Adrenergics, Inhalants

DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00668EpinephrineEpinephrine injection is indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to stinging insects (e.g., order Hymenoptera, which include bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets and fire ants) and biting insects (e.g., triatoma, mosquitos), allergen immunotherapy, foods, drugs, diagnostic testing substances (e.g., radiocontrast media) and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Injectable epinephrine is intended for immediate/urgent administration in patients, who are found to be at increased risk for anaphylaxis, including individuals with a history of anaphylaxis. Selection of the appropriate dosage strength is determined according to body weight [FDA label]. Epinephrine's cardiac effects may be of use in restoring cardiac rhythm in cardiac arrest due to various causes but is not used in cardiac failure or in hemorrhagic, traumatic, or cardiogenic shock [F1247]. Epinephrine is used as a hemostatic agent. It is also used in treating mucosal congestion of hay fever, rhinitis, and acute sinusitis; to relieve bronchial asthmatic paroxysms; in syncope due to complete heart block or carotid sinus hypersensitivity; for symptomatic relief of serum sickness, urticaria, angioneurotic edema; for resuscitation in cardiac arrest following anesthetic accidents; in simple (open angle) glaucoma; for relaxation of uterine musculature and to inhibit uterine contractions. Epinephrine injection can be utilized to prolong the action of local anesthetics [F1247]. In addition to the above, epinephrine is used as an over the counter (OTC) agent for the intermittent symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, tightness of chest and shortness of breath [F2131]. It is also used for the maintenance of mydriasis during intraocular surgery [L4825].
DB00816OrciprenalineFor the treatment of bronchospasm, chronic bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema.
DB00901BitolterolUsed to dilate air passages in the lungs that have become narrowed as a result of disease or inflammation. It is used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
DB00938SalmeterolFor the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
DB00983FormoterolFor use as long-term maintenance treatment of asthma in patients 6 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airways disease, including patients with symptoms of nocturnal asthma, who are using optimal corticosteroid treatment and experiencing regular or frequent breakthrough symptoms requiring use of a short-acting bronchodilator. Not indicated for asthma that can be successfully managed with occasional use of an inhaled, short-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist. Also used for the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm, as well as long-term treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD.
DB01064IsoprenalineFor the treatment of mild or transient episodes of heart block that do not require electric shock or pacemaker therapy also used in management of asthma and chronic bronchitis
DB01291PirbuterolFor the prevention and reversal of bronchospasm in patients 12 years of age and older with reversible bronchospasm including asthma.
DB01407ClenbuterolUsed as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma patients.
DB05039IndacaterolFor the long term, once-daily-dosing maintenance of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema.
DB08957HexoprenalineNot Available
DB09076UmeclidiniumIndicated for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
DB09080OlodaterolOlodaterol is indicated for use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. It is not indicated for the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD or for the treatment of asthma.
DB09082VilanterolVilanterol is approved for use in several combination products such as with fluticasone furoate under the tradename Breo Ellipta and in combination with umeclidinium bromide as Anoro Ellipta. Approved by the FDA in 2013, use of Breo Ellipta is indicated for the long-term, once-daily maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It is also indicated for once-daily maintenance treatment of asthma in patients aged 18 or older with reversible obstructive airways disease.
DB12846ReproterolNot Available
DB13559RimiterolNot Available
DB13692TretoquinolNot Available
DB00221IsoetarineFor the treatment of asthma, wheezing, and chronic asthmatic bronchitis.
DB00332IpratropiumInhaled ipratropium is indicated in combination with inhaled beta-agonist systemic corticosteroids for the management of severe exacerbations of asthma flares requiring treatment.[A176939] Asthma exacerbations are characterized by a progressive increase in one or more of asthma symptoms accompanied by a decrease in expiratory flow.[L5900] As a single agent, ipratropium was indicated for the symptomatic relief of rhinorrhea associated with the common cold or seasonal allergic rhinitis for patients 5 years or older. It does not alleviate nasal congestion nor sneezing.[FDA label] Rhinorrhea refers to recurrent or chronic watery nasal discharge. This condition is debilitating and its pathogenesis and etiology is complex and not very well understood presenting very substantial cost burden.[L5903] Additionally, ipratropium is indicated as a bronchodilator for maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.[FDA label] The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease includes a large number of conditions characterized by breathlessness. As this includes several conditions, the etiology, symptoms, and treatments are diverse.[L5906] Ipratropium has also been studied to be used for the treatment of sialorrhea.[A176942] Sialorrhea is a common symptom that accompanies different neurologic conditions and it is characterized by drooling or excessive salivation.[A176963]
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateUsed in the maintenance treatment of asthma as prophylactic therapy in patients 5 years of age and older, and in treating symptoms for allergic rhinitis (seasonal or perennial) in patients 12 years of age and older. Also being investigated for oral treatment in mild-to-moderate Crohn's disease of ileal or ileal-right colonic localisation and for "topical" use mild-to-moderate graft versus host disease.
DB00764MometasoneThe inhaler is indicated for the maintenance treatment of asthma as prophylactic therapy. The nasal spray is indicated for the treatment of the nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic and perennial allergic rhinitis.
DB00871TerbutalineFor the prevention and reversal of bronchospasm in patients 12 years of age and older with reversible, obstructive airway disease, as well as symptomatic management of reversible bronchospasm associated with bronchitis and emphysema. Also used acute IV and sub-Q therapy in selected women to inhibit uterine contractions in preterm labor (tocolysis) and prolong gestation when beneficial.
DB00986GlycopyrroniumFor use as a preoperative antimuscarinic to reduce salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions, to reduce the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and to block cardiac vagal inhibitory reflexes during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Also used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
DB01001SalbutamolSalbutamol is indicated for (i) the symptomatic relief and prevention of bronchospasm due to bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, reversible obstructive airway disease, and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders in which bronchospasm is a complicating factor, and/or (ii) the acute prophylaxis against exercise-induced bronchospasm and other stimuli known to induce bronchospasm [FDA Label, F3265, F3268].
DB01003Cromoglicic acidFor the management of patients with bronchial asthma. Also used in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, and vernal keratitis.
DB01222BudesonideThe oral capsule is used for the treatment of mild to moderate active Crohn's disease. The oral tablet is used for induction of remission in patients with active, mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. The oral inhalation formulation is used for the treatment of asthma, non-infectious rhinitis (including hay fever and other allergies), and for treatment and prevention of nasal polyposis.
DB01288FenoterolFenoterol is used for the treatment of asthma.
DB01366ProcaterolFor the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
DB01409TiotropiumUsed in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
DB08897AclidiniumAclidinium bromide inhalation powder is indicated for the long-term, maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
DB08906Fluticasone furoateFluticasone furoate is indicated as an inhaler for the treatment and management of asthma by prophylaxis[FDA Label][F4364]. The fluticasone furoate nasal spray is indicated for treating season and perennial allergic rhinitis[FDA Label][A177130].
DB12248TulobuterolNot Available
DB13625CarbuterolNot Available
DB13867FluticasoneFluticasone's 2 esters are indicated as inhalers for the treatment and management of asthma by prophylaxis[FDA Label][F4364]as well as inflammatory and pruritic dermatoses[F4355]. A [DB00588] nasal spray is indicated for managing nonallergic rhinitis[F4358] while the [DB08906] nasal spray is indicated for treating season and perennial allergic rhinitis[F4361,A177130].
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00668EpinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00668EpinephrineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00668EpinephrineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineTumor necrosis factortarget
DB00668EpinephrineCatechol O-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00668EpinephrineMonoamine oxidaseenzyme
DB00816OrciprenalineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00901BitolterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00938SalmeterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00938SalmeterolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00938SalmeterolCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00938SalmeterolCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00938SalmeterolCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00938SalmeterolBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00938SalmeterolBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00983FormoterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00983FormoterolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00983FormoterolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00983FormoterolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00983FormoterolCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00983FormoterolBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00983FormoterolBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alphatarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineMitogen-activated protein kinase 1target
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit betatarget
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gammatarget
DB01064IsoprenalineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01064IsoprenalineCAMP phosphodiesterasetarget
DB01064IsoprenalineSuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]target
DB01291PirbuterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01291PirbuterolBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01407ClenbuterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01407ClenbuterolBeta-nerve growth factortarget
DB01407ClenbuterolTumor necrosis factortarget
DB01407ClenbuterolBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01407ClenbuterolBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01407ClenbuterolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB05039IndacaterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB05039IndacaterolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB05039IndacaterolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB05039IndacaterolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB09076UmeclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB09076UmeclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB09076UmeclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB09076UmeclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB09076UmeclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB09076UmeclidiniumCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB09076UmeclidiniumMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB09080OlodaterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB09080OlodaterolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB09080OlodaterolCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB09082VilanterolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09082VilanterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00221IsoetarineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00221IsoetarineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00332IpratropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00332IpratropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00332IpratropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00332IpratropiumSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00332IpratropiumSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00332IpratropiumSerum albumincarrier
DB00332Ipratropiumalpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00764MometasoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00764MometasoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00764MometasoneProgesterone receptortarget
DB00764MometasoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00871TerbutalineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00871TerbutalineCholinesteraseenzyme
DB00871TerbutalineBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00871TerbutalineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00986GlycopyrroniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00986GlycopyrroniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00986GlycopyrroniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01001SalbutamolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01001SalbutamolBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01001SalbutamolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01001SalbutamolBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01003Cromoglicic acidCalcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1target
DB01003Cromoglicic acidProtein S100-Ptarget
DB01222BudesonideGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB01222BudesonideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01222BudesonideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01222BudesonideBile salt export pumptransporter
DB01288FenoterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01288FenoterolBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01288FenoterolBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01366ProcaterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01409TiotropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01409TiotropiumCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01409TiotropiumCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01409TiotropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01409TiotropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01409TiotropiumSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB01409TiotropiumSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB01409TiotropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01409TiotropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB08897AclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB08897AclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB08897AclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB08897AclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB08897AclidiniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB08897AclidiniumCholinesteraseenzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB08906Fluticasone furoateMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB08906Fluticasone furoateMultidrug resistance protein 1carrier
DB08906Fluticasone furoateSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1carrier
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateProgesterone receptortarget
DB08906Fluticasone furoateMineralocorticoid receptortarget
DB12248TulobuterolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB13867FluticasoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB13867FluticasoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB13867FluticasoneMultidrug resistance protein 1carrier
DB13867FluticasoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1carrier
DB13867FluticasoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB13867FluticasoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB13867FluticasoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB13867FluticasoneCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB13867FluticasoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB13867FluticasoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB13867FluticasoneProgesterone receptortarget
DB13867FluticasoneCytosolic phospholipase A2target
DB13867FluticasoneMineralocorticoid receptortarget