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Identification
NameAgmatine
Accession NumberDB08838
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsExperimental, Investigational
Description

Agmantine is a natural metabolite of the amino acid arginine. It is formed when arginine is decarboxylated by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase and is found naturally in ragweed pollen, ergot fungi, octopus muscle, herring sperm, sponges, and the mammalian brain. Agmatine is both an experimental and investigational drug. As an investigational drug, it is being studied in a non-blinded prospective case study in the United States looking at patients who have been diagnosed with small fiber peripheral neuropathy between the ages of 18 to 75 years. Up to now (July 2013), the results of this study have not yet been published. As an experimental drug, agmatine is being studied for several indications such as cardioprotection, diabetes, decreased kidney function, neuroprotection (stroke, severe CNS injuries, epilepsy, glaucoma, and neuropathic pain), and psychiatric conditions (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and cognition). The exact mechanism of action is still being investigated for all of the potential indications of agmatine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(4-aminobutyl) guanidine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Agmatine sulfate
2482-00-0
Thumb
  • InChI Key: PTAYFGHRDOMJGC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 228.08922571
  • Average Mass: 228.27
DBSALT000006
Categories
UNII70J407ZL5Q
CAS number306-60-5
WeightAverage: 130.1915
Monoisotopic: 130.121846468
Chemical FormulaC5H14N4
InChI KeyInChIKey=QYPPJABKJHAVHS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H14N4/c6-3-1-2-4-9-5(7)8/h1-4,6H2,(H4,7,8,9)
IUPAC Name
1-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine
SMILES
NCCCCNC(N)=N
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as guanidines. These are compounds containing a guanidine moiety, with the general structure (R1R2N)(R3R4N)C=N-R5.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassGuanidines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentGuanidines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Guanidine
  • Carboximidamide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Imine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationAgmatine is being studied experimentally for several indications such as cardioprotection, diabetes, decreased kidney function, neuroprotection (stroke, severe CNS injuries, epilepsy, glaucoma, and neuropathic pain), and psychiatric conditions (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and cognition). As an investigational drug, agamatine is being studied in a non-blinded prospective case study in the United States looking at patients who have been diagnosed with small fiber peripheral neuropathy.
PharmacodynamicsAgmatine has several physiological effects. Its cardiovascular effects include mildly reducing heart rate and blood pressure. Also it promotes a mild hypoglycemic state, reduces cellular oxidative stress, and enhances glomerular filtration rate.
Mechanism of actionThe exact mechanism of action is still being investigated for all of the potential indications of agmatine. Some of the biochemical mechanisms discovered so far concern agmatine's indication for diabetes, neuroprotection, and psychiatric conditions. In diabetes, agmatine produces hypoglycemia by increasing the release of insulin form pancreatic islet cells and increasing glucose uptake by the cells through increased endorphin release from the adrenal glands. Concerning neuroprotection, agmatine's effects are thought to involve modulation of receptors (NMDA, alpha 2, and imidazoline) and ion channels (ATP sensitive potassium channels and voltage-gated calcium channels) as well as blocking nitric oxide synthesis. Agmatine blocks nitric oxide synthesis by reducing the nitric oxide synthase -2 (NOS-2) protein in astroglial cells and macrophages. With respect to agmatine's benefit in psychiatric disorders, it is suggested that the mechanism involves neurotransmitter receptor modulation of the NMDA, alpha-2, serotonin, opioid, and imidazoline receptors. Specifically when agmatine binds to the imidazoline and alpha 2 receptors, it acts as a neurotransmitter and releases catecholamines from the adrenal gland.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9113
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8116
Caco-2 permeable+0.576
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5247
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9574
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6373
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.5877
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8348
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.609
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8303
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8126
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9396
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9261
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9428
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9583
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7871
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8883
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7355
Rat acute toxicity2.7458 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8538
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9246
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point234-238 degress CelciusFrom MSDS.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.61 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1ALOGPS
logP-1.2ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.61ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area87.92 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity48.09 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.01 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0002-0900000000-a9f6a71ff1ddda580ea9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-00di-1910000000-4c97cf5e84d752009d1aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1910000000-de398de0f062b85c083cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00e9-9700000000-dcb266f2466b6490a487View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-e4747ffbbb1c0aa02f4eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-e97e998997ab8bfcedb5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-4843789c1dd06e41493dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9200000000-a6b84c1241179a3739f8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-57f390519e8ddbcb80a8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-e38858b8c1a4fb2a6b14View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-2e6fd942608b84941a7dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-075bad34dbbb7544e053View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-9600000000-368edccb095766335b38View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03e9-3900000000-21dc8634e0e5c79fc825View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9300000000-55aa9e9ef7923b67457fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-ec5b24cf1199482a883dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-002r-9500000000-f8e119f2ba53222591a1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-c4883e27e32ef6874c13View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-2b9c32eb2684272e86a2View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Li G, Regunathan S, Barrow CJ, Eshraghi J, Cooper R, Reis DJ: Agmatine: an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in the brain. Science. 1994 Feb 18;263(5149):966-9. [PubMed:7906055 ]
  2. Payandemehr B, Rahimian R, Bahremand A, Ebrahimi A, Saadat S, Moghaddas P, Fadakar K, Derakhshanian H, Dehpour AR: Role of nitric oxide in additive anticonvulsant effects of agmatine and morphine. Physiol Behav. 2013 Jun 13;118:52-7. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.05.022. Epub 2013 May 14. [PubMed:23685229 ]
  3. Huang YC, Tzeng WS, Wang CC, Cheng BC, Chang YK, Chen HH, Lin PC, Huang TY, Chuang TJ, Lin JW, Chang CP: Neuroprotective effect of agmatine in rats with transient cerebral ischemia using MR imaging and histopathologic evaluation. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Sep;31(7):1174-81. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2013.03.026. Epub 2013 May 1. [PubMed:23642800 ]
  4. Piletz JE, Aricioglu F, Cheng JT, Fairbanks CA, Gilad VH, Haenisch B, Halaris A, Hong S, Lee JE, Li J, Liu P, Molderings GJ, Rodrigues AL, Satriano J, Seong GJ, Wilcox G, Wu N, Gilad GM: Agmatine: clinical applications after 100 years in translation. Drug Discov Today. 2013 Sep;18(17-18):880-93. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2013.05.017. Epub 2013 Jun 13. [PubMed:23769988 ]
  5. Regunathan S, Piletz JE: Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and agmatine synthesis in macrophages and astrocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Dec;1009:20-9. [PubMed:15028566 ]
  6. O'Neil, Maryadele J. (2013). The Merck Index : An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (15th ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry, The. [ISBN:978-1849736701 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (125 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name:
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID:
P18825
Molecular Weight:
49521.585 Da
References
  1. Li G, Regunathan S, Barrow CJ, Eshraghi J, Cooper R, Reis DJ: Agmatine: an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in the brain. Science. 1994 Feb 18;263(5149):966-9. [PubMed:7906055 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol binding
Specific Function:
Acts either as the functional imidazoline-1 receptor (I1R) candidate or as a membrane-associated mediator of the I1R signaling. Binds numerous imidazoline ligands that induces initiation of cell-signaling cascades triggering to cell survival, growth and migration. Its activation by the agonist rilmenidine induces an increase in phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases MAPK1 and MAPK...
Gene Name:
NISCH
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2I1
Molecular Weight:
166627.105 Da
References
  1. Li G, Regunathan S, Barrow CJ, Eshraghi J, Cooper R, Reis DJ: Agmatine: an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in the brain. Science. 1994 Feb 18;263(5149):966-9. [PubMed:7906055 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA1
Uniprot ID:
P02708
Molecular Weight:
54545.235 Da
References
  1. Loring RH: Agmatine acts as an antagonist of neuronal nicotinic receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1990 Jan;99(1):207-11. [PubMed:2331571 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors (...
Gene Name:
GRIN1
Uniprot ID:
Q05586
Molecular Weight:
105371.945 Da
References
  1. Yang XC, Reis DJ: Agmatine selectively blocks the N-methyl-D-aspartate subclass of glutamate receptor channels in rat hippocampal neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Feb;288(2):544-9. [PubMed:9918557 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function:
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive vol...
Gene Name:
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID:
P48048
Molecular Weight:
44794.6 Da
References
  1. Shepherd RM, Hashmi MN, Kane C, Squires PE, Dunne MJ: Elevation of cytosolic calcium by imidazolines in mouse islets of Langerhans: implications for stimulus-response coupling of insulin release. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Nov;119(5):911-6. [PubMed:8922740 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1B gives rise to N-type calcium currents. N-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-...
Gene Name:
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID:
Q00975
Molecular Weight:
262493.84 Da
References
  1. Weng XC, Gai XD, Zheng JQ, Li J: Agmatine blocked voltage-gated calcium channel in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003 Aug;24(8):746-50. [PubMed:12904272 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Cation channel with high affinity for sodium, which is gated by extracellular protons and inhibited by the diuretic amiloride. Generates a biphasic current with a fast inactivating and a slow sustained phase. In sensory neurons is proposed to mediate the pain induced by acidosis that occurs in ischemic, damaged or inflamed tissue. May be involved in hyperalgesia. May play a role in mechanorecep...
Gene Name:
ASIC3
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHC3
Molecular Weight:
58904.72 Da
References
  1. Li WG, Yu Y, Zhang ZD, Cao H, Xu TL: ASIC3 channels integrate agmatine and multiple inflammatory signals through the nonproton ligand sensing domain. Mol Pain. 2010 Dec 8;6:88. doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-88. [PubMed:21143836 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Grundemann D, Hahne C, Berkels R, Schomig E: Agmatine is efficiently transported by non-neuronal monoamine transporters extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb;304(2):810-7. [PubMed:12538837 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Grundemann D, Hahne C, Berkels R, Schomig E: Agmatine is efficiently transported by non-neuronal monoamine transporters extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb;304(2):810-7. [PubMed:12538837 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular Weight:
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Grundemann D, Hahne C, Berkels R, Schomig E: Agmatine is efficiently transported by non-neuronal monoamine transporters extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb;304(2):810-7. [PubMed:12538837 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
L-amino acid transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the sodium-independent uptake of dibasic amino acids and sodium-dependent uptake of some neutral amino acids. Requires coexpression with SLC3A2/4F2hc to mediate the uptake of arginine, leucine and glutamine. Plays a role in nitric oxide synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via transport of L-arginine. Involved in the transport of L-arginine in monocytes.
Gene Name:
SLC7A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9UM01
Molecular Weight:
55990.01 Da
References
  1. Satriano J, Isome M, Casero RA Jr, Thomson SC, Blantz RC: Polyamine transport system mediates agmatine transport in mammalian cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;281(1):C329-34. [PubMed:11401856 ]
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Drug created on February 21, 2013 16:04 / Updated on April 21, 2016 13:49