You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameDroxidopa
Accession NumberDB06262
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Droxidopa is a precursor of noradrenaline that is used in the treatment of Parkinsonism. It is approved for use in Japan and is currently in trials in the U.S. The racaemic form (dl-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine) has also been used, and has been investigated in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. There is a deficit of noradrenaline as well as of dopamine in Parkinson’s disease and it has been proposed that this underlies the sudden transient freezing seen usually in advanced disease.

Though L-DOPS has been used in Japan and Southeast Asia already for some time, it is also currently in clinical trials at the phase III point in the United States (U.S.), Canada, Australia, and throughout Europe. Provided L-DOPS successfully completes clinical trials, it could be approved for the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) as early as 2011. Additionally, phase II clinical trials for intradialytic hypotension are also underway. Chelsea Therapeutics obtained orphan drug status (ODS) for L-DOPS in the U.S. for NOH, and that of which associated with Parkinson’s disease , pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy, and is the pharmaceutical company developing it in that country.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
DOPS
L-Dihydroxyphenylserine
L-DOPS
L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine
External Identifiers
  • SM 5688
  • SM-5688
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Northeracapsule100 mg/1oralLundbeck LLC2014-09-01Not applicableUs
Northeracapsule300 mg/1oralLundbeck LLC2014-09-01Not applicableUs
Northeracapsule200 mg/1oralLundbeck LLC2014-09-01Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
DopsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIJ7A92W69L7
CAS number23651-95-8
WeightAverage: 213.189
Monoisotopic: 213.063722458
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO5
InChI KeyQXWYKJLNLSIPIN-JGVFFNPUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H11NO5/c10-7(9(14)15)8(13)4-1-2-5(11)6(12)3-4/h1-3,7-8,11-13H,10H2,(H,14,15)/t7-,8+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H]([[email protected]](O)C1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tyrosine and derivatives. These are compounds containing tyrosine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of tyrosine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentTyrosine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tyrosine or derivatives
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Catechol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Amino acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) associated with various disorders including Multiple System Atrophy, Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy, hemodialysis induced hypotension and Parkinson's Disease. Also investigated for use/treatment in neurologic disorders, nephropathy, blood (blood forming organ disorders, unspecified), and dizzy/fainting spells.
PharmacodynamicsDroxidopa is an orally active synthetic precursor of norepinephrine that increases the deficient supply of norepinephrine in patients with NOH, thereby improving orthostatic blood pressure and alleviating associated symptoms of lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision, and syncope through the induction of tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension.
Mechanism of actionDroxidopa crosses the blood-brain barrier where it is converted to norepinephrine via decarboxylation by L-aromatic-amino-acid decarboxylase. Increased levels of norepinephrine in the central nervous system (CNS) may be beneficial to patients in a wide range of indications. Norephinephrine acts at alpha-adrenergic receptors as a vasoconstrictor and at beta-adrenergic receptors as a heart stimulator and artery dilator.
Related Articles
AbsorptionOral bioavailability is 90%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Droxidopa is metabolized by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.

Route of eliminationDroxidopa is mainly excreted in the urine, with the main metabolite being 3-O-methyldihydroxyphenylserine.
Half life2-3 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityDroxidopa has minimal toxic effects and an acute, oral LD50 of more than 5 g/kg in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys. Side effects occur in in 0.78% of patients and include nausea, headache, increased blood pressure, hallucination, and anorexia.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8412
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9305
Caco-2 permeable-0.8613
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7167
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9874
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.993
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.949
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8401
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8805
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7587
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8012
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9573
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9472
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8565
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.76
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9562
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7494
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9262
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.765
Rat acute toxicity1.3600 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9904
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9693
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral100 mg/1
Capsuleoral200 mg/1
Capsuleoral300 mg/1
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility15.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.4ALOGPS
logP-2.7ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.46ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.72ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area124.01 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity50.29 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.85 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Kaufmann H: L-dihydroxyphenylserine (Droxidopa): a new therapy for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: the US experience. Clin Auton Res. 2008 Mar;18 Suppl 1:19-24. doi: 10.1007/s10286-007-1002-2. Epub 2008 Mar 27. [PubMed:18368303 ]
  2. Balk SH, Yoshioka H, Yukawa H, Harayama S: Synthesis of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-threo-DOPS) with thermostabilized low-specific L-threonine aldolase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 May;17(5):721-7. [PubMed:18051291 ]
  3. Mathias CJ: L-dihydroxyphenylserine (Droxidopa) in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension: the European experience. Clin Auton Res. 2008 Mar;18 Suppl 1:25-9. doi: 10.1007/s10286-007-1005-z. Epub 2008 Mar 27. [PubMed:18368304 ]
  4. Goldstein DS: L-Dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS): a norepinephrine prodrug. Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2006 Fall-Winter;24(3-4):189-203. [PubMed:17214596 ]
  5. Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Kaufmann H, Freeman R: Clinical pharmacokinetics of the norepinephrine precursor L-threo-DOPS in primary chronic autonomic failure. Clin Auton Res. 2004 Dec;14(6):363-8. [PubMed:15666063 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC01CA27
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AlmotriptanAlmotriptan may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
CarbidopaThe therapeutic efficacy of Droxidopa can be decreased when used in combination with Carbidopa.
EletriptanEletriptan may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
EphedraEphedra may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
EphedrineEphedrine may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
FrovatriptanFrovatriptan may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
MidodrineMidodrine may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
NaratriptanNaratriptan may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
NorepinephrineNorepinephrine may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
RizatriptanRizatriptan may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
SumatriptanSumatriptan may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
ZolmitriptanZolmitriptan may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Senard JM, Brefel-Courbon C, Rascol O, Montastruc JL: Orthostatic hypotension in patients with Parkinson's disease: pathophysiology and management. Drugs Aging. 2001;18(7):495-505. [PubMed:11482743 ]
  2. Bishop MJ: Recent advances in the discovery of alpha1-adrenoceptor agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(2):135-45. [PubMed:17266602 ]
  3. Du L, Li M: Modeling the interactions between alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and their antagonists. Curr Comput Aided Drug Des. 2010 Sep;6(3):165-78. [PubMed:20412040 ]
  4. Lachnit WG, Tran AM, Clarke DE, Ford AP: Pharmacological characterization of an alpha 1A-adrenoceptor mediating contractile responses to noradrenaline in isolated caudal artery of rat. Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Mar;120(5):819-26. [PubMed:9138687 ]
  5. Burt RP, Chapple CR, Marshall I: The role of diacylglycerol and activation of protein kinase C in alpha 1A-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction to noradrenaline of rat isolated epididymal vas deferens. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Jan;117(1):224-30. [PubMed:8825367 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular Weight:
56835.375 Da
References
  1. Bishop MJ: Recent advances in the discovery of alpha1-adrenoceptor agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(2):135-45. [PubMed:17266602 ]
  2. Du L, Li M: Modeling the interactions between alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and their antagonists. Curr Comput Aided Drug Des. 2010 Sep;6(3):165-78. [PubMed:20412040 ]
  3. Testa R, Guarneri L, Poggesi E, Simonazzi I, Taddei C, Leonardi A: Mediation of noradrenaline-induced contractions of rat aorta by the alpha 1B-adrenoceptor subtype. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 Feb;114(4):745-50. [PubMed:7773533 ]
  4. Izzo NJ Jr, Colucci WS: Regulation of alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor half-life: protein synthesis dependence and effect of norepinephrine. Am J Physiol. 1994 Mar;266(3 Pt 1):C771-5. [PubMed:8166240 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name:
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID:
P25100
Molecular Weight:
60462.205 Da
References
  1. Bishop MJ: Recent advances in the discovery of alpha1-adrenoceptor agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(2):135-45. [PubMed:17266602 ]
  2. Du L, Li M: Modeling the interactions between alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and their antagonists. Curr Comput Aided Drug Des. 2010 Sep;6(3):165-78. [PubMed:20412040 ]
  3. Kenny BA, Chalmers DH, Philpott PC, Naylor AM: Characterization of an alpha 1D-adrenoceptor mediating the contractile response of rat aorta to noradrenaline. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 Jul;115(6):981-6. [PubMed:7582530 ]
  4. Testa R, Destefani C, Guarneri L, Poggesi E, Simonazzi I, Taddei C, Leonardi A: The alpha 1d-adrenoceptor subtype is involved in the noradrenaline-induced contractions of rat aorta. Life Sci. 1995;57(13):PL159-63. [PubMed:7674815 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianser...
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Davis MP: Recent advances in the treatment of pain. F1000 Med Rep. 2010 Aug 19;2:63. doi: 10.3410/M2-63. [PubMed:21173850 ]
  2. Giovannoni MP, Ghelardini C, Vergelli C, Dal Piaz V: Alpha2-agonists as analgesic agents. Med Res Rev. 2009 Mar;29(2):339-68. doi: 10.1002/med.20134. [PubMed:18680204 ]
  3. Nyronen T, Pihlavisto M, Peltonen JM, Hoffren AM, Varis M, Salminen T, Wurster S, Marjamaki A, Kanerva L, Katainen E, Laaksonen L, Savola JM, Scheinin M, Johnson MS: Molecular mechanism for agonist-promoted alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor activation by norepinephrine and epinephrine. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1343-54. [PubMed:11306720 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine > norepinephrine > epinephrine = oxymetazoline > dopamine > p-tyramine = phenylephrine > serotonin > p-synephrine / p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > chlorpromazine > phent...
Gene Name:
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID:
P18089
Molecular Weight:
49565.8 Da
References
  1. Davis MP: Recent advances in the treatment of pain. F1000 Med Rep. 2010 Aug 19;2:63. doi: 10.3410/M2-63. [PubMed:21173850 ]
  2. Giovannoni MP, Ghelardini C, Vergelli C, Dal Piaz V: Alpha2-agonists as analgesic agents. Med Res Rev. 2009 Mar;29(2):339-68. doi: 10.1002/med.20134. [PubMed:18680204 ]
  3. Gilsbach R, Hein L: Presynaptic metabotropic receptors for acetylcholine and adrenaline/noradrenaline. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(184):261-88. [PubMed:18064417 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name:
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID:
P18825
Molecular Weight:
49521.585 Da
References
  1. Davis MP: Recent advances in the treatment of pain. F1000 Med Rep. 2010 Aug 19;2:63. doi: 10.3410/M2-63. [PubMed:21173850 ]
  2. Giovannoni MP, Ghelardini C, Vergelli C, Dal Piaz V: Alpha2-agonists as analgesic agents. Med Res Rev. 2009 Mar;29(2):339-68. doi: 10.1002/med.20134. [PubMed:18680204 ]
  3. Rump LC, Bohmann C, Schaible U, Schollhorn J, Limberger N: Alpha 2C-adrenoceptor-modulated release of noradrenaline in human right atrium. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 Nov;116(6):2617-24. [PubMed:8590979 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular Weight:
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Mersmann HJ: Overview of the effects of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists on animal growth including mechanisms of action. J Anim Sci. 1998 Jan;76(1):160-72. [PubMed:9464897 ]
  2. El-Armouche A, Eschenhagen T: Beta-adrenergic stimulation and myocardial function in the failing heart. Heart Fail Rev. 2009 Dec;14(4):225-41. doi: 10.1007/s10741-008-9132-8. [PubMed:19110970 ]
  3. Gilsbach R, Hein L: Presynaptic metabotropic receptors for acetylcholine and adrenaline/noradrenaline. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(184):261-88. [PubMed:18064417 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Mersmann HJ: Overview of the effects of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists on animal growth including mechanisms of action. J Anim Sci. 1998 Jan;76(1):160-72. [PubMed:9464897 ]
  2. Sanders VM: The role of norepinephrine and beta-2-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the modulation of Th1, Th2, and B lymphocyte function. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;437:269-78. [PubMed:9666280 ]
  3. Tarizzo VI, Coppes RP, Dahlof C, Zaagsma J: Pre- and postganglionic stimulation-induced noradrenaline overflow is markedly facilitated by a prejunctional beta 2-adrenoceptor-mediated control mechanism in the pithed rat. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1994 Jun;349(6):570-7. [PubMed:7969507 ]
  4. El-Armouche A, Eschenhagen T: Beta-adrenergic stimulation and myocardial function in the failing heart. Heart Fail Rev. 2009 Dec;14(4):225-41. doi: 10.1007/s10741-008-9132-8. [PubMed:19110970 ]
  5. Gilsbach R, Hein L: Presynaptic metabotropic receptors for acetylcholine and adrenaline/noradrenaline. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(184):261-88. [PubMed:18064417 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. Beta-3 is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis.
Gene Name:
ADRB3
Uniprot ID:
P13945
Molecular Weight:
43518.615 Da
References
  1. Coman OA, Paunescu H, Ghita I, Coman L, Badararu A, Fulga I: Beta 3 adrenergic receptors: molecular, histological, functional and pharmacological approaches. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2009;50(2):169-79. [PubMed:19434307 ]
  2. Mersmann HJ: Overview of the effects of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists on animal growth including mechanisms of action. J Anim Sci. 1998 Jan;76(1):160-72. [PubMed:9464897 ]
  3. El-Armouche A, Eschenhagen T: Beta-adrenergic stimulation and myocardial function in the failing heart. Heart Fail Rev. 2009 Dec;14(4):225-41. doi: 10.1007/s10741-008-9132-8. [PubMed:19110970 ]
  4. Gilsbach R, Hein L: Presynaptic metabotropic receptors for acetylcholine and adrenaline/noradrenaline. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(184):261-88. [PubMed:18064417 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PAH
Uniprot ID:
P00439
Molecular Weight:
51861.565 Da
References
  1. Martinez A, Andersson KK, Haavik J, Flatmark T: EPR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic studies on the paramagnetic iron at the active site of phenylalanine hydroxylase and its interaction with substrates and inhibitors. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Jun 15;198(3):675-82. [PubMed:1646718 ]
  2. Martinez A, Haavik J, Flatmark T: Cooperative homotropic interaction of L-noradrenaline with the catalytic site of phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase. Eur J Biochem. 1990 Oct 5;193(1):211-9. [PubMed:2226440 ]
  3. Molinoff PB: The regulation of the noradrenergic neuron. J Psychiatr Res. 1974;11:339-45. [PubMed:4156788 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular Weight:
53925.815 Da
References
  1. Goldstein DS: L-Dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS): a norepinephrine prodrug. Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2006 Fall-Winter;24(3-4):189-203. [PubMed:17214596 ]
  2. Maruyama W, Naoi M, Narabayashi H: [The effect of droxidopa on the monoamine metabolsim in the human brain]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1994 Oct;34(10):985-90. [PubMed:7834959 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Habecker BA, Willison BD, Shi X, Woodward WR: Chronic depolarization stimulates norepinephrine transporter expression via catecholamines. J Neurochem. 2006 May;97(4):1044-51. Epub 2006 Mar 29. [PubMed:16573647 ]
  2. Bonisch H, Bruss M: The norepinephrine transporter in physiology and disease. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2006;(175):485-524. [PubMed:16722247 ]
  3. Mandela P, Ordway GA: KCl stimulation increases norepinephrine transporter function in PC12 cells. J Neurochem. 2006 Sep;98(5):1521-30. Epub 2006 Jul 31. [PubMed:16879714 ]
  4. Gutman DA, Owens MJ: Serotonin and norepinephrine transporter binding profile of SSRIs. Essent Psychopharmacol. 2006;7(1):35-41. [PubMed:16989291 ]
  5. Ksiazek P, Buraczynska K, Buraczynska M: Norepinephrine transporter gene (NET) polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2006;29(6):338-43. Epub 2006 Nov 23. [PubMed:17124432 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on March 19, 2008 10:20 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:24