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Identification
NameArtemether
Accession NumberDB06697
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

Artemether is an antimalarial agent used to treat acute uncomplicated malaria. It is administered in combination with lumefantrine for improved efficacy. This combination therapy exerts its effects against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium spp. and may be used to treat infections caused by P. falciparum and unidentified Plasmodium species, including infections acquired in chloroquine-resistant areas.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Dihydroartemisinin methyl etherNot AvailableNot Available
Dihydroqinghaosu methyl etherNot AvailableNot Available
SM-224Not AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Coartemartemether + lumefantrine
Riametartemether + lumefantrine
Categories
CAS number71963-77-4
WeightAverage: 298.3746
Monoisotopic: 298.178023942
Chemical FormulaC16H26O5
InChI KeyInChIKey=SXYIRMFQILZOAM-HVNFFKDJSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H26O5/c1-9-5-6-12-10(2)13(17-4)18-14-16(12)11(9)7-8-15(3,19-14)20-21-16/h9-14H,5-8H2,1-4H3/t9-,10-,11+,12+,13+,14-,15-,16-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1R,4S,5R,8S,9R,10S,12R,13R)-10-methoxy-1,5,9-trimethyl-11,14,15,16-tetraoxatetracyclo[10.3.1.0^{4,13}.0^{8,13}]hexadecane
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@@H](C)[C@]3([H])CC[C@@]4(C)OO[C@@]13[C@]([H])(O[C@H](OC)[C@@H]2C)O4
Mass Specshow(7.86 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassLipids
ClassPrenol Lipids
SubclassDiterpenes
Direct parentArtemisins
Alternative parentsOxepanes; Trioxanes; Oxanes; Polyamines; Organic Peroxides; Acetals
Substituentsoxepane; 1,2,4-trioxane; oxane; polyamine; organic peroxide; ether; acetal
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the artemisins.
Pharmacology
IndicationArtemether and lumefantrine combination therapy is indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, including malaria acquired in chloroquine-resistant areas. May also be used to treat uncomplicated malaria when the Plasmodium species has not been identified. Indicated for use in adults and children greater than 5 kg.
PharmacodynamicsIn the body, artemether is metabolized into the active metabolite metabolite dihydroartemisinin. The drug works against the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum by inhibiting nucleic acid and protein synthesis. Artemether is administered in combination with lumefantrine for improved efficacy. Artemether has a rapid onset of action and is rapidly cleared from the body. It is thought that artemether provides rapid symptomatic relief by reducing the number of malarial parasites. Lumefantrine has a much longer half life and is believed to clear residual parasites.
Mechanism of actionInvolves an interaction with ferriprotoporphyrin IX (“heme”), or ferrous ions, in the acidic parasite food vacuole, which results in the generation of cytotoxic radical species. The generally accepted mechanism of action of peroxide antimalarials involves interaction of the peroxide-containing drug with heme, a hemoglobin degradation byproduct, derived from proteolysis of hemoglobin. This interaction is believed to result in the formation of a range of potentially toxic oxygen and carbon-centered radicals.
AbsorptionFood increases absorption.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingArtemether and lumefantrine are both highly bound to human serum proteins in vitro (95.4% and 99.7%, respectively). Dihydroartemisinin is also bound to human serum proteins (47% to 76%).
Metabolism

Rapidly metablized to its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Artemether
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA)Details
Artemether
    9,10-dihydrodeoxy-artemsininDetails
    Artemether
      Alpha-dihydroartemisininDetails
      Artemether
        DeoxyartemsininDetails
        Artemether
          Deoxydihydro-artemisininDetails
          Route of eliminationNot Available
          Half lifeArtemether, 1.6 +/- 0.7 and 2.2 +/- 1.9 hr; Dihydroartemisinin, 1.6 +/- 0.6 and 2.2 +/- 1.5 hr
          ClearanceNot Available
          ToxicityAnimal studies on acute toxicity show that the LD50 of Artemether in mice is a single i.g. administration of 895mg/kg and a single i.m. injection of 296mg/kg dose; in rats, the LD50 is a single i.m. injection of 597mg/kg dose.
          Affected organisms
          • Plasmodium
          Pathways
          PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
          Artemether Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00651
          SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
          SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
          ADMET
          Predicted ADMET features
          Property Value Probability
          Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9012
          Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9393
          Caco-2 permeable + 0.7876
          P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.6031
          P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8918
          P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.7056
          Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8178
          CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8665
          CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.5341
          CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7023
          CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.6829
          CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9413
          CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9474
          CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8733
          CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9434
          CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9672
          Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.7285
          Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9179
          Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9956
          Rat acute toxicity 2.2114 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
          hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9502
          hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.7601
          Pharmacoeconomics
          Manufacturers
          • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
          PackagersNot Available
          Dosage forms
          FormRouteStrength
          TabletOralArtemether 20 mg, Lumefantrine 120 mg
          PricesNot Available
          PatentsNot Available
          Properties
          Statesolid
          Experimental Properties
          PropertyValueSource
          melting point86-90Not Available
          water solubilityInsoluble # http://www.rxlist.com/coartem-drug.htm
          logP3.53AVERY,MA ET AL. (1995)
          Predicted Properties
          PropertyValueSource
          water solubility4.57e-01 g/lALOGPS
          logP3.02ALOGPS
          logP3.48ChemAxon
          logS-2.8ALOGPS
          pKa (strongest basic)-3.9ChemAxon
          physiological charge0ChemAxon
          hydrogen acceptor count5ChemAxon
          hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
          polar surface area46.15ChemAxon
          rotatable bond count1ChemAxon
          refractivity74.66ChemAxon
          polarizability32.12ChemAxon
          number of rings4ChemAxon
          bioavailability1ChemAxon
          rule of fiveYesChemAxon
          Ghose filterYesChemAxon
          Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
          MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
          Spectra
          SpectraNot Available
          References
          Synthesis Reference
          1. Haynes RK, Vonwiller SC: Extraction of artemisinin and artemisinic acid: preparation of artemether and new analogues. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Jun;88 Suppl 1:S23-6. Pubmed
          General Reference
          1. Artemether and Lumefantrine (2010). AHFS Drug Information [Electronic versionb]. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
          2. Artemether/Lumefantrine (2010). DrugPoints® System [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
          3. Novartis. Coartem (artemether/lumefantrine) tablets prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ; 2010 Feb.
          4. Makanga M, Krudsood S: The clinical efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem). Malar J. 2009 Oct 12;8 Suppl 1:S5. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-S1-S5. Pubmed
          5. Mutabingwa TK, Adam I: Use of artemether-lumefantrine to treat malaria during pregnancy: what do we know and need to know? Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013 Feb;11(2):125-35. doi: 10.1586/eri.12.169. Pubmed
          6. Haynes RK, Vonwiller SC: Extraction of artemisinin and artemisinic acid: preparation of artemether and new analogues. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Jun;88 Suppl 1:S23-6. Pubmed
          External Links
          ResourceLink
          KEGG DrugD02483
          BindingDB50022886
          ChEBI195280
          ChEMBLCHEMBL566534
          PharmGKBPA165111698
          RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/coartem-drug.htm
          Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/pro/coartem.html
          WikipediaArtemether
          ATC CodesP01BE02
          AHFS Codes
          • 8:30.08
          PDB EntriesNot Available
          FDA labelshow(1.73 MB)
          MSDSshow(566 KB)
          Interactions
          Drug Interactions
          Drug
          AmiodaroneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          AmitriptylineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          AmoxapineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ApomorphineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          Arsenic trioxideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          AsenapineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          AzithromycinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          BepridilAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ChloroquineChloroquine may increase the adverse effects of artemether. Combination therapy is contraindicated unless there are no other treatment options.
          ChlorpromazineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          CisaprideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          CitalopramAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ClarithromycinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ClomipramineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ConivaptanConivaptan, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, may increase the toxicity of artemether by inhibiting its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or allow at least 7 days to elapse between conivaptan and artemether therapy.
          DasatinibAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          DegarelixAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          DesipramineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          DesogestrelArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of desogestrel by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          DisopyramideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          DofetilideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          DolasetronAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          DomperidoneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          DoxepinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          DronedaroneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
          DroperidolAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          DrospirenoneArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of drospirinone by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          ErythromycinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          EscitalopramAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          Ethinyl EstradiolArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of ethinyl estradiol by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          EthynodiolArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of ethynodiol diacetate by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          EtonogestrelArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of etonogestrel by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          EtravirineArtemether, when administered concomitantly with etravirine, may experience a decrease in serum concentrations of active metabolites such as dihydroartemisinin; however, artemether may increase in serum concentration. Etravirine, when used with artemether, may increase in serum concentration. Caution and monitoring of therapeuric efficacy of artemether is recommended.
          FlecainideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          FluconazoleAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          FluoxetineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          FlupentixolAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          FoscarnetAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          GadobutrolAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          Gadofosveset trisodiumAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          HalofantrineHalofantrine may increase the adverse effects of artemether. Combination therapy is contraindicated unless there are no other treatment options.
          HaloperidolAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          HydroxychloroquineHydroxychloroquine may increase the adverse effects of artemether. Combination therapy is contraindicated unless there are no other treatment options.
          IbutilideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          IloperidoneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ImipramineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          IndapamideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          IsradipineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          KetoconazoleConcurrent oral administration of ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, with a single dose of Coartem Tablets resulted in a moderate increase in exposure to artemether, DHA, and lumefantrine in a study of 15 healthy subjects.
          LapatinibAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          LevofloxacinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          LevonorgestrelArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of levonorgestrel by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          LoxapineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          MaprotilineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          Medroxyprogesterone AcetateArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of medroxyprogesterone by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          MefloquineMefloquine may increase the adverse effects of artemether. Combination therapy is contraindicated unless there are no other treatment options.
          MesoridazineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          MestranolArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of mestranol by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          MethadoneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          MethotrimeprazineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          MoxifloxacinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          NilotinibAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          NorelgestrominArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of norelgestromin by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          NorethindroneArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of norethindrone by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          NorfloxacinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          NorgestimateArtemether may decrease the effectiveness of norgestimate by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Consider an alternate non-hormonal means of contraception during artemether therapy.
          NortriptylineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          OctreotideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          PazopanibAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          PentamidineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          PerflutrenAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          PimozideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
          PrimaquinePrimaquine may increase the adverse effects of artemether. Combination therapy is contraindicated unless there are no other treatment options.
          ProbucolAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ProcainamideAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ProguanilProguanil may increase the adverse effects of artemether. Combination therapy is contraindicated unless there are no other treatment options.
          PropafenoneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ProtriptylineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          PyrimethaminePyrimethamine may increase the adverse effects of artemether. Combination therapy is contraindicated unless there are no other treatment options.
          QuetiapineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          QuinidineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          QuinineQuinine may increase the adverse effects of artemether. Combination therapy is contraindicated unless there are no other treatment options.
          RanolazineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          RifampicinOral administration of rifampin, a strong CYP3A4 inducer, with Coartem Tablets resulted in significant decreases in exposure to artemether, dihydroartemisinin (DHA, metabolite of artemether) and lumefantrine by 89%, 85% and 68%, respectively, when compared to exposure values after Coartem Tablets alone. Concomitant use of strong inducers of CYP3A4 such as rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin and St. John’s wort is contraindicated with Coartem Tablets.
          RisperidoneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          RomidepsinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          SaquinavirAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          SotalolAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          SparfloxacinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          SunitinibAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          TacrolimusAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          TelavancinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          TelithromycinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          TetrabenazineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ThioridazineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
          ThiothixeneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ToremifeneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          TrimipramineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          VoriconazoleAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          VorinostatAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          ZiprasidoneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          Food Interactions
          • Grapefruit juice may increase the toxicity of artemether and lumefantrine by inhibiting their metabolism.
          • Take with food as food increases the absorption of artemether and lumefantrine.

          1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate inducer

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

          References:

          1. Novartis. Coartem (artemether/lumefantrine) tablets prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ; 2010 Feb.
          2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

          2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

          References:

          1. Novartis. Coartem (artemether/lumefantrine) tablets prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ; 2010 Feb.

          3. Cytochrome P450 2B6

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate inducer

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

          References:

          1. Novartis. Coartem (artemether/lumefantrine) tablets prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ; 2010 Feb.
          2. Elsherbiny DA, Asimus SA, Karlsson MO, Ashton M, Simonsson US: A model based assessment of the CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 inductive properties by artemisinin antimalarials: implications for combination regimens. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2008 Apr;35(2):203-17. Epub 2008 Mar 19. Pubmed

          4. Cytochrome P450 2C9

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

          References:

          1. Novartis. Coartem (artemether/lumefantrine) tablets prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ; 2010 Feb.

          5. Cytochrome P450 2C19

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate inducer

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

          References:

          1. Novartis. Coartem (artemether/lumefantrine) tablets prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ; 2010 Feb.
          2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
          3. Elsherbiny DA, Asimus SA, Karlsson MO, Ashton M, Simonsson US: A model based assessment of the CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 inductive properties by artemisinin antimalarials: implications for combination regimens. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2008 Apr;35(2):203-17. Epub 2008 Mar 19. Pubmed

          6. Cytochrome P450 2D6

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

          References:

          1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

          Comments
          Drug created on May 05, 2010 12:03 / Updated on September 16, 2013 18:04