Identification

Name
Ipratropium
Accession Number
DB00332  (APRD00537)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to atropine but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • bromuro de ipratropio
  • Ipratropium cation
  • Ipratropium ion
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ipratropium bromide anhydrousVJV4X1P2Z122254-24-6LHLMOSXCXGLMMN-WDTICOSOSA-M
Ipratropium bromide monohydrateJ697UZ2A9J66985-17-9KEWHKYJURDBRMN-XSAPEOHZSA-M
Ipratropium chlorideNot AvailableNot AvailableMQIPRYDNKGFOGV-WDTICOSOSA-M
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AtroventAerosol, metered18 ug/1Respiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim1986-12-192006-06-02Us
AtroventSolution250 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1988-12-312007-10-11Canada
AtroventSpray, metered42 ug/1NasalBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1996-01-012018-12-01Us
AtroventSpray, metered42 ug/1NasalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-05-232011-06-30Us
AtroventSpray, metered42 ug/1NasalRemedy Repack2018-03-142018-03-14Us
AtroventSpray, metered21 ug/1NasalBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1996-01-012018-12-01Us
AtroventAerosol, metered17 ug/1Respiratory (inhalation)Physicians Total Care, Inc.1995-08-072006-01-20Us
AtroventSpray, metered21 ug/1NasalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-03-31Not applicableUs
Atrovent HFAAerosol, metered17 ug/1Respiratory (inhalation)A-S Medication Solutions2005-05-01Not applicableUs
Atrovent HFAAerosol, metered20 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee2004-03-24Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-ipravent Solution - Inh 250mcg/mlSolution250 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Apotex Corporation1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-ipravent SterulesSolution250 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Apotex Corporation1998-07-09Not applicableCanada
Apo-ipravent SterulesSolution125 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Apotex Corporation2001-08-28Not applicableCanada
Dom-ipratropiumSolution21 mcgNasalDominion Pharmacal1999-09-15Not applicableCanada
Dom-ipratropium 125 Mcg/mlLiquid125 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Dominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-ipratropium 250 Mcg/ml (1 Ml)Liquid250 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Dominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-ipratropium 250 Mcg/ml (2 Ml)Liquid250 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Dominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-ipratropium 250 Mcg/ml (20 Ml)Liquid250 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Dominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipratropium BromideSolution0.5 mg/2.5mLRespiratory (inhalation)Cardinal Health2001-09-27Not applicableUs
Ipratropium BromideSolution0.5 mg/2.5mLRespiratory (inhalation)Physicians Total Care, Inc.1998-12-03Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-salvent-ipravent SterulesIpratropium bromide monohydrate (0.5 mg) + Salbutamol (2.5 mg)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Apotex Corporation2006-08-25Not applicableCanada
CombiventIpratropium bromide monohydrate (18 ug/1) + Salbutamol sulfate (90 ug/1)Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)Physicians Total Care, Inc.2000-09-182013-06-30Us
CombiventIpratropium bromide monohydrate (18 ug/1) + Salbutamol sulfate (90 ug/1)Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim1997-06-012014-09-30Us
Combivent Inhalation AerosolIpratropium bromide monohydrate (20 mcg) + Salbutamol sulfate (120 mcg)Aerosol, meteredOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1995-12-312007-10-02Canada
Combivent RespimatIpratropium bromide monohydrate (20 mcg) + Salbutamol (100 mcg)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee2014-09-16Not applicableCanada
Combivent RespimatIpratropium bromide monohydrate (20 ug/1) + Salbutamol sulfate (120 ug/1)Spray, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim2012-07-01Not applicableUs
Combivent UdvIpratropium bromide monohydrate (0.2 mg) + Salbutamol (1 mg)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1997-07-25Not applicableCanada
DuoNebIpratropium bromide monohydrate (0.5 mg/3mL) + Salbutamol sulfate (2.5 mg/3mL)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Physicians Total Care, Inc.2007-06-062012-06-30Us
DuoNebIpratropium bromide monohydrate (0.5 mg/3mL) + Salbutamol sulfate (2.5 mg/3mL)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Mylan Specialty2011-02-152014-06-30Us
Duovent UdvIpratropium bromide monohydrate (0.125 mg) + Fenoterol hydrobromide (0.3125 mg)SolutionOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1995-12-312017-01-31Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ipratropium BromideIpratropium bromide monohydrate (0.5 mg/1mL)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Cantrell Drug Company2012-10-122015-01-14Us
International/Other Brands
Aerovent (Teva) / Apovent (Apotex Inc.) / Atronase (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Ipraxa (Ivax) / Ipvent (Cipla Medpro) / Rhinovent (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Rinatec (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Rinovagos (Valeas)
Categories
UNII
GR88G0I6UL
CAS number
60205-81-4
Weight
Average: 332.463
Monoisotopic: 332.22202025
Chemical Formula
C20H30NO3
InChI Key
OEXHQOGQTVQTAT-BHIXFJMTSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H30NO3/c1-14(2)21(3)16-9-10-17(21)12-18(11-16)24-20(23)19(13-22)15-7-5-4-6-8-15/h4-8,14,16-19,22H,9-13H2,1-3H3/q+1/t16-,17+,18+,19?,21?
IUPAC Name
(1R,3R,5S)-3-[(3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoyl)oxy]-8-methyl-8-(propan-2-yl)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-ium
SMILES
[H][C@]12CC[C@]([H])(C[C@@H](C1)OC(=O)C(CO)C1=CC=CC=C1)[N+]2(C)C(C)C

Pharmacology

Indication

For maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Ipratropium bromide, a synthetic ammonium compound structurally similar to atropine, is used as a bronchodilator in the management of cholinergic-mediated bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in the treatment of rhinorrhea associated with the common cold or with allergic or nonallergic seasonal rhinitis.

Mechanism of action

Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic agent. It blocks muscarinic cholinergic receptors, without specificity for subtypes, resulting in a decrease in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Most likely due to actions of cGMP on intracellular calcium, this results in decreased contractility of smooth muscle.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Human
Absorption

Inhalation (local)-minimal; Nasal-rapid and minimal

Volume of distribution
  • 4.6 L/kg
Protein binding

Minimally (0 to 9% in vitro) bound to plasma albumin and α1-acid glycoproteins

Metabolism

Partially metabolized to at least 8 metabolites formed primarily via hydrolysis and conjugation. The main metabolites are N-isopropylnortropium methobromide, which is formed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester; α-phenylacrylic acid-N-isopropylnortropine-ester methobromide, which is formed by enzymatic loss of a water; and phenylacetic acid-N-isopropylnortropine-ester methobromide, which is formed by enzymatic loss of a CH3OH-group. These metabolites appear to be inactive.

Route of elimination

Primarily eliminated renally via active secretion.

Half life

2-4 hours after administration orally, IV or by oral inhalation (radiolabeled ipratropium bromide assay measures parent drug and its metabolites). Using a radioreceptor assay that measures only unchanged ipratropium bromide, the initial distribution-phase half-life (t1/2 α) and terminal elimination-phase half-life (t1/2 β) were 0.07 and 1.6 hours, respectively, following a single 2 mg IV dose of the drug in healthy adults.

Clearance
  • 2.3 L/min (total clearance of active ingredient)
Toxicity

LD50=1001mg/kg (orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Ipratropium.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Ipratropium.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Ipratropium can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Ipratropium.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Ipratropium.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ipratropium.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Ipratropium.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Ipratropium can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Ipratropium.
AbemaciclibThe metabolism of Abemaciclib can be decreased when combined with Ipratropium.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Abdine HH, Belala F, and Al-Badra AA. (2003). Ipratropium bromide: Methods of chemical and biochemical synthesis. In H.G. Brittain (Ed.). Profiles of drug substances, excipients and related methodology (pp. 85-99). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Academic Press.

General References
  1. Yamatake Y, Sasagawa S, Yanaura S, Okamiya Y: [Antiallergic asthma effect of ipatropium bromide (Sch 1000) in dogs (author's transl)]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1977 Oct;73(7):785-91. [PubMed:145994]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014476
KEGG Compound
C07052
PubChem Compound
657308
PubChem Substance
46506138
ChemSpider
19962157
ChEBI
46659
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1621597
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000806
PharmGKB
PA450082
IUPHAR
325
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ipratropium_bromide
ATC Codes
R03BB01 — Ipratropium bromideR03AL01 — Fenoterol and ipratropium bromideR03AL02 — Salbutamol and ipratropium bromideR01AX03 — Ipratropium bromide
AHFS Codes
  • 12:08.08 — Antimuscarinics Antispasmodics
FDA label
Download (88.1 KB)
MSDS
Download (72.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedBasic SciencePulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
1CompletedDiagnosticPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
1RecruitingTreatmentStatus Asthmaticus1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentExercise Induced Laryngeal Obstruction (EILO)1
2CompletedDiagnosticLung Diseases, Obstructive1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)4
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive3
3CompletedPreventionChronic Lung Diseases / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Lung Diseases, Obstructive1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
3CompletedTreatmentFamilial Dysautonomia1
3CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive8
3TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
4CompletedDiagnosticAsthma Bronchial1
4CompletedSupportive CareChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Sepsis / Shock1
4CompletedTreatmentAsthma Acute / Asthma Bronchial / Reactive Airway Exacerbation1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)5
4CompletedTreatmentCold1
4CompletedTreatmentExercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)1
4CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive5
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDyspnea / Quadriplegia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Physical Activity / Respiratory Symptoms1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive6
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Rhinitis1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Anaesthesia therapy / Extravascular Lung Water / Intensive Care, Surgical / Thoracotomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBronchitis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Acute / Asthma in Children1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableLung Diseases, Interstitial1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableElectrophysiological Parameters / Influence of Nebulized Bronchodilatators on Selected1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticChronic, severe Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Dyspnea / Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Boehringer ingelheim pharmaceuticals inc
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Cobalt laboratories inc
  • Dey lp
  • Holopack international corp
  • Landela pharmaceutical
  • Nephron corp
  • Novex pharma
  • Pharmascience inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Bausch and lomb inc
Packagers
  • 3M Health Care
  • Apotex Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Automatic Liquid Packaging Inc.
  • Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  • Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Cipla Ltd.
  • Cobalt Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Dey Pharma LP
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Eon Labs
  • Holopack International Corp.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Mylan
  • Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corp.
  • Novex Pharma
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Roxane Labs
  • Rx Elite
  • Sifavitor Srl
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)250 mcg
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)18 ug/1
Spray, meteredNasal21 ug/1
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)20 mcg
AerosolNasal; Respiratory (inhalation)20 mcg
SolutionNasal21 mcg
SolutionNasal42 mcg
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)17 ug/1
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
Aerosol, meteredOral; Respiratory (inhalation)
Spray, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)125 mcg
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)250 mcg
SolutionOral; Respiratory (inhalation)
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)0.30 mg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.5 mg/2.5mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.5 mg/1mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)500 ug/2.5mL
SprayNasal21 ug/1
SprayNasal42 ug/1
SprayRespiratory (inhalation)21 ug/1
SprayRespiratory (inhalation)42 ug/1
Spray, meteredNasal42 ug/1
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation).25 mg
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)0.25 mg
SolutionNasal; Respiratory (inhalation)250 mcg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)125 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Atrovent HFA 17 mcg/act Aerosol 12.9 gm Inhaler143.59USD inhaler
Ipratropium bromide powder100.06USD g
Atrovent 0.03% Solution 30ml Nasal Spray96.95USD bottle
Atrovent 0.06% Solution 15ml Nasal Spray84.68USD bottle
Ipratropium Bromide 0.03% Solution 30ml Bottle53.82USD bottle
Ipratropium Bromide 0.06% Solution 15ml Bottle46.14USD bottle
Ipratropium Bromide 0.02% Solution Each Box Contains Twenty-Five 2.5ml Vials45.86USD box
Atrovent hfa inhaler11.89USD g
Atrovent 0.06% spray5.33USD ml
Atrovent 0.03% spray3.11USD ml
Ipratropium 0.06% spray2.96USD ml
Ipratropium 0.03% spray1.73USD ml
Atrovent 0.03 % Spray1.04USD ml
Apo-Ipravent 250 mcg/ml Solution0.58USD ml
Mylan-Ipratropium 250 mcg/ml Solution0.58USD ml
Novo-Ipramide 250 mcg/ml Solution0.58USD ml
Pms-Ipratropium 0.03 % Spray0.58USD ml
Pms-Ipratropium 250 mcg/ml Solution0.58USD ml
Atrovent Hfa 20 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.1USD metered dose aerosol
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5766573No1998-06-162009-11-28Us
CA2151383No2005-02-082013-12-06Canada
US6632842No2003-10-142021-12-28Us
US8474447No2013-07-022030-01-17Us
US6739333No2004-05-252020-05-26Us
US6983743No2006-01-102020-05-26Us
US6453795Yes2002-09-242017-06-05Us
US8733341Yes2014-05-272031-04-16Us
US9027967Yes2015-05-122027-10-01Us
US7104470Yes2006-09-122017-04-04Us
US7246615Yes2007-07-242016-12-01Us
US7896264Yes2011-03-012025-11-26Us
US7988001Yes2011-08-022022-02-04Us
US7802568Yes2010-09-282019-08-26Us
US6149054Yes2000-11-212017-06-16Us
US6726124Yes2004-04-272017-04-04Us
US7396341Yes2008-07-082027-04-10Us
US6846413Yes2005-01-252019-02-28Us
US6176442Yes2001-01-232016-12-01Us
US7837235Yes2010-11-232028-09-13Us
US5964416Yes1999-10-122017-04-04Us
US7284474Yes2007-10-232025-02-26Us
US6977042Yes2005-12-202019-02-28Us
US6988496Yes2006-01-242020-08-23Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)230-231.5 (bromide)U.S. Patent 3,505,337
water solubilityFreely solubleNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00122 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.89ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-5.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity105.9 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.57 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9425
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8883
Caco-2 permeable+0.6619
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5085
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8489
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5964
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6651
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7214
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7637
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6657
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8412
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9118
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8915
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8783
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9396
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9528
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7112
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8979
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5154
Rat acute toxicity2.7983 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9596
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5879
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Wellington K: Ipratropium bromide HFA. Treat Respir Med. 2005;4(3):215-20; discussion 221-2. [PubMed:15987237]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Wellington K: Ipratropium bromide HFA. Treat Respir Med. 2005;4(3):215-20; discussion 221-2. [PubMed:15987237]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Wellington K: Ipratropium bromide HFA. Treat Respir Med. 2005;4(3):215-20; discussion 221-2. [PubMed:15987237]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Keam SJ, Keating GM: Tiotropium bromide. A review of its use as maintenance therapy in patients with COPD. Treat Respir Med. 2004;3(4):247-68. [PubMed:15350163]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Keam SJ, Keating GM: Tiotropium bromide. A review of its use as maintenance therapy in patients with COPD. Treat Respir Med. 2004;3(4):247-68. [PubMed:15350163]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Nakamura T, Nakanishi T, Haruta T, Shirasaka Y, Keogh JP, Tamai I: Transport of ipratropium, an anti-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease drug, is mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters in human bronchial epithelial cells: implications for carrier-mediated pulmonary absorption. Mol Pharm. 2010 Feb 1;7(1):187-95. doi: 10.1021/mp900206j. [PubMed:20020740]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without...
Gene Name
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID
Q9H015
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 4
Molecular Weight
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Nakamura T, Nakanishi T, Haruta T, Shirasaka Y, Keogh JP, Tamai I: Transport of ipratropium, an anti-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease drug, is mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters in human bronchial epithelial cells: implications for carrier-mediated pulmonary absorption. Mol Pharm. 2010 Feb 1;7(1):187-95. doi: 10.1021/mp900206j. [PubMed:20020740]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 18, 2018 13:31