Glycopyrronium

Identification

Name
Glycopyrronium
Accession Number
DB00986
Description

Glycopyrronium (as the bromide salt glycopyrrolate) is a synthetic anticholinergic agent with a quaternary ammonium structure. A muscarinic competitive antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics. In October 2015, glycopyrrolate was approved by the FDA for use as a standalone treatment for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as Seebri Neohaler.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 318.4305
Monoisotopic: 318.206918767
Chemical Formula
C19H28NO3
Synonyms
  • Glicopirronio
  • Glycopyrrolate cation
  • Glycopyrrolate ion
  • Glycopyrronium
  • Glycopyrronium cation
  • Glycopyrronium ion
External IDs
  • DRM-04
  • DRM04

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as a preoperative antimuscarinic to reduce salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions, to reduce the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and to block cardiac vagal inhibitory reflexes during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Also used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Glycopyrrolate decreases acid secretion in the stomach. Hence it can be used for treating ulcers in the stomach and small intestine, in combination with other medications. In anesthesia, glycopyrrolate injection serves as a preoperative antimuscarinic operation that reduces salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions, as well as decreases the acidity of gastric secretions blocks cardiac vagal inhibitory reflexes during intubation

Mechanism of action

Glycopyrrolate binds competitively to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Like other anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agents, it inhibits the action of acetylcholine on structures innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves and on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervation. These peripheral cholinergic receptors are present in the autonomic effector cells of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node, exocrine glands and, to a limited degree, in the autonomic ganglia. Thus, it diminishes the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and controls excessive pharyngeal, tracheal, and bronchial secretions.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
binder
Humans
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed (1-2 minutes) after intravenous injection

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life

0.6-1.2 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

Side effects include dry mouth, difficult urinating, heachaches, diarrhea and constipation. The medication also induces drowsiness or blurred vision. LD50=709 mg/kg (rat, oral).

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Glycopyrronium.
AcetophenazineAcetophenazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Glycopyrronium.
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glycopyrronium is combined with Aclidinium.
AdenosineThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Adenosine is combined with Glycopyrronium.
AgomelatineAgomelatine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Glycopyrronium.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Glycopyrronium.
AlimemazineAlimemazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Glycopyrronium.
AlloinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alloin can be decreased when used in combination with Glycopyrronium.
AlmotriptanAlmotriptan may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Glycopyrronium.
AlosetronAlosetron may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Glycopyrronium.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

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Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food. The absorption is unaffected by food.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Glycopyrronium bromideV92SO9WP2I51186-83-5VPNYRYCIDCJBOM-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Glycopyrronium tosylate1PVF6JLU7B1624259-25-1UOWOLENSDISMPG-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Acpan (Gray) / Nodapton / Robanul / Robinal / Tarodyl (Lundbeck)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CuvposaSolution1 mgOralMedexus Pharmaceuticals Inc2018-04-03Not applicableCanada
CuvposaSolution1 mg/5mLOralShionogi Pharma, Inc.2010-07-282014-06-30Us
CuvposaLiquid1 mg/5mLOralMerz Pharmaceuticals, LLC2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Enurev BreezhalerCapsule44 microgramsRespiratory (inhalation)Novartis Europharm Limited2012-09-28Not applicableEu
Enurev BreezhalerCapsule44 microgramsRespiratory (inhalation)Novartis Europharm Limited2012-09-28Not applicableEu
Enurev BreezhalerCapsule44 microgramsRespiratory (inhalation)Novartis Europharm Limited2012-09-28Not applicableEu
Enurev BreezhalerCapsule44 microgramsRespiratory (inhalation)Novartis Europharm Limited2012-09-28Not applicableEu
Enurev BreezhalerCapsule44 microgramsRespiratory (inhalation)Novartis Europharm Limited2012-09-28Not applicableEu
Enurev BreezhalerCapsule44 microgramsRespiratory (inhalation)Novartis Europharm Limited2012-09-28Not applicableEu
Enurev BreezhalerCapsule44 microgramsRespiratory (inhalation)Novartis Europharm Limited2012-09-28Not applicableEu
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
GlycateTablet1.5 mg/1OralNuro Pharma, Inc.2012-03-12Not applicableUs
GlycateTablet1.5 mg/1OralCarwin Associates, Inc2018-06-10Not applicableUs
GlycopyrrolateTablet1 mg/1OralOrit Laboratories LLC2012-10-19Not applicableUs
GlycopyrrolateTablet2 mg/1OralUnited Research Laboratories, Inc.2005-01-132013-06-01Us
GlycopyrrolateTablet1 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-10-042014-10-04Us
GlycopyrrolateTablet1 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2013-04-15Not applicableUs
GlycopyrrolateTablet2 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2015-11-302017-06-30Us
GlycopyrrolateInjection4 mg/20mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2019-07-22Not applicableUs
GlycopyrrolateTablet1 mg/1OralRising Pharmaceuticals2008-12-29Not applicableUs
GlycopyrrolateTablet1 mg/1OralQuinn Pharmaceuticals, Llc2015-03-02Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Bevespi AerosphereGlycopyrronium bromide (9 ug/1) + Formoterol fumarate (4.8 ug/1)Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP2016-10-03Not applicableUs
Bevespi AerosphereGlycopyrronium bromide (8.3 mcg) + Formoterol fumarate (5.8 mcg)Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)Astra ZenecaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
BretzriGlycopyrronium bromide (9 ug/1) + Budesonide (160 ug/1) + Formoterol (4.8 ug/1)Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP2020-07-23Not applicableUs
Ultibro BreezhalerGlycopyrronium (50 mcg) + Indacaterol (110 mcg)CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)Novartis2014-03-05Not applicableCanada
Utibron NeohalerGlycopyrronium bromide (15.6 ug/1) + Indacaterol maleate (27.5 ug/1)CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)Novartis2015-10-292019-06-30Us
Utibron NeohalerGlycopyrronium bromide (15.6 ug/1) + Indacaterol maleate (27.5 ug/1)CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-10-292021-04-30Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
GlycopyrrolateGlycopyrronium bromide (0.2 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2014-08-052017-12-06Us

Categories

ATC Codes
A03AB02 — Glycopyrronium bromideR03AL09 — Formoterol, glycopyrronium bromide and beclometasoneR03AL07 — Formoterol and glycopyrronium bromideA03CA05 — Glycopyrronium bromide and psycholepticsR03AL04 — Indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromideR03BB06 — Glycopyrronium bromide
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
A14FB57V1D
CAS number
740028-90-4
InChI Key
ANGKOCUUWGHLCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H28NO3/c1-20(2)13-12-17(14-20)23-18(21)19(22,16-10-6-7-11-16)15-8-4-3-5-9-15/h3-5,8-9,16-17,22H,6-7,10-14H2,1-2H3/q+1
IUPAC Name
3-[(2-cyclopentyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetyl)oxy]-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidin-1-ium
SMILES
C[N+]1(C)CCC(C1)OC(=O)C(O)(C1CCCC1)C1=CC=CC=C1

References

Synthesis Reference

Michael Woehrmann, Lara Terstegen, Stefan Biel, Thomas Raschke, Svenja-Kathrin Cerv, Werner Zilz, Sven Untiedt, Thomas Nuebel, Uwe Schoenrock, Heiner Max, Helga Biergiesser, Yvonne Eckhard, Heike Miertsch, Heike Foelster, Cornelia Meier-Zimmerer, Bernd Traupe, Inge Kruse, "GLYCOPYRROLATE IN COSMETIC PREPARATIONS." U.S. Patent US20090208437, issued August 20, 2009.

US20090208437
General References
  1. Ali-Melkkila T, Kanto J, Iisalo E: Pharmacokinetics and related pharmacodynamics of anticholinergic drugs. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1993 Oct;37(7):633-42. [PubMed:8249551]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015121
KEGG Drug
D00540
PubChem Compound
9933193
PubChem Substance
46509133
ChemSpider
3374
BindingDB
50417445
RxNav
1546438
ChEBI
94449
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201335
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001116
PharmGKB
PA164754882
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Glycopyrronium_bromide
AHFS Codes
  • 48:12.08 — Anticholinergic Agents
  • 12:08.08 — Antimuscarinics Antispasmodics
FDA label
Download (193 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Bladder / Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Neuromuscular Blockade1
4CompletedBasic ScienceElectromyography / Respiratory Muscles1
4CompletedOtherChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4CompletedPreventionEmergence Delirium1
4CompletedSupportive CareBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation / Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery / Respiratory Function / Surgical Conditions1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Caudal epidural block therapy / Pain / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentAirway Reflexes, Protective / Anesthetic Recovery / Recovery After Neuromuscular Block1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia Recovery1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Hospira inc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Ah robins co
  • Shionogi pharma inc
  • Corepharma llc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Ranbaxy inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
Packagers
  • American Regent
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Kali Laboratories Inc.
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Mikart Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Pharmaceutical Packaging Center
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • Sciele Pharma Inc.
  • Shionogi Pharma Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
LiquidOral1 mg/5mL
SolutionOral1 mg
SolutionOral1 mg/5mL
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)44 micrograms
TabletOral1.5 mg/1
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous0.2 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous0.4 mg/2mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 mg/5mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous4 mg/20mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous0.2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous0.4 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.4 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg/20mL
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
TabletOral1 mg/1
TabletOral2 mg/1
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravitreal0.2 mg/1mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)25 ug/1mL
ClothTopical2.4 g/100g
TabletOral
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)15.6 ug/1
SolutionOral320 μg/ml
CapsuleRespiratory (inhalation)
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Glycopyrrolate powder278.46USD g
Robinul-Forte 2 mg tablet6.46USD tablet
Robinul forte 2 mg tablet6.21USD tablet
Robinul 1 mg tablet3.96USD tablet
Glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg/ml3.63USD ml
Glycopyrrolate 1 mg/5 ml syr2.91USD ml
Glycopyrrolate 2 mg tablet2.24USD tablet
Glycopyrrolate 1 mg tablet1.34USD tablet
Robinul 0.2 mg/ml vial1.26USD ml
Glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg/ml vial0.85USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US7091236No2006-08-152024-04-24Us
US6878721No2005-04-122020-10-10Us
US6528678No2003-03-042018-04-24Us
US8067437No2011-11-292020-06-02Us
US8658673No2014-02-252020-06-02Us
US8796307No2014-08-052020-06-02Us
US8479730No2013-07-092028-10-11Us
US7638552No2009-12-292023-08-20Us
US7816396No2010-10-192023-08-20Us
US7229607No2007-06-122021-04-09Us
US7820694No2010-10-262020-06-02Us
US8029768No2011-10-042021-04-09Us
US8283362No2012-10-092020-06-02Us
US7736670No2010-06-152021-06-27Us
US8435567No2013-05-072021-06-27Us
US8303991No2012-11-062021-06-27Us
US8956661No2015-02-172021-06-27Us
US8580306No2013-11-122021-06-27Us
US6582678No2003-06-242018-04-24Us
US8182838No2012-05-222028-10-20Us
US6521260No2003-02-182016-01-31Us
US8048451No2011-11-012021-06-27Us
US9463161No2016-10-112030-05-28Us
US9415009No2016-08-162030-05-28Us
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US8511581No2013-08-202023-11-08Us
US9931304No2018-04-032021-06-27Us
US9962338No2018-05-082021-06-27Us
US10052267No2018-08-212028-10-17Us
US9259414No2016-02-162033-02-28Us
US9744105No2017-08-292030-07-18Us
US8618160No2013-12-312029-12-10Us
US6433003No2002-08-132020-04-10Us
US8859610No2014-10-142033-02-28Us
US10004717No2018-06-262033-02-28Us
US9006462No2015-04-142033-02-28Us
US10376661No2019-08-132035-09-14Us
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US10548875No2013-02-282033-02-28Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)193-194.5U.S. Patent 2,956,062.
logP-0.99Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000944 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-1.4ChemAxon
logS-5.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity101.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.88 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8406
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8436
Caco-2 permeable+0.5778
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7928
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.894
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9731
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5299
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7812
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7136
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.662
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9133
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9243
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8735
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.978
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7888
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9257
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8627
Rat acute toxicity2.5887 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9345
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7884
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Ali-Melkkila T, Kanto J, Iisalo E: Pharmacokinetics and related pharmacodynamics of anticholinergic drugs. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1993 Oct;37(7):633-42. [PubMed:8249551]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Haddad EB, Patel H, Keeling JE, Yacoub MH, Barnes PJ, Belvisi MG: Pharmacological characterization of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, glycopyrrolate, in human and guinea-pig airways. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 May;127(2):413-20. [PubMed:10385241]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Haddad EB, Patel H, Keeling JE, Yacoub MH, Barnes PJ, Belvisi MG: Pharmacological characterization of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, glycopyrrolate, in human and guinea-pig airways. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 May;127(2):413-20. [PubMed:10385241]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 02, 2020 22:18

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