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Identification
NameInsulin Human
Accession NumberDB00030  (BTD00105, BIOD00105, DB01383, DB05278, DB05215, DB05283, DB08914)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Insulin human is a 51 residue peptide hormone, composed of two amino acid chains covalently linked by disulfide bonds. The structure is identical to native human insulin. Recombinant insulin is synthesized by recombinant DNA techncology. Inserting the human insulin gene into the Escherichia coli bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces insulin for human use.

Inhalable insulin is a powdered form of insulin regular, delivered with a nebulizer into the lungs where it is absorbed. Exubera, developed by Inhale Therapeutics (later named Nektar Therapeutics), became the first inhaled insulin product to be marketed in 2006 by Pfizer, but poor sales led Pfizer to withdraw it in 2007. Afrezza, a monomeric inhaled insulin developed by Mannkind, was approved by the FDA in 2014.

Protein structureDb00030
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaC257H383N65O77S6
Protein average weight5808.0 Da
Sequences
>A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>B chain
FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKT
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
Inhaled insulin
Insulin (human)
Insulin human
Insulin human [rDNA origin]
Insulin Human Regular
Insulin injection human biosynthetic
Insulin Recombinant Human
Insulin Recombinant Purified Human
Insulin regular
Regular Insulin, human
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AfrezzakitSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2014-07-11Not applicableUs
AfrezzakitSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2014-07-11Not applicableUs
Afrezzapowder, metered4 1/1respiratory (inhalation)Sanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2014-07-11Not applicableUs
AfrezzakitSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2014-07-11Not applicableUs
Humulin 70/30injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company2013-11-07Not applicableUs
Humulin Ninjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company2013-11-07Not applicableUs
Humulin R Cartridgesolution100 unitintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousEli Lilly Canada Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Humulin R U-500injection, solution500 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company1997-01-06Not applicableUs
Humulin R U-500 Kwikpeninjection, solution500 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company2015-12-29Not applicableUs
Novolin Ge Torontosolution100 unitintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousNovo Nordisk Canada Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Novolin Ge Toronto Penfillsolution100 unitintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousNovo Nordisk Canada Inc1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Novolinset Ge Toronto Inj Liq 100u/mlliquid100 unitintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousNovo Nordisk A/s1999-06-282005-08-04Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Humulin 70/30injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company1989-06-26Not applicableUs
Humulin Ninjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-10-24Not applicableUs
Humulin Ninjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company1999-02-012015-10-31Us
Humulin Ninjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company1983-06-27Not applicableUs
Humulin Rinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLparenteralEli Lilly and Company1983-06-27Not applicableUs
Humulin Rinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-07-27Not applicableUs
Novolin 70/30injection, suspension100 [USP'U]/mLsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk1991-06-25Not applicableUs
Novolin Ninjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk1991-07-01Not applicableUs
Novolin Ninjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousTYA Pharmaceuticals1991-07-01Not applicableUs
Novolin Rinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk1991-06-25Not applicableUs
Novolin Rinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousTYA Pharmaceuticals1991-06-25Not applicableUs
Novolinn Ninjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousREMEDYREPACK INC.2016-04-07Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ExuberaPfizer (withdrawn)
Humulin N PenLilly
lnsulatardLeo
NasulinNot Available
Novolin N RelionNovo Nordisk
Novolin NPHNovo Nordisk
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Insulin human zinc suspension
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001733
NPH insulin
53027-39-7
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001734
Categories
UNII1Y17CTI5SR
CAS number11061-68-0
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationIndicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults and children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PharmacodynamicsInsulin regular is a short-acting insulin. When subcutaneously administered, the onset of action (as evidenced by a decrease in glucose level) occurs 30 minutes post-dose. Maximal effect occurs between 1.5 and 3.5 hours post-dose. The glucose-lowering effect occurs 8 hours post-dose. Compared to other rapid-acting insulin analogs, insulin regular has a slower onset of action and longer duration of action.
Mechanism of actionThe primary activity of insulin is the regulation of glucose metabolism. Insulin promotes glucose and amino acid uptake into muscle and adipose tissues, and other tissues except brain and liver. It also has an anabolic role in stimulating glycogen, fatty acid, and protein synthesis. Insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver. Insulin binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor is able to autophosphorylate and phosphorylate numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. These activated proteins, in turn, lead to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC) which play a critical role in metabolism and catabolism.
Related Articles
AbsorptionInsulin is generally well absorbed.
Volume of distribution

0.15 L/kg

Protein binding5% protein bound
Metabolism

Insulin is predominantly cleared by metabolic degradation via a receptor-mediated process.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityHypoglycemia is one of the most frequent adverse events experienced by insulin users.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Novo nordisk inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
Powder, meteredrespiratory (inhalation)4 1/1
Injection, suspensionsubcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
Injection, solutionparenteral100 [iU]/mL
Injection, solutionsubcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
Injection, solutionsubcutaneous500 [iU]/mL
Injection, suspensionsubcutaneous100 [USP'U]/mL
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous100 unit
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous100 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
NovoLIN R PenFill 100 unit/ml Solution Five 3ml Cartridges Per Box = 15ml162.26USD cartridge
NovoLIN R 100 unit/ml Solution 10ml Vial73.19USD vial
Novolin r 100 unit/ml cartridg33.33USD ml
NovoLIN R InnoLet 100 unit/ml Solution 3ml Cartridge24.17USD cartridge
Humulin N Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Humulin R Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.8USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.78USD cartridge
Humulin N 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Humulin R 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2183577 No2007-10-302015-02-07Canada
CA2253393 No2007-10-092017-05-07Canada
US6257233 No1999-05-142019-05-14Us
US6444226 No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US6546929 No1999-05-142019-05-14Us
US6582728 No2000-06-242020-06-24Us
US6652885 No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US6685967 No1998-09-112018-09-11Us
US7291132 No2004-08-092024-08-09Us
US7305986 No2003-01-162023-01-16Us
US7464706 No2003-03-022023-03-02Us
US7648960 No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US7943178 No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US7943572 No2006-08-102026-08-10Us
US8119593 No2009-08-112029-08-11Us
US8146588 No2003-04-242023-04-24Us
US8156936 No2003-01-162023-01-16Us
US8215300 No2002-11-242022-11-24Us
US8227409 No2011-03-082031-03-08Us
US8258095 No2009-08-112029-08-11Us
US8389470 No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US8424518 No2011-10-172031-10-17Us
US8485180 No2010-03-252030-03-25Us
US8499757 No2012-02-192032-02-19Us
US8551528 No2010-06-112030-06-11Us
US8623817 No2009-09-182029-09-18Us
US8636001 No2012-07-122032-07-12Us
US8729019 No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US8734845 No2010-06-112030-06-11Us
US8778403 No2010-06-112030-06-11Us
US8889099 No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US8912193 No2009-06-122029-06-12Us
US8950397 No2001-07-202021-07-20Us
US9192675 No2009-06-122029-06-12Us
US9283193 No2006-09-142026-09-14Us
USRE37872 No1993-02-122010-02-12Us
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point81 °CKhachidze, D.G. et al., J. Biol. Phys. Chem. 1:64-67 (2001)
hydrophobicity0.218Not Available
isoelectric point5.39Not Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Humulin is synthesized in a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that has been genetically altered to produce human insulin.

General References
  1. Herrmann BL, Kasser C, Keuthage W, Huptas M, Dette H, Klute A: Comparison of insulin aspart vs. regular human insulin with or without insulin detemir concerning adipozytokines and metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013 Apr;121(4):210-3. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1334905. Epub 2013 Mar 19. [PubMed:23512415 ]
  2. Lepore M, Pampanelli S, Fanelli C, Porcellati F, Bartocci L, Di Vincenzo A, Cordoni C, Costa E, Brunetti P, Bolli GB: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of subcutaneous injection of long-acting human insulin analog glargine, NPH insulin, and ultralente human insulin and continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin lispro. Diabetes. 2000 Dec;49(12):2142-8. [PubMed:11118018 ]
  3. Owens DR, Coates PA, Luzio SD, Tinbergen JP, Kurzhals R: Pharmacokinetics of 125I-labeled insulin glargine (HOE 901) in healthy men: comparison with NPH insulin and the influence of different subcutaneous injection sites. Diabetes Care. 2000 Jun;23(6):813-9. [PubMed:10841002 ]
  4. Danne T, Lupke K, Walte K, Von Schuetz W, Gall MA: Insulin detemir is characterized by a consistent pharmacokinetic profile across age-groups in children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Nov;26(11):3087-92. [PubMed:14578244 ]
  5. Owens DR, Bolli GB: Beyond the era of NPH insulin--long-acting insulin analogs: chemistry, comparative pharmacology, and clinical application. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008 Oct;10(5):333-49. doi: 10.1089/dia.2008.0023. [PubMed:18715209 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10AB01A10AC01A10AD01A10AE01A10AF01
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.08
  • 92:02.00*
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (133 KB)
MSDSDownload (47 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcarboseAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
AcetohexamideAcetohexamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
AlbiglutideAlbiglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
AlogliptinAlogliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Aminosalicylic AcidAminosalicylic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Aripiprazole.
Arsenic trioxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Arsenic trioxide.
ArticaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Articaine.
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Atazanavir.
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Bendroflumethiazide.
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.
Bismuth SubsalicylateBismuth Subsalicylate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Bumetanide.
BuserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Buserelin.
CaffeineCaffeine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
CeritinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ceritinib.
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorpropamideChlorpropamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.
CiprofloxacinCiprofloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.
CorticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Dabrafenib.
DanazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Danazol.
DapagliflozinDapagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
DarunavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Darunavir.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Diazoxide.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.
DihydrocodeineDihydrocodeine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
DisopyramideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Drospirenone.
DulaglutideDulaglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Edetic AcidEdetic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
EmpagliflozinEmpagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
EpinephrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Epinephrine.
ErythromycinInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Erythromycin.
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.
Estrone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ethacrynic acid.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ethynodiol.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.
EverolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Everolimus.
ExenatideExenatide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
FluoxymesteroneFluoxymesterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
FosamprenavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Fosamprenavir.
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Furosemide.
GemifloxacinGemifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GliclazideGliclazide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GlimepirideGlimepiride may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GlipizideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GliquidoneGliquidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GlyburideGlyburide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GoserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Goserelin.
HistrelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Histrelin.
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Indapamide.
IndinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Indinavir.
Insulin AspartInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin DegludecInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin degludec.
Insulin DetemirInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin GlargineInsulin Glargine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin GlulisineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproInsulin Lispro may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LanreotideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Lanreotide.
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.
LevofloxacinLevofloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.
LinagliptinLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LiraglutideLiraglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LopinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Lopinavir.
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MecaserminInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Mestranol.
MetforminMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Methyclothiazide.
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.
MethyltestosteroneMethyltestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Metolazone.
MetreleptinMetreleptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MifepristoneInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mifepristone.
MiglitolMiglitol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MoxifloxacinMoxifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
NadololNadolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
NateglinideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.
NelfinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Nelfinavir.
NiacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.
NilotinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Nilotinib.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Norethindrone.
NorfloxacinNorfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Norgestimate.
OctreotideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Octreotide.
OfloxacinOfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Oxymetholoneoxymetholone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PasireotideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pasireotide.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PentamidineInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pentamidine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PioglitazonePioglitazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PipotiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Quetiapine.
QuinineInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
RepaglinideRepaglinide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Repository corticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Repository corticotropin.
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Risperidone.
RitonavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
RosiglitazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Insulin Regular is combined with Rosiglitazone.
SalsalateSalsalate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SaquinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SertralineSertraline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Sirolimus.
SitagliptinSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SulfadiazineInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.
SunitinibInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sunitinib.
TacrolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrolimus.
Tedizolid PhosphateTedizolid Phosphate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
TemsirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Temsirolimus.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
TipranavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Tipranavir.
TolazamideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideTolbutamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Torasemide.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.
TrimethoprimInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Trimethoprim.
TriptorelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Triptorelin.
VilazodoneVilazodone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
VildagliptinVildagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
VorinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Vorinostat.
VortioxetineVortioxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (IRS1, 2, 3, 4), SHC, GAB1, CBL and other signaling intermediates. Each of these phosphorylated proteins serve as docking proteins for other signaling proteins that contain Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 ...
Gene Name:
INSR
Uniprot ID:
P06213
Molecular Weight:
156331.465 Da
References
  1. Desbuquois B, Chauvet G, Kouach M, Authier F: Cell itinerary and metabolic fate of proinsulin in rat liver: in vivo and in vitro studies. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5308-21. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [PubMed:12970169 ]
  2. Chen LM, Yang XW, Tang JG: Acidic residues on the N-terminus of proinsulin C-Peptide are important for the folding of insulin precursor. J Biochem. 2002 Jun;131(6):855-9. [PubMed:12038982 ]
  3. Bell DS: Insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus: how can the currently available injectable insulins be most prudently and efficaciously utilised? Drugs. 2007;67(13):1813-27. [PubMed:17722952 ]
  4. Tanti JF, Jager J: Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance: role of stress-regulated serine kinases and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;9(6):753-62. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2009.07.004. Epub 2009 Aug 13. [PubMed:19683471 ]
  5. Chiu SL, Cline HT: Insulin receptor signaling in the development of neuronal structure and function. Neural Dev. 2010 Mar 15;5:7. doi: 10.1186/1749-8104-5-7. [PubMed:20230616 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Binds IGF1 with high affinity and IGF2 and insulin (INS) with a lower affinity. The activated IGF1R is involved in cell growth and survival control. IGF1R is crucial for tumor transformation and survival of malignant cell. Ligand binding activates the receptor kinase, leading to receptor autophosphorylation,...
Gene Name:
IGF1R
Uniprot ID:
P08069
Molecular Weight:
154791.73 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Key regulator of entry into cell division that acts as a tumor suppressor. Promotes G0-G1 transition when phosphorylated by CDK3/cyclin-C. Acts as a transcription repressor of E2F1 target genes. The underphosphorylated, active form of RB1 interacts with E2F1 and represses its transcription activity, leading to cell cycle arrest. Directly involved in heterochromatin formation by maintaining over...
Gene Name:
RB1
Uniprot ID:
P06400
Molecular Weight:
106158.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Acid protease active in intracellular protein breakdown. Involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease.
Gene Name:
CTSD
Uniprot ID:
P07339
Molecular Weight:
44551.845 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in the cellular breakdown of insulin, IAPP, glucagon, bradykinin, kallidin and other peptides, and thereby plays a role in intercellular peptide signaling. Degrades amyloid formed by APP and IAPP. May play a role in the degradation and clearance of naturally secreted amyloid beta-protein by neurons and microglia.(Microbial infection) The membrane-associated isoform acts as an entry...
Gene Name:
IDE
Uniprot ID:
P14735
Molecular Weight:
117967.49 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the processing of hormone and other protein precursors at sites comprised of pairs of basic amino acid residues. Responsible for the release of glucagon from proglucagon in pancreatic A cells.
Gene Name:
PCSK2
Uniprot ID:
P16519
Molecular Weight:
70564.735 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Removes residual C-terminal Arg or Lys remaining after initial endoprotease cleavage during prohormone processing. Processes proinsulin.
Gene Name:
CPE
Uniprot ID:
P16870
Molecular Weight:
53150.185 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the processing of hormone and other protein precursors at sites comprised of pairs of basic amino acid residues. Substrates include POMC, renin, enkephalin, dynorphin, somatostatin, insulin and AGRP.
Gene Name:
PCSK1
Uniprot ID:
P29120
Molecular Weight:
84150.92 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Notch binding
Specific Function:
Immediate-early protein playing a role in various cellular processes including proliferation, adhesion, migration, differentiation and survival (PubMed:15181016, PubMed:15611078, PubMed:12695522, PubMed:21344378, PubMed:12050162). Acts by binding to integrins or membrane receptors such as NOTCH1 (PubMed:12695522, PubMed:21344378, PubMed:15611078). Essential regulator of hematopoietic stem and p...
Gene Name:
NOV
Uniprot ID:
P48745
Molecular Weight:
39161.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function:
Acts together with cubilin to mediate HDL endocytosis (By similarity). May participate in regulation of parathyroid-hormone and para-thyroid-hormone-related protein release.
Gene Name:
LRP2
Uniprot ID:
P98164
Molecular Weight:
521952.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Binds IGF-I and IGF-II with a relatively low affinity. Stimulates prostacyclin (PGI2) production. Stimulates cell adhesion.
Gene Name:
IGFBP7
Uniprot ID:
Q16270
Molecular Weight:
29130.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Modulates exocytosis of dense-core granules and secretion of hormones in the pancreas and the pituitary. Interacts with vesicles containing negatively charged phospholipids in a Ca(2+)-independent manner (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SYTL4
Uniprot ID:
Q96C24
Molecular Weight:
76022.99 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 28, 2016 02:48