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Identification
NameAldosterone
Accession NumberDB04630
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsExperimental
Description

A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+)-aldosterone
11beta,21-Dihydroxy-3,20-diketo-4-pregnen-18-al
11beta,21-Dihydroxy-3,20-diketopregn-4-ene-18-al
11beta,21-dihydroxy-3,20-dioxo-4-pregnen-18-al
11beta,21-dihydroxy-3,20-dioxo-pregn-4-ene-18-al
11beta,21-dihydroxy-3,20-dioxopregn-4-en-18-al
11beta,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,18,20-trione
18-Aldocorticosterone
18-Formyl-11beta,21-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione
18-Oxocorticosterone
Aldocorten
Aldocortene
Aldocortin
Aldosterona
Aldosteronum
D-aldosterone
Electrocortin
Elektrocortin
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII4964P6T9RB
CAS number52-39-1
WeightAverage: 360.444
Monoisotopic: 360.193674006
Chemical FormulaC21H28O5
InChI KeyInChIKey=PQSUYGKTWSAVDQ-ZVIOFETBSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H28O5/c1-20-7-6-13(24)8-12(20)2-3-14-15-4-5-16(18(26)10-22)21(15,11-23)9-17(25)19(14)20/h8,11,14-17,19,22,25H,2-7,9-10H2,1H3/t14-,15-,16+,17-,19+,20-,21+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15R,17S)-17-hydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2-methyl-5-oxotetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-ene-15-carbaldehyde
SMILES
[H][C@@]1(CC[C@@]2([H])[C@]3([H])CCC4=CC(=O)CC[C@]4(C)[C@@]3([H])[C@@]([H])(O)C[C@]12C=O)C(=O)CO
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 21-hydroxysteroids. These are steroids carrying a hydroxyl group at the 21-position of the steroid backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxysteroids
Direct Parent21-hydroxysteroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 21-hydroxysteroid
  • Progestogin-skeleton
  • Pregnane-skeleton
  • 20-oxosteroid
  • 18-oxosteroid
  • 11-hydroxysteroid
  • 11-beta-hydroxysteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aldehyde
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationNot Available
PharmacodynamicsAt the late distal tubule and collecting duct, aldosterone has two main actions: 1) aldosterone acts on mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) on principal cells in the distal tubule of the kidney nephron, increasing the permeability of their apical (luminal) membrane to potassium and sodium and activates their basolateral Na+/K+ pumps, stimulating ATP hydrolysis leading to phosphorylation of the pump and a conformational change in the pump exposes the Na+ ions to the outside. The phosphorylated form of the pump has a low affinity for Na+ ions, hence reabsorbing sodium (Na+) ions and water into the blood, and secreting potassium (K+) ions into the urine; 2) aldosterone stimulates H+ secretion by intercalated cells in the collecting duct, regulating plasma bicarbonate (HCO3−) levels and its acid/base balance; and 3) aldosterone may act on the central nervous system via the posterior pituitary gland to release vasopressin (ADH) which serves to conserve water by direct actions on renal tubular resorption.
Mechanism of actionNot Available
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Aldosterone
Not Available
Aldosterone 18-glucuronideDetails
Aldosterone
Not Available
Tetrahydroaldosterone-3-glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9943
Blood Brain Barrier+0.921
Caco-2 permeable+0.8527
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7719
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.738
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7441
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6832
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8059
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.904
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7278
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9189
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9251
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9434
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8795
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8737
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9073
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9543
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9279
Rat acute toxicity1.5456 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9242
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5136
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point166.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility51.2 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP1.08HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.148 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.54ALOGPS
logP1.06ChemAxon
logS-3.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area91.67 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity96.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.87 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (12.2 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Jack Fishman, Elliot Hahn, Gregory A. Smith, “Aldosterone biosynthesis inhibitor.” U.S. Patent US5120724, issued December, 1969.

US5120724
General References
  1. Williams JS, Williams GH: 50th anniversary of aldosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jun;88(6):2364-72. [PubMed:12788829 ]
External Links
ATC CodesH02AA01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (68.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels.
Gene Name:
NR3C2
Uniprot ID:
P08235
Molecular Weight:
107066.575 Da
References
  1. Bruner KL, Derfoul A, Robertson NM, Guerriero G, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, Litwack G: The unliganded mineralocorticoid receptor is associated with heat shock proteins 70 and 90 and the immunophilin FKBP-52. Recept Signal Transduct. 1997;7(2):85-98. [PubMed:9392437 ]
  2. Bunda S, Liu P, Wang Y, Liu K, Hinek A: Aldosterone induces elastin production in cardiac fibroblasts through activation of insulin-like growth factor-I receptors in a mineralocorticoid receptor-independent manner. Am J Pathol. 2007 Sep;171(3):809-19. [PubMed:17724138 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular Weight:
57572.44 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Preferentially catalyzes the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone via corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone.
Gene Name:
CYP11B2
Uniprot ID:
P19099
Molecular Weight:
57559.62 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. Involved in sexual development during fetal life and at puberty.
Gene Name:
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID:
P05093
Molecular Weight:
57369.995 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Romiti N, Tramonti G, Chieli E: Influence of different chemicals on MDR-1 P-glycoprotein expression and activity in the HK-2 proximal tubular cell line. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002 Sep 1;183(2):83-91. [PubMed:12387747 ]
  2. Ueda K, Okamura N, Hirai M, Tanigawara Y, Saeki T, Kioka N, Komano T, Hori R: Human P-glycoprotein transports cortisol, aldosterone, and dexamethasone, but not progesterone. J Biol Chem. 1992 Dec 5;267(34):24248-52. [PubMed:1360010 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Transient expression of oatp organic anion transporter in mammalian cells: identification of candidate substrates. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F319-25. [PubMed:8779893 ]
  2. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566 ]
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Drug created on September 11, 2007 11:49 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:24