Dotatate gallium Ga-68


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Dotatate gallium Ga-68
Accession Number
Small Molecule
Approved, Investigational

Dotatate gallium (Ga-68) is a somatostatin-2 receptor analog which is radiolabeled with gallium 68 as a positron-emitting radioisotope. Ga-68 dotatate has a high affinity for somatostatin-2 receptor and it is rapidly excreted from the nontarget sites which gives it an ideal candidate for imaging neuroendocrine tumors. Dotatate gallium (Ga-68) explotes its ability to detect somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and this characteristic tends to change with tumor grade which gives Ga-68 dotate a high diagnostic value.1 Dotatate gallium 68 was developed by Advanced Accelerator Applications USA, Inc. and FDA approved in June 1, 2016.

  • (68Ga)Gallium dotatate
  • 68Ga-DOTATOC
  • DOTA-octreotate gallium Ga-68
  • Dotatate gallium Ga-68
  • Ga 68 DOTATOC
  • Gallium (68Ga) DOTA-tate
  • Gallium (68Ga) dotatate
  • Gallium (Ga 68) dotatate
  • Gallium 68 dotatate
  • Gallium dotatate, Ga-68
  • Gallium oxodotreotide Ga-68
  • Gallium-DOTA-octreotate Ga-68
  • Gallium-DOTA-octreotate, Ga-68
  • Gatate
CAS number
Average: 1502.33
Monoisotopic: 1500.496908
Chemical Formula
InChI Key
gallium(3+) 2-[4-({[(1R)-1-{[(4R,7S,10S,13R,16S,19R)-10-(4-aminobutyl)-4-{[(1S,2R)-1-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl]carbamoyl}-7-[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-16-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-13-[(1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]-6,9,12,15,18-pentaoxo-1,2-dithia-5,8,11,14,17-pentaazacycloicosan-19-yl]carbamoyl}-2-phenylethyl]carbamoyl}methyl)-7,10-bis(carboxylatomethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1-yl]acetate



Dotatate gallium 68 is one of the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging with positron emission tomography. It binds to the somatostatin-2 receptor which is usually overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors in both adult and pediatric patients.2 The neuroendocrine tumors are bening or malignant tumors produced in the hormone producing cells of the neuroendocrine system.7

Associated Conditions

The overexpression of somatostatin receptor in tumor tissue has been widely studied and the usage of scintigraphy for the diagnostic of neuroendocrine tumors has been happening since the beggining of the 90s. The development of positron-emission tomography there has been an emerging and growing field for the discovery of tracer labeled somatostatin analogues like dotatate gallium 68.3 Even after all the reportes, the pharmacodynamic profile of dotatate gallium 68 has not been studied.

Mechanism of action

The somatostatin receptor-based imaging is the preferred choice in the diagnostic and management of neuroendocrine tumors. The basis for the mechanism of dotatate gallium 68 is the binding of a ligand analog that is radiolabeled, in this case thye preferred binding site is the receptors of the subtype 2. The malignant cells are reported to overexpress the somatostatin subtype 2 receptor. Dotatate gallium 68 is a β+ emiting radionuclide with an emission yield that can be detected by the positron emission tomography and thus the seletive binding to the overexpressed somatostatin receptor will be detected.3

ASomatostatin receptor type 2

Dotatate gallium 68 presents a higher affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 when compared with the other gallium 68 analogues. Intravenous administration of dotatate gallium 68 is absorbed and distributed to all the somatostatin subtype 2 receptor-containing organs like pituitary, thyroid, spleen, adrenals, kidney, pancreas, prostate, liver and salivary glands. There is no uptake in cerebral cortex or in the heart and the uptake presented in thymus and lung are very low.4

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution is registered in a range from 0.25-0.65 ml/cm3.6

Protein binding

It presents binding to plasma proteins.5

Not Available
Route of elimination

In the first four hours after the intravenous administration of dotatate gallium 68 there is an elimination of about 12% of the injected dose by the urine.4

Half life

The half-life of gallium 68 is estimated to be of 68 min.2


The pharmacokinetics of dotatate gallium 68 is matched to the short half-life of the isotope gallium 68 thus, this pharmaceutical presents a very fast blood clearance.2


Studies on dotatate gallium 68 have not been studied but the comparative studies to other non-radioactivity compounds showed no mutation.Label

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
LanreotideLanreotide may decrease effectiveness of Dotatate gallium Ga-68 as a diagnostic agent.
OctreotideOctreotide may decrease effectiveness of Dotatate gallium Ga-68 as a diagnostic agent.
PasireotidePasireotide may decrease effectiveness of Dotatate gallium Ga-68 as a diagnostic agent.
SomatostatinSomatostatin may decrease effectiveness of Dotatate gallium Ga-68 as a diagnostic agent.
VapreotideVapreotide may decrease effectiveness of Dotatate gallium Ga-68 as a diagnostic agent.
Additional Data Available
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Food Interactions
Not Available


General References
  1. Kayani I, Bomanji JB, Groves A, Conway G, Gacinovic S, Win T, Dickson J, Caplin M, Ell PJ: Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with combined PET/CT using 68Ga-DOTATATE (DOTA-DPhe1,Tyr3-octreotate) and 18F-FDG. Cancer. 2008 Jun;112(11):2447-55. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23469. [PubMed:18383518]
  2. Banerjee SR, Pomper MG: Clinical applications of Gallium-68. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013 Jun;76:2-13. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2013.01.039. Epub 2013 Feb 20. [PubMed:23522791]
  3. Mojtahedi A, Thamake S, Tworowska I, Ranganathan D, Delpassand ES: The value of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors compared to current FDA approved imaging modalities: a review of literature. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014 Aug 15;4(5):426-34. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25143861]
  4. Shastry M, Kayani I, Wild D, Caplin M, Visvikis D, Gacinovic S, Reubi JC, Bomanji JB: Distribution pattern of 68Ga-DOTATATE in disease-free patients. Nucl Med Commun. 2010 Dec;31(12):1025-32. doi: 10.1097/MNM.0b013e32833f635e. [PubMed:20926978]
  5. Schottelius M, Simecek J, Hoffmann F, Willibald M, Schwaiger M, Wester HJ: Twins in spirit - episode I: comparative preclinical evaluation of [(68)Ga]DOTATATE and [(68)Ga]HA-DOTATATE. EJNMMI Res. 2015 Apr 10;5:22. doi: 10.1186/s13550-015-0099-x. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:25918675]
  6. Soto-Montenegro ML, Pena-Zalbidea S, Mateos-Perez JM, Oteo M, Romero E, Morcillo MA, Desco M: Meningiomas: a comparative study of 68Ga-DOTATOC, 68Ga-DOTANOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE for molecular imaging in mice. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 4;9(11):e111624. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111624. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25369268]
  7. FDA News and Events [Link]
External Links
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticGanglioneuroblastoma / Ganglioneuroma / Metastatic Neuroblastoma1
0RecruitingDiagnosticMesenchymal Tumor / Oncogenic Osteomalacia1
0RecruitingDiagnosticNeuroendocrine Tumors1
1TerminatedDiagnosticCarcinoid Tumors / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
1, 2CompletedDiagnosticNeuroendocrine Carcinomas1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticApudoma / Carcinoid Tumors / Carcinoids / Islet Cell Tumor / Neuroendocrine / Neuroendocrine Cancer / Neuroendocrine Carcinomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
1, 2RecruitingDiagnosticNeuroendocrine Carcinomas1
1, 2RecruitingDiagnosticOsteomalacia1
1, 2TerminatedDiagnosticGastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticCastration-Resistant Prostate Carcinoma / Metastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer / Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v71
2SuspendedDiagnosticCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceGliomas1
3CompletedDiagnosticNeuroendocrine Tumors1
3Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceNeuroendocrine Tumors1
3Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticCoronary Arteriosclerosis1
4RecruitingDiagnosticCardiac Sarcoidosis1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableNeuroendocrine Tumors1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableNeuroendocrine Carcinomas1


Not Available
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Not Available
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

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Experimental Properties
water solubilityAt pH above 7 can be solubleLong, N., Wong W. The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging. (2015)
logP-3.69Schottelius M., et al. EJNMMI Res. 2015; 5: 22.
pKa2.6Long, N., Wong W. The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging. (2015)
Radioactivity (mCi/mL)5'FDA label'
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.28ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count24ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count14ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area505.95 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count26ChemAxon
Refractivity397.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability142.87 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Not Available


Not classified


Pharmacological action
General Function
Somatostatin receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for somatostatin-14 and -28. This receptor is coupled via pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. In addition it stimulates phosphotyrosine phosphatase and ...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Somatostatin receptor type 2
Molecular Weight
41332.37 Da
  1. Banerjee SR, Pomper MG: Clinical applications of Gallium-68. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013 Jun;76:2-13. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2013.01.039. Epub 2013 Feb 20. [PubMed:23522791]

Drug created on November 29, 2017 15:07 / Updated on December 02, 2019 10:07