You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameLiotrix
Accession NumberDB01583
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

Liotrix is a synthetically derived thyroid hormone replacement preparation. It consists of levothyroxine sodium (thyroxine, T4) and liothyronine sodium (triiodothyronine, T3) in a 4 to 1 ratio by weight. Liotrix was developed when it was believed that serum levels of both T4 and T3 were maintained by direct thyroidal secretion. It is now known that the thyroid gland secretes approximately ten times more T4 than T3 and that 80% of serum T3 is derived from deiodination of T4 in peripheral tissues. Administration of levothyroxine alone is sufficient for maintaining serum T4 and T3 levels in most patients and combination hormone replacement therapy generally offers no therapeutic advantage. In fact, administration of T3 may result in supratherapeutic levels of T3.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Levothyroxine sodium - liothyronine sodium mixtNot AvailableNot Available
ThyrolarNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
Bitiron Abdi (Turkey)
Combithyrex Sandoz (Austria)
CynoplusGrossman (Mexico)
Dithyron Unipharma (Greece)
EuthroidParke, Davis (United States) (discontinued)
EuthyralMerck-Lipha (France)
EutroidElea (Argentina)
LevotiroxinaFarmedica (Brazil) (discontinued)
Levotrin GlaxoSmithKline (Argentina)
Novothyral Merck (Austria, Belgium, Chile, Germany, Poland, Russia, Switzerland)
NovotiralMerck (Mexico)
Prothyrid Henning (Germany), Sanofi-Aventis (Germany), Sanofi Synthelabo (Austria) (discontinued)
ThyrolarForest Pharmaceuticals (United States)
Tiroide AmsaAmsa (Italy)
TyroplusEnila (Brazil) (discontinued)
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number8065-29-0
WeightAverage: 1471.8072
Monoisotopic: 1471.440608948
Chemical FormulaC30H21I7N2Na2O8
InChI KeyLKYWLLWWYBVUPP-XOCLESOZSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H11I4NO4.C15H12I3NO4.2Na/c16-8-4-7(5-9(17)13(8)21)24-14-10(18)1-6(2-11(14)19)3-12(20)15(22)23;16-9-6-8(1-2-13(9)20)23-14-10(17)3-7(4-11(14)18)5-12(19)15(21)22;;/h1-2,4-5,12,21H,3,20H2,(H,22,23);1-4,6,12,20H,5,19H2,(H,21,22);;/q;;2*+1/p-2/t2*12-;;/m00../s1
IUPAC Name
disodium (2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoate (2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3-iodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoate
SMILES
[Na+].[Na+].N[C@@H](CC1=CC(I)=C(OC2=CC(I)=C(O)C=C2)C(I)=C1)C([O-])=O.N[C@@H](CC1=CC(I)=C(OC2=CC(I)=C(O)C(I)=C2)C(I)=C1)C([O-])=O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomNot Available
SuperclassNot Available
ClassNot Available
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentNot Available
Alternative parentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Classification descriptionNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationMay be used to treat primary, secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. May also be used to suppress thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion in patients with simple (nontoxic) goiter, subacute or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis multinodular goiter, and in the management of thyroid cancer. May be used in conjunction with other antithyroid agents to treat thyrotoxicosis to prevent goitrogenesis and hypothyroidism. May also be used for differential diagnosis of suspected mild hyperthyroidism or thyroid gland autonomy.
PharmacodynamicsThyroid hormone drugs are natural or synthetic preparations containing T4 or T3 or both. T4 and T3 are produced in the human thyroid gland by the iodination and coupling of the amino acid tyrosine. Liotrix is a synthetic preparation of T4 and T3 in a 4:1 weight-based ratio. These hormones enhance oxygen consumption by most tissues of the body and increase the basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Thus, they exert a profound influence on every organ system in the body and are of particular importance in the development of the central nervous system.
Mechanism of actionThe hormones, T4 and T3, are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine is an important component in their synthesis. The major secreted form of thyroid hormone is T4. T4 is converted T3, the more active thyroid hormone, by deiodinases in peripheral tissues. T3 acts in the body to increase basal metabolic rate, alter protein synthesis and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline). Thyroid hormones are essential for proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. T4 and T3 regulate protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism to varying extents. The most pronounced effect of the hormones is in altering how human cells use energetic compounds. The thyroid hormone derivatives bind to the thyroid hormone receptors initially to initiate their downstream effects.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationThyroid hormones are primarily eliminated by the kidneys.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityHypermetabolic state indistinguishable from thyrotoxicosis of endogenous origin. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis include weight loss, increased appetite, palpitations, nervousness, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, sweating, tachycardia, increased pulse and blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, tremors, insomnia, heat intolerance, fever, and menstrual irregularities.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption - 0.9265
Blood Brain Barrier - 0.5572
Caco-2 permeable - 0.6254
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5404
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9229
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9089
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8928
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8097
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.878
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.7092
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5872
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6523
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8638
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8585
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8711
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8243
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.763
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8526
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9697
Rat acute toxicity 2.5191 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9672
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8731
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Forest pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Santen inc
  • Merck co inc
  • Glaxosmithkline
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral100 mcg/25 mcg
TabletOral12.5 mcg/3.1 mcg
TabletOral150 mcg/37.5 mcg
TabletOral25 mcg/6.25 mcg
TabletOral50 mcg/12.5 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Thyrolar-3 strength tablet1.09USDtablet
Thyrolar-2 strength tablet0.89USDtablet
Thyrolar-1 strength tablet0.76USDtablet
Thyrolar-1/2 strength tablet0.61USDtablet
Thyrolar-1/4 strength tablet0.55USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP3.73ChemAxon
pKa (strongest acidic)0.27ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.43ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count4ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count2ChemAxon
polar surface area95.61ChemAxon
rotatable bond count10ChemAxon
refractivity137.63ChemAxon
polarizability49.04ChemAxon
number of rings4ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General Reference
  1. Cobb WE, Jackson IM: Drug therapy reviews: management of hypothyroidism. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1978 Jan;35(1):51-8. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
PubChem Compound71371
PubChem Substance46506203
ChemSpider64467
PharmGKBPA164748036
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/liot.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/liotrix.html
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 68:36.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Calcium AcetateCalcium salts such as calcium acetate may diminish the therapeutic effect of thyroid products such as liotrix. Separate the doses of the thyroid product and the oral calcium supplement by at least 4 hours. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of thyroid products if an oral calcium supplement is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if an oral calcium supplement is discontinued/dose decreased.
CholestyramineThe resin, cholestyramine, decreases the absorption of the thyroid hormone, liotrix.
ColestipolThe resin, colestipol, decreases the absorption of the thyroid hormone, liotrix.
DigoxinThe thyroid hormone, liotrix, decreases the effect of digoxin.
WarfarinLiotrix may contribute to the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing the metabolism of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and anticoagulant effects if liotrix is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Absorption increased in fasting state and decreased in malabsorption states.
  • Consistent administration in relation to meals is recommended.
  • Iron and calcium may interfere with absorption. Space doses at least one hour before or after iron or calcium intake.
  • Oral administration with infant soybean formula, soybean flour, cotton seed meal, walnuts, foods containing large amounts of fiber, ferrous sulfate, and antacids may decrease drug absorption.
  • Take 30-60 minutes before breakfast.

Targets

1. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Thyroid hormone receptor alpha P10827 Details

References:

  1. Jiang W, Miyamoto T, Kakizawa T, Sakuma T, Nishio S, Takeda T, Suzuki S, Hashizume K: Expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes; triiodothyronine increases the expression of lipogenic enzyme and triglyceride accumulation. J Endocrinol. 2004 Aug;182(2):295-302. Pubmed
  2. Kariv R, Enden A, Zvibel I, Rosner G, Brill S, Shafritz DA, Halpern Z, Oren R: Triiodothyronine and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induce expression of HGF in an immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line. Liver Int. 2003 Jun;23(3):187-93. Pubmed
  3. Mai W, Janier MF, Allioli N, Quignodon L, Chuzel T, Flamant F, Samarut J: Thyroid hormone receptor alpha is a molecular switch of cardiac function between fetal and postnatal life. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13;101(28):10332-7. Epub 2004 Jul 6. Pubmed
  4. Sciaudone MP, Yao L, Schaller M, Zinn SA, Freake HC: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid enhances thyroid hormone action by a transcriptional mechanism. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Summer;99(1-3):219-31. Pubmed
  5. Timmer DC, Bakker O, Wiersinga WM: Triiodothyronine affects the alternative splicing of thyroid hormone receptor alpha mRNA. J Endocrinol. 2003 Nov;179(2):217-25. Pubmed
  6. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. Pubmed
  7. Nakajima Y, Yamada M, Horiguchi K, Satoh T, Hashimoto K, Tokuhiro E, Onigata K, Mori M: Resistance to thyroid hormone due to a novel thyroid hormone receptor mutant in a patient with hypothyroidism secondary to lingual thyroid and functional characterization of the mutant receptor. Thyroid. 2010 Aug;20(8):917-26. Pubmed
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  9. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  10. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed

2. Thyroid hormone receptor beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Thyroid hormone receptor beta P10828 Details

References:

  1. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. Pubmed
  2. Gonzalez-Sancho JM, Garcia V, Bonilla F, Munoz A: Thyroid hormone receptors/THR genes in human cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003 Mar 31;192(2):121-32. Pubmed
  3. Yen PM, Feng X, Flamant F, Chen Y, Walker RL, Weiss RE, Chassande O, Samarut J, Refetoff S, Meltzer PS: Effects of ligand and thyroid hormone receptor isoforms on hepatic gene expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice. EMBO Rep. 2003 Jun;4(6):581-7. Pubmed
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed
  5. Wu SY, Sadow PM, Refetoff S, Weiss RE: Tissue responses to thyroid hormone in a kindred with resistance to thyroid hormone harboring a commonly occurring mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453T). J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Aug;146(2):85-94. Pubmed
  6. Marazuela M, Nattero L, Moure D, Garcia-Polo I, Figueroa-Vega N, Guijarro C: Thyroid hormone resistance and pituitary enlargement after thyroid ablation in a woman on levothyroxine treatment. Thyroid. 2008 Oct;18(10):1119-23. Pubmed
  7. Sivakumar T, Chaidarun S: Resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient with coexisting Graves’ disease. Thyroid. 2010 Feb;20(2):213-6. Pubmed
  8. Grasberger H, Ringkananont U, Croxson M, Refetoff S: Resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient with thyroid dysgenesis. Thyroid. 2005 Jul;15(7):730-3. Pubmed
  9. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  10. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Transthyretin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Transthyretin P02766 Details

References:

  1. Eneqvist T, Lundberg E, Karlsson A, Huang S, Santos CR, Power DM, Sauer-Eriksson AE: High resolution crystal structures of piscine transthyretin reveal different binding modes for triiodothyronine and thyroxine. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18;279(25):26411-6. Epub 2004 Apr 13. Pubmed
  2. Palha JA: Transthyretin as a thyroid hormone carrier: function revisited. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Dec;40(12):1292-300. Pubmed

2. Thyroxine-binding globulin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Thyroxine-binding globulin P05543 Details

References:

  1. Palha JA: Transthyretin as a thyroid hormone carrier: function revisited. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Dec;40(12):1292-300. Pubmed

3. Serum albumin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serum albumin P02768 Details

References:

  1. Palha JA: Transthyretin as a thyroid hormone carrier: function revisited. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Dec;40(12):1292-300. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 P46721 Details

References:

  1. Fujiwara K, Adachi H, Nishio T, Unno M, Tokui T, Okabe M, Onogawa T, Suzuki T, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Kondo Y, Nunoki K, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Ito S, Matsuno S, Abe T: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters in humans: different molecules are involved in a tissue-specific manner. Endocrinology. 2001 May;142(5):2005-12. Pubmed
  2. Friesema EC, Docter R, Moerings EP, Stieger B, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ, Krenning EP, Hennemann G, Visser TJ: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jan 19;254(2):497-501. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 Q9Y6L6 Details

References:

  1. Abe T, Kakyo M, Tokui T, Nakagomi R, Nishio T, Nakai D, Nomura H, Unno M, Suzuki M, Naitoh T, Matsuno S, Yawo H: Identification of a novel gene family encoding human liver-specific organic anion transporter LST-1. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jun 11;274(24):17159-63. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 Q9NPD5 Details

References:

  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. Pubmed
  2. Abe T, Unno M, Onogawa T, Tokui T, Kondo TN, Nakagomi R, Adachi H, Fujiwara K, Okabe M, Suzuki T, Nunoki K, Sato E, Kakyo M, Nishio T, Sugita J, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Date F, Ono K, Kondo Y, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Ohtani H, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Nagura H, Ito S, Matsuno S: LST-2, a human liver-specific organic anion transporter, determines methotrexate sensitivity in gastrointestinal cancers. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jun;120(7):1689-99. Pubmed

4. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4C1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4C1 Q6ZQN7 Details

References:

  1. Mikkaichi T, Suzuki T, Onogawa T, Tanemoto M, Mizutamari H, Okada M, Chaki T, Masuda S, Tokui T, Eto N, Abe M, Satoh F, Unno M, Hishinuma T, Inui K, Ito S, Goto J, Abe T: Isolation and characterization of a digoxin transporter and its rat homologue expressed in the kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 9;101(10):3569-74. Epub 2004 Mar 1. Pubmed

5. Sodium/bile acid cotransporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium/bile acid cotransporter Q14973 Details

References:

  1. Friesema EC, Docter R, Moerings EP, Stieger B, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ, Krenning EP, Hennemann G, Visser TJ: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jan 19;254(2):497-501. Pubmed

6. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1 Q9NYB5 Details

References:

  1. Westholm DE, Stenehjem DD, Rumbley JN, Drewes LR, Anderson GW: Competitive inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1-mediated thyroxine transport by the fenamate class of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Endocrinology. 2009 Feb;150(2):1025-32. Epub 2008 Oct 9. Pubmed
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed
  3. Tohyama K, Kusuhara H, Sugiyama Y: Involvement of multispecific organic anion transporter, Oatp14 (Slc21a14), in the transport of thyroxine across the blood-brain barrier. Endocrinology. 2004 Sep;145(9):4384-91. Epub 2004 May 27. Pubmed
  4. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. Pubmed

7. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1 Q96BD0 Details

References:

  1. Fujiwara K, Adachi H, Nishio T, Unno M, Tokui T, Okabe M, Onogawa T, Suzuki T, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Kondo Y, Nunoki K, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Ito S, Matsuno S, Abe T: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters in humans: different molecules are involved in a tissue-specific manner. Endocrinology. 2001 May;142(5):2005-12. Pubmed
  2. Mikkaichi T, Suzuki T, Onogawa T, Tanemoto M, Mizutamari H, Okada M, Chaki T, Masuda S, Tokui T, Eto N, Abe M, Satoh F, Unno M, Hishinuma T, Inui K, Ito S, Goto J, Abe T: Isolation and characterization of a digoxin transporter and its rat homologue expressed in the kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 9;101(10):3569-74. Epub 2004 Mar 1. Pubmed

8. Solute carrier family 22 member 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 8 Q8TCC7 Details

References:

  1. Ohtsuki S, Kikkawa T, Mori S, Hori S, Takanaga H, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Mouse reduced in osteosclerosis transporter functions as an organic anion transporter 3 and is localized at abluminal membrane of blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1273-81. Epub 2004 Feb 4. Pubmed

9. Monocarboxylate transporter 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 P36021 Details

References:

  1. Friesema EC, Ganguly S, Abdalla A, Manning Fox JE, Halestrap AP, Visser TJ: Identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):40128-35. Epub 2003 Jul 18. Pubmed

10. Monocarboxylate transporter 10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 10 Q8TF71 Details

References:

  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed

11. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Siegmund W, Altmannsberger S, Paneitz A, Hecker U, Zschiesche M, Franke G, Meng W, Warzok R, Schroeder E, Sperker B, Terhaag B, Cascorbi I, Kroemer HK: Effect of levothyroxine administration on intestinal P-glycoprotein expression: consequences for drug disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Sep;72(3):256-64. Pubmed
  2. Ashida K, Katsura T, Motohashi H, Saito H, Inui K: Thyroid hormone regulates the activity and expression of the peptide transporter PEPT1 in Caco-2 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 Apr;282(4):G617-23. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on August 29, 2007 08:54 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:15