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Identification
NameInsulin Regular
Accession NumberDB00030  (BIOD00105, BTD00105, DB01383)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Insulin regular is a 51 residue peptide hormone, composed of two amino acid chains covalently linked by disulfide bonds. The structure is identical to native human insulin. Recombinant insulin is synthesized by recombinant DNA techncology. Inserting the human insulin gene into the Escherichia coli bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces insulin for human use.

Protein structureDb00030
Protein chemical formulaC257H383N65O77S6
Protein average weight5808.0 Da
Sequences
>A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>B chain
FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKT
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
Insulin human
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number11061-68-0
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationIndicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults and children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PharmacodynamicsInsulin regular is a short-acting insulin. When subcutaneously administered, the onset of action (as evidenced by a decrease in glucose level) occurs 30 minutes post-dose. Maximal effect occurs between 1.5 and 3.5 hours post-dose. The glucose-lowering effect occurs 8 hours post-dose. Compared to other rapid-acting insulin analogs, insulin regular has a slower onset of action and longer duration of action.
Mechanism of actionThe primary activity of insulin is the regulation of glucose metabolism. Insulin promotes glucose and amino acid uptake into muscle and adipose tissues, and other tissues except brain and liver. It also has an anabolic role in stimulating glycogen, fatty acid, and protein synthesis. Insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver. Insulin binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor is able to autophosphorylate and phosphorylate numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. These activated proteins, in turn, lead to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC) which play a critical role in metabolism and catabolism.
AbsorptionInsulin is generally well absorbed.
Volume of distribution

0.15 L/kg

Protein binding5% protein bound
Metabolism

Insulin is predominantly cleared by metabolic degradation via a receptor-mediated process.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityHypoglycemia is one of the most frequent adverse events experienced by insulin users.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Novo nordisk inc
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
NovoLIN R PenFill 100 unit/ml Solution Five 3ml Cartridges Per Box = 15ml162.26USD cartridge
NovoLIN R 100 unit/ml Solution 10ml Vial73.19USD vial
Novolin r 100 unit/ml cartridg33.33USD ml
NovoLIN R InnoLet 100 unit/ml Solution 3ml Cartridge24.17USD cartridge
Humulin N Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Humulin R Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.8USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.78USD cartridge
Humulin N 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Humulin R 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point81 °CKhachidze, D.G. et al., J. Biol. Phys. Chem. 1:64-67 (2001)
hydrophobicity0.218Not Available
isoelectric point5.39Not Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Humulin is synthesized in a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that has been genetically altered to produce human insulin.

General References
  1. Herrmann BL, Kasser C, Keuthage W, Huptas M, Dette H, Klute A: Comparison of insulin aspart vs. regular human insulin with or without insulin detemir concerning adipozytokines and metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013 Apr;121(4):210-3. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1334905. Epub 2013 Mar 19. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.08
  • 92:02.00*
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (133 KB)
MSDSDownload (47 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcarboseAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
AcetohexamideAcetohexamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
AlbiglutideAlbiglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
AlogliptinAlogliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Aminosalicylic AcidAminosalicylic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Aripiprazole.
Arsenic trioxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Arsenic trioxide.
ArticaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Articaine.
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Atazanavir.
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Bendroflumethiazide.
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.
Bismuth SubsalicylateBismuth Subsalicylate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Bumetanide.
BuserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Buserelin.
CaffeineCaffeine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
CeritinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ceritinib.
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorpropamideChlorpropamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.
CiprofloxacinCiprofloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.
CorticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Dabrafenib.
DanazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Danazol.
DapagliflozinDapagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
DarunavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Darunavir.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Diazoxide.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.
DihydrocodeineDihydrocodeine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
DisopyramideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Drospirenone.
DulaglutideDulaglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Edetic AcidEdetic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
EmpagliflozinEmpagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
EpinephrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Epinephrine.
ErythromycinInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Erythromycin.
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.
EstropipateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Ethacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ethacrynic acid.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.
EthynodiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ethynodiol.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.
EverolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Everolimus.
ExenatideExenatide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
FluoxymesteroneFluoxymesterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
FosamprenavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Fosamprenavir.
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Furosemide.
GemifloxacinGemifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GliclazideGliclazide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GlimepirideGlimepiride may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GlipizideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GliquidoneGliquidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GlyburideGlyburide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
GoserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Goserelin.
HistrelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Histrelin.
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Indapamide.
IndinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Indinavir.
inhaled insulinInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of inhaled insulin.
Insulin AspartInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin degludecInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin degludec.
Insulin DetemirInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin GlargineInsulin Glargine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin GlulisineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproInsulin Lispro may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin, isophaneInsulin, isophane may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LanreotideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Lanreotide.
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.
LevofloxacinLevofloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.
LinagliptinLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LiraglutideLiraglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
LopinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Lopinavir.
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MecaserminInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Mestranol.
MetforminMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Methyclothiazide.
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.
MethyltestosteroneMethyltestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Metolazone.
MetreleptinMetreleptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MifepristoneInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mifepristone.
MiglitolMiglitol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
MoxifloxacinMoxifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
NadololNadolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
NateglinideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.
NelfinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Nelfinavir.
NiacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.
NilotinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Nilotinib.
NorethindroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Norethindrone.
NorfloxacinNorfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Norgestimate.
OctreotideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Octreotide.
OfloxacinOfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Oxymetholoneoxymetholone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PasireotideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pasireotide.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PentamidineInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pentamidine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PioglitazonePioglitazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PipotiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Quetiapine.
QuinineInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
RepaglinideRepaglinide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Repository corticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Repository corticotropin.
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Risperidone.
RitonavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
RosiglitazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Insulin Regular is combined with Rosiglitazone.
Salicylate-sodiumSalicylate-sodium may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SalsalateSalsalate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SaquinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SertralineSertraline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Sirolimus.
SitagliptinSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
SulfadiazineInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.
SunitinibInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sunitinib.
TacrolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrolimus.
Tedizolid PhosphateTedizolid Phosphate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
TemsirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Temsirolimus.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
TipranavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Tipranavir.
TolazamideInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideTolbutamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Torasemide.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.
TrimethoprimInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Trimethoprim.
TriptorelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Triptorelin.
VilazodoneVilazodone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
VildagliptinVildagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
VorinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Vorinostat.
VortioxetineVortioxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Insulin receptor

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Insulin receptor P06213 Details

References:

  1. Desbuquois B, Chauvet G, Kouach M, Authier F: Cell itinerary and metabolic fate of proinsulin in rat liver: in vivo and in vitro studies. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5308-21. Epub 2003 Sep 11. Pubmed
  2. Chen LM, Yang XW, Tang JG: Acidic residues on the N-terminus of proinsulin C-Peptide are important for the folding of insulin precursor. J Biochem (Tokyo). 2002 Jun;131(6):855-9. Pubmed
  3. Bell DS: Insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus: how can the currently available injectable insulins be most prudently and efficaciously utilised? Drugs. 2007;67(13):1813-27. Pubmed
  4. Tanti JF, Jager J: Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance: role of stress-regulated serine kinases and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;9(6):753-62. Epub 2009 Aug 13. Pubmed
  5. Chiu SL, Cline HT: Insulin receptor signaling in the development of neuronal structure and function. Neural Dev. 2010 Mar 15;5:7. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor P08069 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

3. Retinoblastoma-associated protein

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoblastoma-associated protein P06400 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

4. Cathepsin D

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cathepsin D P07339 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

5. Insulin-degrading enzyme

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Insulin-degrading enzyme P14735 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

6. Neuroendocrine convertase 2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuroendocrine convertase 2 P16519 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

7. Carboxypeptidase E

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carboxypeptidase E P16870 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

8. Neuroendocrine convertase 1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuroendocrine convertase 1 P29120 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

9. Protein NOV homolog

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Protein NOV homolog P48745 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

10. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 P98164 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

11. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 Q16270 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

12. Synaptotagmin-like protein 4

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Synaptotagmin-like protein 4 Q96C24 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 08, 2015 14:30