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Identification
NameLiotrix
Accession NumberDB01583
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Liotrix is a synthetically derived thyroid hormone replacement preparation. It consists of levothyroxine sodium (thyroxine, T4) and liothyronine sodium (triiodothyronine, T3) in a 4 to 1 ratio by weight. Liotrix was developed when it was believed that serum levels of both T4 and T3 were maintained by direct thyroidal secretion. It is now known that the thyroid gland secretes approximately ten times more T4 than T3 and that 80% of serum T3 is derived from deiodination of T4 in peripheral tissues. Administration of levothyroxine alone is sufficient for maintaining serum T4 and T3 levels in most patients and combination hormone replacement therapy generally offers no therapeutic advantage. In fact, administration of T3 may result in supratherapeutic levels of T3.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Levothyroxine sodium - liothyronine sodium mixt
Liotrix (T4;T3)
Thyrolar
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Bitiron Abdi (Turkey)
Combithyrex Sandoz (Austria)
CynoplusGrossman (Mexico)
Dithyron Unipharma (Greece)
EuthroidParke, Davis (United States) (discontinued)
EuthyralMerck-Lipha (France)
EutroidElea (Argentina)
LevotiroxinaFarmedica (Brazil) (discontinued)
Levotrin GlaxoSmithKline (Argentina)
Novothyral Merck (Austria, Belgium, Chile, Germany, Poland, Russia, Switzerland)
NovotiralMerck (Mexico)
Prothyrid Henning (Germany), Sanofi-Aventis (Germany), Sanofi Synthelabo (Austria) (discontinued)
Tiroide AmsaAmsa (Italy)
TyroplusEnila (Brazil) (discontinued)
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIYW8HJ0N26X
CAS number8065-29-0
WeightAverage: 1471.8072
Monoisotopic: 1471.440608948
Chemical FormulaC30H21I7N2Na2O8
InChI KeyInChIKey=LKYWLLWWYBVUPP-XOCLESOZSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H11I4NO4.C15H12I3NO4.2Na/c16-8-4-7(5-9(17)13(8)21)24-14-10(18)1-6(2-11(14)19)3-12(20)15(22)23;16-9-6-8(1-2-13(9)20)23-14-10(17)3-7(4-11(14)18)5-12(19)15(21)22;;/h1-2,4-5,12,21H,3,20H2,(H,22,23);1-4,6,12,20H,5,19H2,(H,21,22);;/q;;2*+1/p-2/t2*12-;;/m00../s1
IUPAC Name
disodium (2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoate (2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3-iodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoate
SMILES
[Na+].[Na+].N[C@@H](CC1=CC(I)=C(OC2=CC(I)=C(O)C=C2)C(I)=C1)C([O-])=O.N[C@@H](CC1=CC(I)=C(OC2=CC(I)=C(O)C(I)=C2)C(I)=C1)C([O-])=O
Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Pharmacology
IndicationMay be used to treat primary, secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. May also be used to suppress thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion in patients with simple (nontoxic) goiter, subacute or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis multinodular goiter, and in the management of thyroid cancer. May be used in conjunction with other antithyroid agents to treat thyrotoxicosis to prevent goitrogenesis and hypothyroidism. May also be used for differential diagnosis of suspected mild hyperthyroidism or thyroid gland autonomy.
PharmacodynamicsThyroid hormone drugs are natural or synthetic preparations containing T4 or T3 or both. T4 and T3 are produced in the human thyroid gland by the iodination and coupling of the amino acid tyrosine. Liotrix is a synthetic preparation of T4 and T3 in a 4:1 weight-based ratio. These hormones enhance oxygen consumption by most tissues of the body and increase the basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Thus, they exert a profound influence on every organ system in the body and are of particular importance in the development of the central nervous system.
Mechanism of actionThe hormones, T4 and T3, are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine is an important component in their synthesis. The major secreted form of thyroid hormone is T4. T4 is converted T3, the more active thyroid hormone, by deiodinases in peripheral tissues. T3 acts in the body to increase basal metabolic rate, alter protein synthesis and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline). Thyroid hormones are essential for proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. T4 and T3 regulate protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism to varying extents. The most pronounced effect of the hormones is in altering how human cells use energetic compounds. The thyroid hormone derivatives bind to the thyroid hormone receptors initially to initiate their downstream effects.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationThyroid hormones are primarily eliminated by the kidneys.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityHypermetabolic state indistinguishable from thyrotoxicosis of endogenous origin. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis include weight loss, increased appetite, palpitations, nervousness, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, sweating, tachycardia, increased pulse and blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, tremors, insomnia, heat intolerance, fever, and menstrual irregularities.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9265
Blood Brain Barrier-0.5572
Caco-2 permeable-0.6254
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5404
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9229
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9089
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8928
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8097
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.878
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7092
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5872
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6523
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8638
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8585
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8711
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8243
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.763
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8526
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9697
Rat acute toxicity2.5191 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9672
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8731
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Thyrolar-3 strength tablet1.09USD tablet
Thyrolar-2 strength tablet0.89USD tablet
Thyrolar-1 strength tablet0.76USD tablet
Thyrolar-1/2 strength tablet0.61USD tablet
Thyrolar-1/4 strength tablet0.55USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP3.73ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.27ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.61 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity137.63 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability49.04 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Cobb WE, Jackson IM: Drug therapy reviews: management of hypothyroidism. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1978 Jan;35(1):51-8. [PubMed:341699 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 68:36.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AmitriptylineLiotrix may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Amitriptyline.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
ChlorotrianiseneThe therapeutic efficacy of Liotrix can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorotrianisene.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.
ColesevelamThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Colesevelam.
DicoumarolLiotrix may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
LanthanumThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Lanthanum.
ParoxetineThe therapeutic efficacy of Liotrix can be decreased when used in combination with Paroxetine.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piracetam is combined with Liotrix.
Polystyrene sulfonateThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Polystyrene sulfonate.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
Sodium Iodide I-131The therapeutic efficacy of Sodium Iodide I-131 can be decreased when used in combination with Liotrix.
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be increased when combined with Liotrix.
Food Interactions
  • Absorption increased in fasting state and decreased in malabsorption states.
  • Consistent administration in relation to meals is recommended.
  • Iron and calcium may interfere with absorption. Space doses at least one hour before or after iron or calcium intake.
  • Oral administration with infant soybean formula, soybean flour, cotton seed meal, walnuts, foods containing large amounts of fiber, ferrous sulfate, and antacids may decrease drug absorption.
  • Take 30-60 minutes before breakfast.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Isoform Alpha-1: Nuclear hormone receptor that can act as a repressor or activator of transcription. High affinity receptor for thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine.Isoform Alpha-2: Does not bind thyroid hormone and functions as a weak dominant negative inhibitor of thyroid hormone action.
Gene Name:
THRA
Uniprot ID:
P10827
Molecular Weight:
54815.055 Da
References
  1. Jiang W, Miyamoto T, Kakizawa T, Sakuma T, Nishio S, Takeda T, Suzuki S, Hashizume K: Expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes; triiodothyronine increases the expression of lipogenic enzyme and triglyceride accumulation. J Endocrinol. 2004 Aug;182(2):295-302. [PubMed:15283690 ]
  2. Kariv R, Enden A, Zvibel I, Rosner G, Brill S, Shafritz DA, Halpern Z, Oren R: Triiodothyronine and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induce expression of HGF in an immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line. Liver Int. 2003 Jun;23(3):187-93. [PubMed:12955882 ]
  3. Mai W, Janier MF, Allioli N, Quignodon L, Chuzel T, Flamant F, Samarut J: Thyroid hormone receptor alpha is a molecular switch of cardiac function between fetal and postnatal life. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13;101(28):10332-7. Epub 2004 Jul 6. [PubMed:15240882 ]
  4. Sciaudone MP, Yao L, Schaller M, Zinn SA, Freake HC: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid enhances thyroid hormone action by a transcriptional mechanism. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Summer;99(1-3):219-31. [PubMed:15235154 ]
  5. Timmer DC, Bakker O, Wiersinga WM: Triiodothyronine affects the alternative splicing of thyroid hormone receptor alpha mRNA. J Endocrinol. 2003 Nov;179(2):217-25. [PubMed:14596673 ]
  6. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. [PubMed:17315033 ]
  7. Nakajima Y, Yamada M, Horiguchi K, Satoh T, Hashimoto K, Tokuhiro E, Onigata K, Mori M: Resistance to thyroid hormone due to a novel thyroid hormone receptor mutant in a patient with hypothyroidism secondary to lingual thyroid and functional characterization of the mutant receptor. Thyroid. 2010 Aug;20(8):917-26. doi: 10.1089/thy.2009.0389. [PubMed:20615127 ]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  9. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  10. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor that can act as a repressor or activator of transcription. High affinity receptor for thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
Gene Name:
THRB
Uniprot ID:
P10828
Molecular Weight:
52787.16 Da
References
  1. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. [PubMed:17315033 ]
  2. Gonzalez-Sancho JM, Garcia V, Bonilla F, Munoz A: Thyroid hormone receptors/THR genes in human cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003 Mar 31;192(2):121-32. [PubMed:12668276 ]
  3. Yen PM, Feng X, Flamant F, Chen Y, Walker RL, Weiss RE, Chassande O, Samarut J, Refetoff S, Meltzer PS: Effects of ligand and thyroid hormone receptor isoforms on hepatic gene expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice. EMBO Rep. 2003 Jun;4(6):581-7. [PubMed:12776178 ]
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  5. Wu SY, Sadow PM, Refetoff S, Weiss RE: Tissue responses to thyroid hormone in a kindred with resistance to thyroid hormone harboring a commonly occurring mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453T). J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Aug;146(2):85-94. [PubMed:16099238 ]
  6. Marazuela M, Nattero L, Moure D, Garcia-Polo I, Figueroa-Vega N, Guijarro C: Thyroid hormone resistance and pituitary enlargement after thyroid ablation in a woman on levothyroxine treatment. Thyroid. 2008 Oct;18(10):1119-23. doi: 10.1089/thy.2007.0375. [PubMed:18816177 ]
  7. Sivakumar T, Chaidarun S: Resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient with coexisting Graves' disease. Thyroid. 2010 Feb;20(2):213-6. doi: 10.1089/thy.2009.0175. [PubMed:20151830 ]
  8. Grasberger H, Ringkananont U, Croxson M, Refetoff S: Resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient with thyroid dysgenesis. Thyroid. 2005 Jul;15(7):730-3. [PubMed:16053391 ]
  9. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  10. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name:
TTR
Uniprot ID:
P02766
Molecular Weight:
15886.88 Da
References
  1. Eneqvist T, Lundberg E, Karlsson A, Huang S, Santos CR, Power DM, Sauer-Eriksson AE: High resolution crystal structures of piscine transthyretin reveal different binding modes for triiodothyronine and thyroxine. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18;279(25):26411-6. Epub 2004 Apr 13. [PubMed:15082720 ]
  2. Palha JA: Transthyretin as a thyroid hormone carrier: function revisited. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Dec;40(12):1292-300. [PubMed:12553433 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function:
Major thyroid hormone transport protein in serum.
Gene Name:
SERPINA7
Uniprot ID:
P05543
Molecular Weight:
46324.12 Da
References
  1. Palha JA: Transthyretin as a thyroid hormone carrier: function revisited. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Dec;40(12):1292-300. [PubMed:12553433 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Palha JA: Transthyretin as a thyroid hormone carrier: function revisited. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Dec;40(12):1292-300. [PubMed:12553433 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Fujiwara K, Adachi H, Nishio T, Unno M, Tokui T, Okabe M, Onogawa T, Suzuki T, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Kondo Y, Nunoki K, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Ito S, Matsuno S, Abe T: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters in humans: different molecules are involved in a tissue-specific manner. Endocrinology. 2001 May;142(5):2005-12. [PubMed:11316767 ]
  2. Friesema EC, Docter R, Moerings EP, Stieger B, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ, Krenning EP, Hennemann G, Visser TJ: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jan 19;254(2):497-501. [PubMed:9918867 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Abe T, Kakyo M, Tokui T, Nakagomi R, Nishio T, Nakai D, Nomura H, Unno M, Suzuki M, Naitoh T, Matsuno S, Yawo H: Identification of a novel gene family encoding human liver-specific organic anion transporter LST-1. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jun 11;274(24):17159-63. [PubMed:10358072 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotrexate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP). Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPD5
Molecular Weight:
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893 ]
  2. Abe T, Unno M, Onogawa T, Tokui T, Kondo TN, Nakagomi R, Adachi H, Fujiwara K, Okabe M, Suzuki T, Nunoki K, Sato E, Kakyo M, Nishio T, Sugita J, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Date F, Ono K, Kondo Y, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Ohtani H, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Nagura H, Ito S, Matsuno S: LST-2, a human liver-specific organic anion transporter, determines methotrexate sensitivity in gastrointestinal cancers. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jun;120(7):1689-99. [PubMed:11375950 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Organic anion transporter, capable of transporting pharmacological substances such as digoxin, ouabain, thyroxine, methotrexate and cAMP. May participate in the regulation of membrane transport of ouabain. Involved in the uptake of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin and hence may play a role in its transport into and out of renal proximal tubule cells. May be involved in the first...
Gene Name:
SLCO4C1
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZQN7
Molecular Weight:
78947.525 Da
References
  1. Mikkaichi T, Suzuki T, Onogawa T, Tanemoto M, Mizutamari H, Okada M, Chaki T, Masuda S, Tokui T, Eto N, Abe M, Satoh F, Unno M, Hishinuma T, Inui K, Ito S, Goto J, Abe T: Isolation and characterization of a digoxin transporter and its rat homologue expressed in the kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 9;101(10):3569-74. Epub 2004 Mar 1. [PubMed:14993604 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for hepatitis B virus.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular Weight:
38118.64 Da
References
  1. Friesema EC, Docter R, Moerings EP, Stieger B, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ, Krenning EP, Hennemann G, Visser TJ: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jan 19;254(2):497-501. [PubMed:9918867 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone-3-sulfate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) are transported with much lower efficiency. May play a signifiant role in regulating T4 flux into and out of the brain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYB5
Molecular Weight:
78695.625 Da
References
  1. Westholm DE, Stenehjem DD, Rumbley JN, Drewes LR, Anderson GW: Competitive inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1-mediated thyroxine transport by the fenamate class of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Endocrinology. 2009 Feb;150(2):1025-32. doi: 10.1210/en.2008-0188. Epub 2008 Oct 9. [PubMed:18845642 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  3. Tohyama K, Kusuhara H, Sugiyama Y: Involvement of multispecific organic anion transporter, Oatp14 (Slc21a14), in the transport of thyroxine across the blood-brain barrier. Endocrinology. 2004 Sep;145(9):4384-91. Epub 2004 May 27. [PubMed:15166123 ]
  4. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. [PubMed:12351693 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate.
Gene Name:
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96BD0
Molecular Weight:
77192.505 Da
References
  1. Fujiwara K, Adachi H, Nishio T, Unno M, Tokui T, Okabe M, Onogawa T, Suzuki T, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Kondo Y, Nunoki K, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Ito S, Matsuno S, Abe T: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters in humans: different molecules are involved in a tissue-specific manner. Endocrinology. 2001 May;142(5):2005-12. [PubMed:11316767 ]
  2. Mikkaichi T, Suzuki T, Onogawa T, Tanemoto M, Mizutamari H, Okada M, Chaki T, Masuda S, Tokui T, Eto N, Abe M, Satoh F, Unno M, Hishinuma T, Inui K, Ito S, Goto J, Abe T: Isolation and characterization of a digoxin transporter and its rat homologue expressed in the kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 9;101(10):3569-74. Epub 2004 Mar 1. [PubMed:14993604 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Ohtsuki S, Kikkawa T, Mori S, Hori S, Takanaga H, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Mouse reduced in osteosclerosis transporter functions as an organic anion transporter 3 and is localized at abluminal membrane of blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1273-81. Epub 2004 Feb 4. [PubMed:14762099 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and diidothyronine. Does not transport Leu, Phe, Trp or Tyr.
Gene Name:
SLC16A2
Uniprot ID:
P36021
Molecular Weight:
59510.86 Da
References
  1. Friesema EC, Ganguly S, Abdalla A, Manning Fox JE, Halestrap AP, Visser TJ: Identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):40128-35. Epub 2003 Jul 18. [PubMed:12871948 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Siegmund W, Altmannsberger S, Paneitz A, Hecker U, Zschiesche M, Franke G, Meng W, Warzok R, Schroeder E, Sperker B, Terhaag B, Cascorbi I, Kroemer HK: Effect of levothyroxine administration on intestinal P-glycoprotein expression: consequences for drug disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Sep;72(3):256-64. [PubMed:12235446 ]
  2. Ashida K, Katsura T, Motohashi H, Saito H, Inui K: Thyroid hormone regulates the activity and expression of the peptide transporter PEPT1 in Caco-2 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 Apr;282(4):G617-23. [PubMed:11897620 ]
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Drug created on August 29, 2007 08:54 / Updated on November 26, 2015 16:43