J, Heinz A, Bauer M: Response to lithium augmentation in depression is associated with the glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta -50T/C single nucleotide polymorphism. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Dec 1;62(11):1295-302. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17628506 ]
  3. O'Brien WT, Klein PS: Validating GSK3 as an in vivo target of lithium action. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Oct;37(Pt 5):1133-8. doi: 10.1042/BST0371133. [PubMed:19754466 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the provision of inositol required for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol and polyphosphoinositides and has been implicated as the pharmacological target for lithium action in brain. Has broad substrate specificity and can use myo-inositol monophosphates, myo-inositol 1,3-diphosphate, myo-inositol 1,4-diphosphate, scyllo-inositol-phosphate, D-galactose 1-phosphate, glucose-1-phos...
Gene Name:
IMPA1
Uniprot ID:
P29218
Molecular Weight:
30188.59 Da
References
  1. Sarkar S, Rubinsztein DC: Inositol and IP3 levels regulate autophagy: biology and therapeutic speculations. Autophagy. 2006 Apr-Jun;2(2):132-4. Epub 2006 Apr 6. [PubMed:16874097 ]
  2. Trinquet E, Fink M, Bazin H, Grillet F, Maurin F, Bourrier E, Ansanay H, Leroy C, Michaud A, Durroux T, Maurel D, Malhaire F, Goudet C, Pin JP, Naval M, Hernout O, Chretien F, Chapleur Y, Mathis G: D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate as a surrogate of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris phosphate to monitor G protein-coupled receptor activation. Anal Biochem. 2006 Nov 1;358(1):126-35. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [PubMed:16965760 ]
  3. Ohnishi T, Ohba H, Seo KC, Im J, Sato Y, Iwayama Y, Furuichi T, Chung SK, Yoshikawa T: Spatial expression patterns and biochemical properties distinguish a second myo-inositol monophosphatase IMPA2 from IMPA1. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 5;282(1):637-46. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17068342 ]
  4. Tanizawa Y, Kuhara A, Inada H, Kodama E, Mizuno T, Mori I: Inositol monophosphatase regulates localization of synaptic components and behavior in the mature nervous system of C. elegans. Genes Dev. 2006 Dec 1;20(23):3296-310. [PubMed:17158747 ]
  5. Ohnishi T, Yamada K, Ohba H, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Hattori E, Inada T, Kunugi H, Tatsumi M, Ozaki N, Iwata N, Sakamoto K, Iijima Y, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya KJ, Sugihara G, Nanko S, Osumi N, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Kato T, Yoshikawa T: A promoter haplotype of the inositol monophosphatase 2 gene (IMPA2) at 18p11.2 confers a possible risk for bipolar disorder by enhancing transcription. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Aug;32(8):1727-37. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17251911 ]
  6. Li Z, Stieglitz KA, Shrout AL, Wei Y, Weis RM, Stec B, Roberts MF: Mobile loop mutations in an archaeal inositol monophosphatase: modulating three-metal ion assisted catalysis and lithium inhibition. Protein Sci. 2010 Feb;19(2):309-18. doi: 10.1002/pro.315. [PubMed:20027624 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Can use myo-inositol monophosphates, scylloinositol 1,4-diphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, beta-glycerophosphate, and 2'-AMP as substrates. Has been implicated as the pharmacological target for lithium Li(+) action in brain.
Gene Name:
IMPA2
Uniprot ID:
O14732
Molecular Weight:
31320.525 Da
References
  1. Cryns K, Shamir A, Shapiro J, Daneels G, Goris I, Van Craenendonck H, Straetemans R, Belmaker RH, Agam G, Moechars D, Steckler T: Lack of lithium-like behavioral and molecular effects in IMPA2 knockout mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Apr;32(4):881-91. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [PubMed:16841073 ]
  2. Ohnishi T, Ohba H, Seo KC, Im J, Sato Y, Iwayama Y, Furuichi T, Chung SK, Yoshikawa T: Spatial expression patterns and biochemical properties distinguish a second myo-inositol monophosphatase IMPA2 from IMPA1. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 5;282(1):637-46. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17068342 ]
  3. Ohnishi T, Yamada K, Ohba H, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Hattori E, Inada T, Kunugi H, Tatsumi M, Ozaki N, Iwata N, Sakamoto K, Iijima Y, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya KJ, Sugihara G, Nanko S, Osumi N, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Kato T, Yoshikawa T: A promoter haplotype of the inositol monophosphatase 2 gene (IMPA2) at 18p11.2 confers a possible risk for bipolar disorder by enhancing transcription. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Aug;32(8):1727-37. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17251911 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and t...
Gene Name:
GRIA3
Uniprot ID:
P42263
Molecular Weight:
101155.975 Da
References
  1. Karkanias NB, Papke RL: Lithium modulates desensitization of the glutamate receptor subtype gluR3 in Xenopus oocytes. Neurosci Lett. 1999 Dec 31;277(3):153-6. [PubMed:10626836 ]
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Drug created on July 06, 2007 13:50 / Updated on April 13, 2016 10:47