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Identification
NameInsulin Regular
Accession NumberDB00030  (BIOD00105, BTD00105, DB01383)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved, Experimental, Investigational
Description

Insulin regular is a 51 residue peptide hormone, composed of two amino acid chains covalently linked by disulfide bonds. The structure is identical to native human insulin. Recombinant insulin is synthesized by recombinant DNA techncology. Inserting the human insulin gene into the Escherichia coli bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces insulin for human use.

Protein structureDb00030
Protein chemical formulaC257H383N65O77S6
Protein average weight5808 Daltons
Sequences
>A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>B chain
FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKT
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Insulin human Not AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Humulin R U-500injection, solution500 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company1997-01-06Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Afrezzapowder, metered4 1respiratory (inhalation)Sanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2014-07-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
AfrezzakitSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2014-07-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
AfrezzakitSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2014-07-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Humulin 70/30 70/30injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-12Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Humulin Rinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLparenteralEli Lilly and Company1983-06-27Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Humulin Rinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLparenteralEli Lilly and Company2010-06-102015-02-28Us 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Humulin 70/30injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company1989-06-26Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Humulin 70/30injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company1999-02-012015-10-31Us 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Humulin 70/30injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company2013-11-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Novolin Rinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk1991-06-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Humalog 70/30injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-12-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Humulin Rinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-07-27Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Novolin Rinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousTYA Pharmaceuticals1991-06-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Humulin 20/8020% human insulin injection; 80% human insulin isophane suspension
Humulin 50/50 50% human insulin isophane suspension; 50% human insulin injection
Humulin 70/30 70% human insulin isophane suspension; 30% human insulin injection
Humulin 70/30 Pen 70% human insulin isophane suspension; 30% human insulin injection
Novolin ge 30/7030% human insulin injection; 70% human insulin isophane suspension
Novolin ge 40/6040% human insulin injection; 60% human insulin isophane suspension
Novolin ge 50/5050% human insulin injection; 50% human insulin isophane suspension
Novolin70/30Insulin Regular + Insulin, isophane
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number11061-68-0
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationIndicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults and children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PharmacodynamicsInsulin regular is a short-acting insulin. When subcutaneously administered, the onset of action (as evidenced by a decrease in glucose level) occurs 30 minutes post-dose. Maximal effect occurs between 1.5 and 3.5 hours post-dose. The glucose-lowering effect occurs 8 hours post-dose. Compared to other rapid-acting insulin analogs, insulin regular has a slower onset of action and longer duration of action.
Mechanism of actionThe primary activity of insulin is the regulation of glucose metabolism. Insulin promotes glucose and amino acid uptake into muscle and adipose tissues, and other tissues except brain and liver. It also has an anabolic role in stimulating glycogen, fatty acid, and protein synthesis. Insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver. Insulin binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor is able to autophosphorylate and phosphorylate numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. These activated proteins, in turn, lead to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC) which play a critical role in metabolism and catabolism.
AbsorptionInsulin is generally well absorbed.
Volume of distribution

0.15 L/kg

Protein binding5% protein bound
Metabolism

Insulin is predominantly cleared by metabolic degradation via a receptor-mediated process.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityHypoglycemia is one of the most frequent adverse events experienced by insulin users.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Novo nordisk inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionparenteral100 [iU]/mL
Injection, solutionsubcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
Injection, solutionsubcutaneous500 [iU]/mL
Injection, suspensionsubcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
Kit
Powder, meteredrespiratory (inhalation)4 1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
NovoLIN R PenFill 100 unit/ml Solution Five 3ml Cartridges Per Box = 15ml162.26USD cartridge
NovoLIN R 100 unit/ml Solution 10ml Vial73.19USD vial
Novolin r 100 unit/ml cartridg33.33USD ml
NovoLIN R InnoLet 100 unit/ml Solution 3ml Cartridge24.17USD cartridge
Humulin N Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Humulin R Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.8USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.78USD cartridge
Humulin N 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Humulin R 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point81 °CKhachidze, D.G. et al., J. Biol. Phys. Chem. 1:64-67 (2001)
hydrophobicity0.218Not Available
isoelectric point5.39Not Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Humulin is synthesized in a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that has been genetically altered to produce human insulin.

General Reference
  1. Herrmann BL, Kasser C, Keuthage W, Huptas M, Dette H, Klute A: Comparison of insulin aspart vs. regular human insulin with or without insulin detemir concerning adipozytokines and metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013 Apr;121(4):210-3. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1334905. Epub 2013 Mar 19. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.08
  • 92:02.00*
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (133 KB)
MSDSDownload (47 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetohexamideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Acetylsalicylic acidMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents.
AlogliptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
AripiprazoleHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Arsenic trioxideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ArticaineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
AsenapineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
AtazanavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Azilsartan medoxomilThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
BendroflumethiazideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
BuforminMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
BumetanideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
BuserelinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
CanagliflozinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
ChlorothiazideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ChlorpropamideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
ChlorthalidoneThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ClozapineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
CorticotropinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Cortisone acetateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Cyproterone acetateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DabrafenibHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DanazolHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DarunavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DesogestrelHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DiazoxideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DihydrotestosteroneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Exceptions: Danazol.
DisopyramideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
DrospirenoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
EstropipateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Ethacrynic acidHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Ethinyl EstradiolHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
EthynodiolHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
EtonogestrelHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
EverolimusHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ExenatideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
FludrocortisoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
FosamprenavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
FurosemideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
GliclazideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
GlimepirideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
GlipizideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
GliquidoneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Glucagon recombinantMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
GlyburideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
GoserelinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
HistrelinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
HomoharringtonineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
HydrochlorothiazideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
IloperidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
IndapamideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
IndinavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
inhaled insulinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin AspartMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin DetemirMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin GlargineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin GlulisineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin LisproMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin, isophaneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin, porcineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
LanreotideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
LeuprolideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
LevonorgestrelHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
LinagliptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
LiraglutideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulin.
LopinavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
LurasidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MecaserminMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Megestrol acetateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MestranolHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MetforminMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
MethotrimeprazineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MethyclothiazideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MethylprednisoloneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MetolazoneThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MetreleptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulin.
MifepristoneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
MitiglinideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
NateglinideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
NelfinavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
NilotinibHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
NorelgestrominHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
NorethindroneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
NorgestimateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
OctreotideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
OlanzapineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
OxandroloneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Exceptions: Danazol.
PaliperidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
PasireotideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
PegvisomantMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents.
PentamidineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
PhenforminMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
PioglitazoneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
PiperazineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
PipotiazineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
PramlintideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulin.
PrednisoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ProgesteroneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
QuetiapineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
QuinineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
RepaglinideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
RisperidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
RitonavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
RosiglitazoneInsulin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Rosiglitazone. Specifically, the risk of fluid retention, heart failure, and hypoglycemia may be increased with this combination.
Salicylate-sodiumMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents.
SaquinavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
SaxagliptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
SirolimusHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
SulfadiazineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
SulfamethoxazoleMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
SulfisoxazoleMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
SulodexideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
SunitinibMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
TemsirolimusHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
TestosteroneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Exceptions: Danazol.
TipranavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
TolazamideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
TolbutamideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
TorasemideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
TriptorelinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
VildagliptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
VorinostatHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ZiprasidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Insulin receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Insulin receptor P06213 Details

References:

  1. Desbuquois B, Chauvet G, Kouach M, Authier F: Cell itinerary and metabolic fate of proinsulin in rat liver: in vivo and in vitro studies. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5308-21. Epub 2003 Sep 11. Pubmed
  2. Chen LM, Yang XW, Tang JG: Acidic residues on the N-terminus of proinsulin C-Peptide are important for the folding of insulin precursor. J Biochem (Tokyo). 2002 Jun;131(6):855-9. Pubmed
  3. Bell DS: Insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus: how can the currently available injectable insulins be most prudently and efficaciously utilised? Drugs. 2007;67(13):1813-27. Pubmed
  4. Tanti JF, Jager J: Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance: role of stress-regulated serine kinases and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;9(6):753-62. Epub 2009 Aug 13. Pubmed
  5. Chiu SL, Cline HT: Insulin receptor signaling in the development of neuronal structure and function. Neural Dev. 2010 Mar 15;5:7. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor P08069 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

3. Retinoblastoma-associated protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoblastoma-associated protein P06400 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

4. Cathepsin D

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cathepsin D P07339 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

5. Insulin-degrading enzyme

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Insulin-degrading enzyme P14735 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

6. Neuroendocrine convertase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuroendocrine convertase 2 P16519 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

7. Carboxypeptidase E

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carboxypeptidase E P16870 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

8. Neuroendocrine convertase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuroendocrine convertase 1 P29120 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

9. Protein NOV homolog

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Protein NOV homolog P48745 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

10. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 P98164 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

11. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 Q16270 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

12. Synaptotagmin-like protein 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Synaptotagmin-like protein 4 Q96C24 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 27, 2013 15:33