Identification

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Name
Salbutamol
Accession Number
DB01001  (APRD00553)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Salbutamol is a short-acting, selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. It is 29 times more selective for beta2 receptors than beta1 receptors giving it higher specificity for pulmonary beta receptors versus beta1-adrenergic receptors located in the heart. Salbutamol is formulated as a racemic mixture of the R- and S-isomers. The R-isomer has 150 times greater affinity for the beta2-receptor than the S-isomer and the S-isomer has been associated with toxicity. This lead to the development of levalbuterol, the single R-isomer of salbutamol. However, the high cost of levalbuterol compared to salbutamol has deterred wide-spread use of this enantiomerically pure version of the drug. Salbutamol is generally used for acute episodes of bronchospasm caused by bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). It is also used prophylactically for exercise-induced asthma. [Label], [1, 2]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Albuterol
  • Salbutamol
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Salbutamol sulfate021SEF373151022-70-9BNPSSFBOAGDEEL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
LevosalbutamolunknownEDN2NBH5SS34391-04-3NDAUXUAQIAJITI-LBPRGKRZSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AccuNebSolution0.63 mg/3mLRespiratory (inhalation)Mylan Specialty2011-02-102013-08-31Us
AccuNebSolution1.25 mg/3mLRespiratory (inhalation)Mylan Specialty2011-02-102013-08-31Us
AiromirAerosol, metered100 mcgRespiratory (inhalation)Valeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1998-08-13Not applicableCanada
AlbuterolAerosol, metered90 ug/1OralArmstrong Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-27Not applicableUs
AlbuterolAerosol, spray90 ug/1OralWarrick Pharmaceuticals Corporation2006-12-07Not applicableUs
Albuterol HFAAerosol, metered108 ug/1Respiratory (inhalation)Physicians Total Care, Inc.2007-03-162009-08-31Us
Albuterol SulfateSolution5 mg/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Bauch & Lomb Incorporated2008-09-02Not applicableUs
Albuterol SulfateSolution0.83 mg/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Dey Pharma L.P.2011-03-242011-03-25Us
Albuterol SulfateSolution0.83 mg/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Holopack International2008-12-31Not applicableUs
Albuterol SulfateAerosol, metered90 ug/1Respiratory (inhalation)HF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-09-22Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AlbuterolTablet2 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1991-01-17Not applicableUs
AlbuterolTablet4 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1991-01-17Not applicableUs
AlbuterolTablet2 mg/1OralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2018-10-27Not applicableUs
AlbuterolTablet4 mg/1OralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2018-10-27Not applicableUs
AlbuterolTablet2 mg/1OralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2018-06-29Not applicableUs
AlbuterolTablet4 mg/1OralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2018-06-29Not applicableUs
AlbuterolTablet2 mg/1OralDash Pharmaceutical LLC2019-03-15Not applicableUs
AlbuterolTablet4 mg/1OralDash Pharmaceutical LLC2019-03-15Not applicableUs
AlbuterolTablet2 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2018-05-24Not applicableUs
AlbuterolTablet4 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2018-05-24Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-salvent-ipravent SterulesSalbutamol (2.5 mg) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (0.5 mg)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Apotex Corporation2006-08-25Not applicableCanada
CombiventSalbutamol sulfate (90 ug/1) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (18 ug/1)Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim1997-06-012014-09-30Us
CombiventSalbutamol sulfate (90 ug/1) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (18 ug/1)Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)Physicians Total Care, Inc.2000-09-182013-06-30Us
Combivent Inhalation AerosolSalbutamol sulfate (120 mcg) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (20 mcg)Aerosol, meteredOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1995-12-312007-10-02Canada
Combivent RespimatSalbutamol (100 mcg) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (20 mcg)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee2014-09-16Not applicableCanada
Combivent RespimatSalbutamol sulfate (120 ug/1) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (20 ug/1)Spray, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim2012-07-01Not applicableUs
Combivent UdvSalbutamol (1 mg) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (0.2 mg)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1997-07-25Not applicableCanada
DuoNebSalbutamol sulfate (2.5 mg/3mL) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (0.5 mg/3mL)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Physicians Total Care, Inc.2007-06-062012-06-30Us
DuoNebSalbutamol sulfate (2.5 mg/3mL) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (0.5 mg/3mL)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Mylan Specialty2011-02-152014-06-30Us
IpramolSalbutamol (2.5 mg) + Ipratropium bromide monohydrate (0.5 mg)SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)Ivax Pharmaceuticals IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Aerolin / Asmol / Asthalin / Asthavent / ProAir (Teva) / PROAIRHFA / Salamol / Ventilan (GlaxoSmithKline) / Ventoline (GlaxoSmithKline) / VENTOLINHFA / Ventorlin (GlaxoSmithKline) / VoSpire
Categories
UNII
QF8SVZ843E
CAS number
18559-94-9
Weight
Average: 239.3107
Monoisotopic: 239.152143543
Chemical Formula
C13H21NO3
InChI Key
NDAUXUAQIAJITI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H21NO3/c1-13(2,3)14-7-12(17)9-4-5-11(16)10(6-9)8-15/h4-6,12,14-17H,7-8H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
4-[2-(tert-butylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
SMILES
CC(C)(C)NCC(O)C1=CC(CO)=C(O)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Salbutamol is indicated for (i) the symptomatic relief and prevention of bronchospasm due to bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, reversible obstructive airway disease, and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders in which bronchospasm is a complicating factor, and/or (ii) the acute prophylaxis against exercise-induced bronchospasm and other stimuli known to induce bronchospasm [Label, 3, 4].

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN), a moderately selective beta(2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a bronchodilator to manage asthma and other chronic obstructive airway diseases [Label, 3, 4]. The R-isomer, levalbuterol, is responsible for bronchodilation while the S-isomer increases bronchial reactivity [2]. The R-enantiomer is available and sold in its pure form as levalbuterol and subsequently may produce fewer side-effects with only the R-enantiomer present - although this has not been formally demonstrated [2].

After oral and parenteral administration, stimulation of the beta receptors in the body, both beta-1 and beta-2, occurs because (a) beta-2 selectivity is not absolute, and (b) higher concentrations of salbutamol occur in the regions of these receptors with these modes of administration [Label, 3, 4]. This results in the beta-1 effect of cardiac stimulation, though not so much as with isoprenaline, and beta-2 effects of peripheral vasodilatation and hypotension, skeletal muscle tremor, and uterine muscle relaxation [Label, 3, 4].

Metabolic effects such as hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also may occur, although it is not known whether these effects are mediated by beta-1 or beta-2 receptors [Label, 3, 4]. The serum potassium levels have a tendency to fall [3].

Mechanism of action

In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have shown that salbutamol has a preferential effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol [Label, 3, 4]. Although beta2­ adrenoceptors are the predominant adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and beta1 adrenoceptors are the predominant receptors in the heart, there are also beta2-adrenoceptors in the human heart comprising 10% to 50% of the total beta-adrenoceptors [Label, 3, 4]. The precise function of these receptors has not been established, but their presence raises the possibility that even selective beta2-agonists may have cardiac effects [Label, 3, 4].

Activation of beta2-adrenergic receptors on airway smooth muscle leads to the activation of adenyl cyclase and to an increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP)[Label, 3, 4]. This increase of cyclic AMP leads to the activation of protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular ionic calcium concentrations, resulting in relaxation [Label, 3, 4]. Salbutamol relaxes the smooth muscles of all airways, from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles [Label, 3, 4]. Salbutamol acts as a functional antagonist to relax the airway irrespective of the spasmogen involved, thus protecting against all bronchoconstrictor challenges [Label, 3, 4]. Increased cyclic AMP concentrations are also associated with the inhibition of release of mediators from mast cells in the airway [Label, 3, 4].

Salbutamol has been shown in most controlled clinical trials to have more effect on the respiratory tract, in the form of bronchial smooth muscle relaxation, than isoproterenol at comparable doses while producing fewer cardiovascular effects [Label, 3, 4]. Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other beta-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, symptoms, and/or electrocardiographic changes [Label, 3, 4].

A measurable decrease in airway resistance is typically observed within 5 to 15 minutes after inhalation of salbutamol [Label, 3, 4]. The maximum improvement in pulmonary function usually occurs 60 to 90 minutes after salbutamol treatment, and significant bronchodilator activity has been observed to persist for 3 to 6 hours [Label, 3, 4].

TargetActionsOrganism
ABeta-2 adrenergic receptor
agonist
Humans
UBeta-1 adrenergic receptor
agonist
Humans
UBeta-3 adrenergic receptorNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Following inhalation, salbutamol acts topically on bronchial smooth muscle and the drug is initially undetectable in the blood [3]. After 2 to 3 hours low concentrations are seen, due presumably to the portion of the dose which is swallowed and absorbed in the gut [3].

In particular, the systemic levels of salbutamol are low after inhalation of recommended doses [Label]. A trial conducted in 12 healthy male and female subjects using a higher dose (1,080 mcg of albuterol base) showed that mean peak plasma concentrations of approximately 3 ng/mL occurred after dosing when salbutamol was delivered using propellant HFA-134a [Label]. The mean time to peak concentrations (Tmax) was delayed after administration of VENTOLIN (salbutamol) HFA (Tmax = 0.42 hours) as compared with CFC-propelled salbutamol inhaler (Tmax = 0.17 hours) [Label].

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution recorded for intravenously administered salbutamol has been recorded as 156 +/- 38 L [1].

Protein binding

Salbutamol is only weakly bound to plasma proteins [4].

Metabolism

Salbutamol is not metabolized in the lung but is converted in the liver to the 4'-o-sulphate (salbutamol 4'-O-sulfate) ester, which has negligible pharmacologic activity [3, 4]. It may also be metabolized by oxidative deamination and/or conjugation with glucuronide [3, 4]. Salbutamol is ultimately excreted in the urine as free drug and as the metabolite [3, 4].

Route of elimination

After oral administration, 58-78% of the dose is excreted in the urine in 24 hours, approximately 60% as metabolites [3, 4]. A small fraction is excreted in the feces [3, 4].

Half life

The elimination half-life of inhaled or oral salbutamol has been recorded as being between 2.7 and 5 hours [3] while the apparent terminal plasma half-life of albuterol has been documented as being approximately 4.6 hours [Label].

Clearance

The renal clearance of salbutamol has been documented as 272 +/- 38 ml/min after oral administration and 291 +/- 70 ml/min after intravenous administration [1]. Furthermore, the renal clearance of the predominant sulfate conjugate metabolite was recorded as 98.5 +/- 23.5 ml/min following oral administration [1].

Toxicity

The expected signs and symptoms with overdosage of albuterol are those of excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of any of the signs and symptoms of beta-adrenergic stimulation (e.g., seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats/min, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, muscle cramps, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, insomnia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis) [Label]. In particular, the signs of salbutamol overdosage are significant tachycardia and/or significant muscle tremor [3, 4].

Hypokalaemia may occur following overdosage with salbutamol [3]. Serum potassium levels should be monitored [3].

Lactic acidosis has been reported in association with high therapeutic doses as well as overdoses of short-acting beta-agonist therapy, therefore monitoring for elevated serum lactate and consequent metabolic acidosis (particularly if there is persistence or worsening of tachypnea despite resolution of other signs of bronchospasm such as wheezing) may be indicated in the setting of overdose [3, 4].

Salbutamol is categorized as Pregnancy Category C [Label]. There are no adequate and well-controlled trials with salbutamolc or albuterol sulfate in pregnant women [Label]. During worldwide marketing experience, various congenital anomalies, including cleft palate and limb defects, have been reported in the offspring of patients being treated with salbutamol [Label]. Some of the mothers were taking multiple medications during their pregnancies [Label]. No consistent pattern of defects can be discerned, and a relationship between salbutamol use and congenital anomalies has not been established [Label]. Animal reproduction studies in mice and rabbits revealed evidence of teratogenicity [Label]. Salbutamol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetusLabel]. Women should be advised to contact their physicians if they become pregnant while taking salbutamol [Label].

Since there exists a potential for beta-agonist interference with uterine contractility, the use of salbutamol during labour should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risk [Label].

Plasma levels of albuterol sulfate and HFA-134a after inhaled therapeutic doses are very low in humans, but it is not known whether the components of salbutamol are excreted in human milk [Label]. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for albuterol in animal studies and lack of experience with the use of salbutamol by nursing mothers, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [Label]. Caution should be exercised when salbutamol is administered to a nursing woman [Label].

The safety and effectiveness of salbutamol in children younger than 4 years of age has not yet been established [Label].

Clinical trials of VENTOLIN HFA did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and older to determine whether older subjects respond differently than younger subjects [Label]. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients [Label]. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [Label].

The LD50 value was determined to be 1100 mg/kg (orally in mice).

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Salbutamol.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Salbutamol.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Salbutamol is combined with 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1-benzylimidazoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Salbutamol is combined with 1-benzylimidazole.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Salbutamol is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Salbutamol is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Salbutamol.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Salbutamol is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Salbutamol.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Salbutamol is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Toshikuni Kawazi, Masahiro Ono, Nobuko Inoue, "Salbutamol-containing plaster and method of producing same." U.S. Patent US5068103, issued February, 1984.

US5068103
General References
  1. Morgan DJ, Paull JD, Richmond BH, Wilson-Evered E, Ziccone SP: Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral salbutamol and its sulphate conjugate. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986 Nov;22(5):587-93. [PubMed:3790406]
  2. Jacobson GA, Raidal S, Robson K, Narkowicz CK, Nichols DS, Haydn Walters E: Bronchopulmonary pharmacokinetics of (R)-salbutamol and (S)-salbutamol enantiomers in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and lung tissue of horses. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Jul;83(7):1436-1445. doi: 10.1111/bcp.13228. Epub 2017 Feb 8. [PubMed:28061018]
  3. Salbutamol Australian Product Information [File]
  4. Salbutamol Canadian Product Information [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001937
KEGG Drug
D02147
PubChem Compound
2083
PubChem Substance
46505312
ChemSpider
1999
BindingDB
25769
ChEBI
2549
ChEMBL
CHEMBL714
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000873
PharmGKB
PA448068
IUPHAR
558
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Salbutamol
ATC Codes
R03AK04 — Salbutamol and sodium cromoglicateR03AC02 — SalbutamolR03CC02 — SalbutamolR03AK13 — Salbutamol and beclometasoneR03AL02 — Salbutamol and ipratropium bromide
AHFS Codes
  • 12:12.08.12 — Selective Beta 2-adrenergic Agonists
  • 12:12.00 — Sympathomimetic (Adrenergic) Agents
FDA label
Download (693 KB)
MSDS
Download (52.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
1CompletedDiagnosticAirway Inflammation1
1CompletedDiagnosticChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
1CompletedDiagnosticSickle Cell Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
1CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1CompletedTreatmentAsthma, Allergic1
1CompletedTreatmentCongenital Myasthenic Syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)1
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1CompletedTreatmentPompe's Disease1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular System Disease / Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions1
1RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
1RecruitingTreatmentLymphangioleiomyomatosis1
1RecruitingTreatmentStatus Asthmaticus1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPompe's Disease1
2CompletedBasic ScienceMemory Functions1
2CompletedDiagnosticLung Diseases, Obstructive1
2CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial17
2CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Bronchospasm1
2CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Efficacy / Safety1
2CompletedTreatmentBrain Death / Organ Donors / Pulmonary Edemas1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)4
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Respiratory Failure / Clinically Significant Increase in Maximum Expiratory Volume Per Second1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAsthma Bronchial2
2WithdrawnTreatmentIdiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAllergies1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentRespiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
3CompletedTreatmentAllergies / Conjunctivitis / Rhinitis / Rhinoconjunctivitis2
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial21
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
3CompletedTreatmentBronchial Asthma3
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)12
3CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Heart Failure, Left-Sided / Left-Sided Heart Failure1
3CompletedTreatmentMild Persistent Asthma1
3CompletedTreatmentOrganophosphate Poisoning1
3CompletedTreatmentPersistent Asthma2
3CompletedTreatmentReactive Airways Disease (RAD)1
3CompletedTreatmentRhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / High-flow Nasal Cannula1
3RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial2
3RecruitingTreatmentAsthma, Allergic1
3RecruitingTreatmentBronchial Asthma1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
3TerminatedPreventionAsthma Bronchial / Bronchospasm1
3TerminatedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial2
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentAsthma Bronchial2
3WithdrawnTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Lung Diseases1
3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Healthy Volunteers1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)2
4CompletedNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial2
4CompletedBasic ScienceAsthma Bronchial1
4CompletedBasic ScienceBronchoconstriction / Cycling Performance / Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) / Inhaled Salbutamol1
4CompletedDiagnosticAsthma Bronchial1
4CompletedDiagnosticObliterative Bronchiolitis1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4CompletedPreventionAsthma Bronchial / Heart Rate Fast1
4CompletedSupportive CareAsthma Bronchial1
4CompletedSupportive CareChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Sepsis / Shock1
4CompletedTreatmentAsthma Acute / Asthma Bronchial / Reactive Airway Exacerbation1
4CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial12
4CompletedTreatmentChildhood Asthma1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)8
4CompletedTreatmentMechanically Ventilated Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentPompe's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentVentricular Septal Defects1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBronchiolitis Acute1
4RecruitingPreventionAsthma in Children / Exercise Induced Bronchospasm / Obesity, Childhood1
4RecruitingTreatmentAir Trapping / Airflow Limitation / Hyperinflation / Obstructive Lung Diseases / Secondhand Smoke / Tobacco1
4RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAsthmatic Bronchitis / Obstruction Airway / Wheezing / Wheezy Bronchitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Asthma With Status Asthmaticus1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)2
4TerminatedTreatmentAsthma Acute1
4TerminatedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Very Low Birth Weight1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCesarean Section / Postnatal Pulmonary Adaptation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBronchial Asthma1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAsthma Bronchial2
4WithdrawnTreatmentWheezing1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchAsthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Bronchitis / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Physical Activity / Respiratory Symptoms1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAdrenergic Beta-2 Agonist Effect / Adrenergic Beta-2 Agonist Effect in Healthy Subjects / Albuterol Effect / Albuterol Effect in Healthy Subjects1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMuscle Hypertrophy in Healthy Young Men1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceOxygen Consumption1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBronchodilation1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) / Obliterative Bronchiolitis1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAirway Disease Small / Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherElectrophysiological Parameters / Influence of Nebulized Bronchodilatators on Selected1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAsthma Acute / Moderate and Severe Acute Asthma Exacerbations in Pediatric Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Children1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAsthma Placebo Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAutoimmune Diseases / Disseminated Sclerosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMuscular Dystrophy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMuscular Dystrophy, Facioscapulohumeral1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPneumonia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRespiratory Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSevere Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingDiagnosticChildhood Asthma1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAAT Deficiency / AATD / Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency / Cystic Fibrosis (CF)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAortic Valve Stenosis / Hypertension,Essential / Impaired Renal Function / Secondary Hypertension1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial / Food Allergy / Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Viruses / Wheezing1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAsthma Bronchial / Coughing1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareChronic Lung Diseases / Cystic Fibrosis (CF)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHigh Flow Nasal Cannula1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentRespiratory Distress Score1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentRespiratory Muscle Weakness / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableErgogenic Effects of Salbutamol in Healthy Males1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticChronic, severe Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Dyspnea / Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticTuberculosis Infection1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBronchiolitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHeart Failure / Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy / Non-ischaemic Cardiomyopathy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Armstrong pharmaceuticals inc
  • Genpharm inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Pliva inc
  • Schering corp sub schering plough corp
  • Glaxosmithkline
  • Teva global respiratory research llc
  • 3m pharmaceuticals inc
  • Dey lp
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Apotex inc richmond hill
  • Apotex inc
  • Bausch and lomb inc
  • Cobalt laboratories inc
  • Copley pharmaceutical inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Holopack international
  • Landela pharmaceutical
  • Nephron pharmaceuticals corp
  • Nephron corp
  • Novex pharma
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals
  • Mova pharmaceuticals corp
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Vistapharm inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Muro pharmaceutical inc
  • Dava pharmaceuticals inc
  • American therapeutics inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Ucb inc
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • Breath ltd
  • Sepracor inc
  • Teva Pharmaceuticals
Packagers
  • 3M Health Care
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • Apothecon
  • Armstrong Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Aslung Pharmaceutical Lp
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Automatic Liquid Packaging Inc.
  • Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Charter Laboratories Inc.
  • Cipla Ltd.
  • Cobalt Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Dey Pharma LP
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • DispenseXpress Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Holopack International Corp.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Mylan
  • Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corp.
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Odyssey Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patient First Corp.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physician Partners Ltd.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Prasco Labs
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Quality Care
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Rx Elite
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Schering Corp.
  • Sepracor Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stratus Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vistapharm Inc.
  • Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.63 mg/3mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1.25 mg/3mL
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)100 mcg
Aerosol, meteredIntrabronchial90 ug/1
Aerosol, meteredOral90 ug/1
Aerosol, sprayOral90 ug/1
InhalantNasal0.63 mg/3mL
InhalantNasal1.50 mg/3mL
InhalantNasal2.5 mg/3mL
InhalantOral2.5 mg/3mL
SolutionIntrabronchial0.63 mg/3mL
SolutionIntrabronchial1.25 mg/3mL
SolutionIntrabronchial2.5 mg/3mL
SolutionNasal5 mg/1mL
SolutionOral2 mg/5mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.75 mg/3mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.83 mg/1mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1.5 mg/3mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg/0.5mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg/3mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg/1mL
SyrupOcclusive dressing technique2 mg/5mL
SyrupOral2 mg/5mL
TabletOral2 mg/1
TabletOral2.4 mg/1
TabletOral4 mg/1
TabletOral4.8 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral4 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral8 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral4 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral8 mg/1
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral4 mg
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)97 mcg
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
Aerosol, meteredOral; Respiratory (inhalation)
Spray, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)
Aerosol, meteredOral100 mcg
SolutionOral0.4 mg
SolutionOral; Respiratory (inhalation)5 mg
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)90 ug/1
SprayOral90 ug/1
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)0.5 mg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1 mg
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)0.05 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)0.1 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)0.2 %
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1 mg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2 mg
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)200 mcg
PowderRespiratory (inhalation)400 mcg
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)90 ug/1
SolutionIntramuscular0.5 mg
SolutionIntravenous0.25 mg
SolutionIntravenous1 mg
LiquidIntramuscular.5 mg
LiquidIntravenous1 mg
LiquidIntravenous.25 mg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1.25 mg
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)2.5 mg
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)1.25 mg
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)5 mg
LiquidOral0.4 mg
LiquidOral.4 mg
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)200 mcg
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)400 mcg
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)108 ug/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Xopenex 0.63 mg/3 ml solution64.2USD ml
Proventil HFA 108 (90 Base)mcg/act Aerosol 6.7 gm Inhaler55.09USD inhaler
Xopenex HFA 45 mcg/act Aerosol 15 gm Inhaler53.84USD inhaler
AccuNeb 0.63 mg/3ml Neb. Solution 1 Box= 25 Vials53.14USD plastic
AccuNeb 1.25 mg/3ml Neb. Solution 1 Box= 25 Vials53.14USD plastic
ProAir HFA 108 (90 Base)mcg/act Aerosol 8.5 gm Inhaler45.99USD inhaler
Ventolin HFA 108 (90 Base)mcg/act Aerosol 18 gm Inhaler39.99USD inhaler
Proair hfa 90 mcg inhaler12.62USD g
Proventil hfa 90 mcg inhaler8.07USD g
Xopenex hfa 45 mcg inhaler6.12USD g
Xopenex 0.31 mg/3ml (1 Box = 24, 3ml Vials)4.87USD plastic
Xopenex 1.25 mg/3ml (1 Box = 24, 3ml Vials)4.87USD plastic
Xopenex 0.63 mg/3ml (1 Box = 24, 3ml Vials)4.71USD plastic
Xopenex 1.25 mg/3 ml solution2.96USD ml
Ventolin hfa 90 mcg inhaler2.01USD g
Xopenex 0.31 mg/3 ml solution1.56USD ml
Ventolin 5 mg/ml Solution1.13USD ml
Ventolin Nebules P.F. 2 mg/ml Unit Dose Solution0.88USD ml
Accuneb 0.63 mg/3 ml inh solution0.68USD ml
Accuneb 1.25 mg/3 ml inh solution0.68USD ml
Mylan-Salbutamol 5 mg/ml Solution0.62USD ml
Pms-Salbutamol 5 mg/ml Solution0.62USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol 5 mg/ml Solution0.62USD ml
Sandoz Salbutamol 5 mg/ml Solution0.62USD ml
Mylan-Salbutamol Sterinebs P.F. 2 mg/ml Unit Dose Solution0.48USD ml
Pms-Salbutamol Polyneb 2 mg/ml Unit Dose Solution0.48USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol Uni Dose P.F. 2 mg/ml Unit Dose Solution0.48USD ml
Ventolin Nebules P.F. 1 mg/ml Solution0.47USD ml
Mylan-Salbutamol Sterinebs P.F. 1 mg/ml Solution0.25USD ml
Pms-Salbutamol 1 mg/ml Solution0.25USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol Sulf U.D.P.F. 1 mg/ml Solution0.25USD ml
Apo-Salvent 4 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Pms-Salbutamol 0.5 mg/ml Solution0.16USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol Unit Dose P.F 0.5 mg/ml Solution0.16USD ml
Apo-Salvent 2 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Pms-Salbutamol 400 mcg/ml Liquid0.05USD ml
Ratio-Salbutamol Hfa 100 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.04USD dose
Airomir Cfc-Free 100 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.03USD dose
Apo-Salvent Cfc Free 100 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.03USD dose
Ventolin Hfa 100 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.03USD dose
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6352684No2002-03-052009-11-28Us
CA2125667No2000-03-132012-12-04Canada
CA2125665No2001-06-122012-12-04Canada
US5775321No1998-07-072015-07-07Us
US6451289No2002-09-172021-03-21Us
US6446627No2002-09-102017-12-18Us
US6702997No2004-03-092021-12-28Us
US6632842No2003-10-142021-12-28Us
US6558651Yes2003-05-062017-06-19Us
US6743413Yes2004-06-012021-12-01Us
US6938796Yes2005-09-062018-07-16Us
US6997349Yes2006-02-142018-07-16Us
US6431168Yes2002-08-132018-12-08Us
US7107986Yes2006-09-192018-12-06Us
US7500444Yes2009-03-102026-08-26Us
US6315173Yes2001-11-132018-06-23Us
US7143908Yes2006-12-052018-07-16Us
US6170717Yes2001-01-092018-06-23Us
US7350676Yes2008-04-012019-02-24Us
US7832351Yes2010-11-162023-12-19Us
US6161724Yes2000-12-192018-07-16Us
US6510969Yes2003-01-282018-06-23Us
US6966467Yes2005-11-222018-06-23Us
US6435372Yes2002-08-202018-07-16Us
US7566445No2009-07-282017-06-04Us
US8834849No2014-09-162017-06-04Us
US7105152No2006-09-122023-09-12Us
US8132712No2012-03-132028-09-07Us
US6006745No1999-12-282016-12-28Us
US7256310No2007-08-142024-10-08Us
US8765153No2014-07-012023-12-08Us
US5836299No1998-11-172015-11-17Us
US6453795Yes2002-09-242017-06-05Us
US8733341Yes2014-05-272031-04-16Us
US9027967Yes2015-05-122027-10-01Us
US7104470Yes2006-09-122017-04-04Us
US7246615Yes2007-07-242016-12-01Us
US7896264Yes2011-03-012025-11-26Us
US7988001Yes2011-08-022022-02-04Us
US7802568Yes2010-09-282019-08-26Us
US6149054Yes2000-11-212017-06-16Us
US6726124Yes2004-04-272017-04-04Us
US7396341Yes2008-07-082027-04-10Us
US6846413Yes2005-01-252019-02-28Us
US6176442Yes2001-01-232016-12-01Us
US7837235Yes2010-11-232028-09-13Us
US5964416Yes1999-10-122017-04-04Us
US7284474Yes2007-10-232025-02-26Us
US6977042Yes2005-12-202019-02-28Us
US6988496Yes2006-01-242020-08-23Us
US6871646No2005-03-292021-06-23Us
US8978966No2015-03-172032-01-13Us
US6701917No2004-03-092021-06-23Us
US7540282No2009-06-022023-05-06Us
US6748947No2004-06-152021-06-23Us
US8006690No2011-08-302021-06-23Us
US6718972No2004-04-132021-06-23Us
US9216260No2015-12-222031-06-28Us
US8651103No2014-02-182028-03-26Us
US9463289No2016-10-112031-05-18Us
US9463288No2016-10-112025-05-19Us
US9731087No2017-08-152031-05-18Us
US9808587No2017-11-072031-05-18Us
US9861771No2018-01-092020-10-11Us
US10022510No2018-07-172031-05-18Us
US10022509No2018-07-172031-05-18Us
US10086156No2018-10-022031-05-18Us
US10124131No2018-11-132031-05-18Us
US9782550No2017-10-102035-08-28Us
US9782551No2017-10-102035-08-28Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)147-149Lunts, L.H.C. and Toon, P.; U.S. Patent 3,644,353; February 22,1972; assigned to Allen & Hanburys Ltd.
water solubility1.41E+004 mg/LYALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
logP1.4Not Available
logS-1.22ADME Research, USCD
pKa10.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.15 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.44ALOGPS
logP0.34ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.12ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.72 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity67.87 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9812
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9659
Caco-2 permeable-0.7112
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.684
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8781
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9673
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8974
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7074
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9197
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9287
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9343
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8834
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8409
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8863
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9734
Rat acute toxicity2.5275 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9564
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9288
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-afe3df5bdead805eacaf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-1d8b235dd1e02960dba1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0090000000-6fee6c25dfbf9c3a7c13
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0290000000-0d38029df88ee8018d9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kf-0950000000-9572451e9f596ae94494
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-05c59c5c9d63de269feb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-8ef6b84074e243e637bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0090000000-e288fafc6755fa4abcba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0290000000-5569e08c145733118852
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0296-0940000000-f3558c829fecc8fea6f0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-9b7ad78396782fd2237d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-19973e6238f364b40ec6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-0190000000-bec72774da692a955281
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-9d1b7a0e974ab4c5c2cf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-98cef35812448be3e2db
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-0090000000-182d7b602151e8ac7849
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0950000000-935c99cfc4690ce298f1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-064806e46a30b7dd760b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-6acca58ec4a7b6892bb1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-007k-1900000000-6b18a64209aa89c42af0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ec-4900000000-70c609482357e411ae42
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-0090000000-127c8a78dd75e131e46a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0950000000-a3cef97d0495f36363a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-af9a8ad8ae6e7ade3b9b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-c95568abe549433d67e8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-007k-1900000000-06178e64d95e7221bccb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ec-4900000000-339502da9d74d89569f0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-039f3f4bbefe1a1588d8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-0190000000-99e78b87fa74322fae1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-637588735361fe2a9ad0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-007k-1900000000-b19c47ea3e07181932ab
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-009x-7900000000-6091051edb1a5c40218e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-9400000000-ff279a7ba0390c8a14df
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00r2-0930000000-00b798f29eb25b7a4565

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzyl alcohols. These are organic compounds containing the phenylmethanol substructure.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzyl alcohols
Direct Parent
Benzyl alcohols
Alternative Parents
Aralkylamines / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Secondary alcohols / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Dialkylamines / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Aromatic alcohols
Substituents
Benzyl alcohol / Phenol / Aralkylamine / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Secondary alcohol / 1,2-aminoalcohol / Secondary amine / Secondary aliphatic amine / Hydrocarbon derivative / Alcohol
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenylethanolamines, phenols, secondary amino compound (CHEBI:2549)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Brichetto L, Milanese M, Song P, Patrone M, Crimi E, Rehder K, Brusasco V: Beclomethasone rapidly ablates allergen-induced beta 2-adrenoceptor pathway dysfunction in human isolated bronchi. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003 Jan;284(1):L133-9. Epub 2002 Aug 16. [PubMed:12388338]
  2. Chong LK, Suvarna K, Chess-Williams R, Peachell PT: Desensitization of beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses by short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in human lung mast cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;138(3):512-20. [PubMed:12569076]
  3. Yamanishi T, Chapple CR, Yasuda K, Yoshida K, Chess-Williams R: Role of beta-adrenoceptor subtypes in mediating relaxation of the pig bladder trigonal muscle in vitro. Neurourol Urodyn. 2003;22(4):338-42. [PubMed:12808710]
  4. Brouri F, Hanoun N, Mediani O, Saurini F, Hamon M, Vanhoutte PM, Lechat P: Blockade of beta 1- and desensitization of beta 2-adrenoceptors reduce isoprenaline-induced cardiac fibrosis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Feb 6;485(1-3):227-34. [PubMed:14757145]
  5. Choudhry S, Ung N, Avila PC, Ziv E, Nazario S, Casal J, Torres A, Gorman JD, Salari K, Rodriguez-Santana JR, Toscano M, Sylvia JS, Alioto M, Castro RA, Salazar M, Gomez I, Fagan JK, Salas J, Clark S, Lilly C, Matallana H, Selman M, Chapela R, Sheppard D, Weiss ST, Ford JG, Boushey HA, Drazen JM, Rodriguez-Cintron W, Silverman EK, Burchard EG: Pharmacogenetic differences in response to albuterol between Puerto Ricans and Mexicans with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Mar 15;171(6):563-70. Epub 2004 Nov 19. [PubMed:15557128]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
ADRB1
Uniprot ID
P08588
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Baker JG: The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists at the human beta1, beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;144(3):317-22. [PubMed:15655528]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
agonist with low affininty
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. Beta-3 is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis.
Gene Name
ADRB3
Uniprot ID
P13945
Uniprot Name
Beta-3 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
43518.615 Da
References
  1. Hoffmann C, Leitz MR, Oberdorf-Maass S, Lohse MJ, Klotz KN: Comparative pharmacology of human beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes--characterization of stably transfected receptors in CHO cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004 Feb;369(2):151-9. Epub 2004 Jan 17. [PubMed:14730417]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 16, 2019 18:48