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Identification
NameAldesleukin
Accession NumberDB00041  (BIOD00082, BTD00082)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved
Description

Aldesleukin, a lymphokine, is produced by recombinant DNA technology using a genetically engineered E. coli strain containing an analog of the human interleukin-2 gene. Genetic engineering techniques were used to modify the human IL-2 gene, and the resulting expression clone encodes a modified human interleukin-2. This recombinant form differs from native interleukin-2 in the following ways: a) Aldesleukin is not glycosylated because it is derived from E. coli; b) the molecule has no N-terminal alanine; the codon for this amino acid was deleted during the genetic engineering procedure; c) the molecule has serine substituted for cysteine at amino acid position 125.

Protein structureDb00041
Protein chemical formulaC690H1115N177O202S6
Protein average weight15314.8 Da
Sequences
>Aldesleukin sequence
MAPTSSSTKKTQLQLEHLLLDLQMILNGINNYKNPKLTRMLTFKFYMPKKATELKHLQCL
EEELKPLEEVLNLAQSKNFHLRPRDLISNINVIVLELKGSETTFMCEYADETATIVEFLN
RWITFCQSIISTLT
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
IL-2
Interleukin-2 precursor
T-cell growth factor
TCGF
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Proleukininjection1.1 mg/mLintravenousNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation1992-05-06Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Proleukinpowder for solution22000000 unitintravenousNovartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Proleukininjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution1.1 mg/mLintravenousPrometheus Laboratories Inc.1992-05-05Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIM89N0Q7EQR
CAS number85898-30-2
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
PharmacodynamicsUsed to treat renal cell carcinoma, Aldesleukin induces the enhancement of lymphocyte mitogenesis and stimulation of long-term growth of human interleukin-2 dependent cell lines, the enhancement of lymphocyte cytotoxicity, the induction of killer cell (lymphokine-activated (LAK) and natural (NK)) activity; and the induction of interferon-gamma production. IL-2 is normally produced by the body, secreted by T cells, and stimulates growth and differentiation of T cell response. It can be used in immunotherapy to treat cancer. It enhances the ability of the immune system to kill tumor cells and may interfere with blood flow to the tumor.
Mechanism of actionAldesleukin binds to the IL-2 receptor which leads to heterodimerization of the cytoplasmic domains of the IL-2R beta and gamma(c) chains, activation of the tyrosine kinase Jak3, and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the IL-2R beta chain. These events led to the creation of an activated receptor complex, to which various cytoplasmic signaling molecules are recruited and become substrates for regulatory enzymes (especially tyrosine kinases) that are associated with the receptor. These events stimulate growth and differentiation of T cells.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distribution

0.18 l/kg

Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationThe pharmacokinetic profile of Proleukin is characterized by high plasma concentrations following a short IV infusion, rapid distribution into the extravascular space and elimination from the body by metabolism in the kidneys with little or no bioactive protein excreted in the urine. Following the initial rapid organ distribution, the primary route of clearance of circulating proleukin is the kidney. Greater than 80% of the amount of Proleukin distributed to plasma, cleared from the circulation and presented to the kidney is metabolized to amino acids in the cells lining the proximal convoluted tubules.
Half life13 min-85 min
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injectionintravenous1.1 mg/mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous1.1 mg/mL
Powder for solutionintravenous22000000 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Proleukin 22 million unit vial1092.34USD each
Proleukin 22000000 unit Solution Vial976.66USD vial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
hydrophobicity-0.192Not Available
isoelectric point7.31Not Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Hans-Ake Fabricius, Roland Stahn, “Serum-free and mitogen-free T-cell growth factor and process for making same.” U.S. Patent US4464355, issued May, 1971.

US4464355
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesL03AC01
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Acebutolol.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Acetazolamide.
AlclometasoneAlclometasone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Aliskiren.
AmcinonideAmcinonide may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Amiloride.
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Amlodipine.
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Amyl Nitrite.
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Apraclonidine.
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Atenolol.
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.
BeclomethasoneBeclomethasone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Benazepril.
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.
BetamethasoneBetamethasone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Betaxolol.
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Bisoprolol.
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Bretylium.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Brimonidine.
BudesonideBudesonide may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Bumetanide.
ButabarbitalButabarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
ButalbitalButalbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
ButethalButethal may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
CaffeineCaffeine may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Canagliflozin.
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Candesartan.
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Captopril.
CarbidopaAldesleukin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Carbidopa.
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Carteolol.
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Carvedilol.
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Chlorthalidone.
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Cilazapril.
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Clevidipine.
Clobetasol propionateClobetasol propionate may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
ClocortoloneClocortolone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Clonidine.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Clozapine.
CorticotropinCorticotropin may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
Cortisone acetateCortisone acetate may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Dapagliflozin.
DesoximetasoneDesoximetasone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
DexamethasoneDexamethasone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Dexmedetomidine.
DiatrizoateThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Diatrizoate is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Diclofenamide.
DiflorasoneDiflorasone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
DifluprednateDifluprednate may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Diltiazem.
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Dinutuximab.
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Dipyridamole.
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Doxazosin.
DuloxetineAldesleukin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Empagliflozin.
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Enalapril.
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Enalaprilat.
EntacaponeAldesleukin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Entacapone.
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Eplerenone.
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Eprosartan.
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Esmolol.
Ethacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Ethacrynic acid.
Ethiodized oilThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Ethiodized oil is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Felodipine.
FludrocortisoneFludrocortisone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
Fluocinolone AcetonideFluocinolone Acetonide may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
FluocinonideFluocinonide may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
FluorometholoneFluorometholone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
FlurandrenolideFlurandrenolide may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
Fluticasone furoateFluticasone furoate may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Fosinopril.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Furosemide.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Guanfacine.
HalcinonideHalcinonide may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
Halobetasol PropionateHalobetasol Propionate may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
HeptabarbitalHeptabarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Hydralazine.
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocortamateHydrocortamate may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
HydrocortisoneHydrocortisone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Indapamide.
Interferon alfa-n3The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfa-n3 is combined with Aldesleukin.
Interferon alfacon-1The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfacon-1 is combined with Aldesleukin.
IodipamideThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Iodipamide is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
IodixanolThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Iodixanol is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
IohexolThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Iohexol is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
IopamidolThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Iopamidol is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
IopromideThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Iopromide is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
IoversolThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Ioversol is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
IoxilanThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Ioxilan is increased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Irbesartan.
IsosorbideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Isosorbide.
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Isoxsuprine.
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Isradipine.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Labetalol.
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Levobunolol.
LevodopaAldesleukin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Lisinopril.
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Losartan.
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Mannitol.
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Mecamylamine.
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Aldesleukin.
MetforminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Metformin.
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Methazolamide.
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Methyclothiazide.
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Methyldopa.
MethylprednisoloneMethylprednisolone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Metipranolol.
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Metolazone.
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Metoprolol.
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Minoxidil.
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Moexipril.
MometasoneMometasone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nadolol.
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nebivolol.
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nesiritide.
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nicardipine.
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nifedipine.
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nimodipine.
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nisoldipine.
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nitroglycerin.
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Nitroprusside.
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Olmesartan.
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Papaverine.
Peginterferon alfa-2aThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Peginterferon alfa-2a is combined with Aldesleukin.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Peginterferon alfa-2b is combined with Aldesleukin.
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Penbutolol.
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Perindopril.
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Pindolol.
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Prazosin.
PrednicarbatePrednicarbate may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
PrednisolonePrednisolone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
PrednisonePrednisone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Propranolol.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Quetiapine.
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Quinapril.
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Ramipril.
Repository corticotropinRepository corticotropin may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Reserpine.
RimexoloneRimexolone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Riociguat.
RisperidoneAldesleukin may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Sotalol.
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Spironolactone.
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Telmisartan.
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Terazosin.
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Timolol.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Tizanidine.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Torasemide.
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Trandolapril.
TriamcinoloneTriamcinolone may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Triamterene.
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Aldesleukin.
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Verapamil.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Interleukin-2 receptor subunit beta

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Interleukin-2 receptor subunit beta P14784 Details

References:

  1. Stauber DJ, Debler EW, Horton PA, Smith KA, Wilson IA: Crystal structure of the IL-2 signaling complex: paradigm for a heterotrimeric cytokine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 21;103(8):2788-93. Epub 2006 Feb 13. Pubmed
  2. Steppan S, Eckart MR, Bajsarowicz K, Sternberg LR, Greve JM, Cassell DJ: Reduced secondary cytokine induction by BAY 50-4798, a high-affinity receptor-specific interleukin-2 analog. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2006 Mar;26(3):171-8. Pubmed
  3. Cornish GH, Sinclair LV, Cantrell DA: Differential regulation of T-cell growth by IL-2 and IL-15. Blood. 2006 Jul 15;108(2):600-8. Epub 2006 Mar 28. Pubmed
  4. Lee KD, Chen HW, Chen CC, Shih YC, Liu HK, Cheng ML: Construction and characterization of a novel fusion protein consisting of anti-CD3 antibody fused to recombinant interleukin-2. Oncol Rep. 2006 May;15(5):1211-6. Pubmed
  5. Maclennan C, Hutchinson P, Holdsworth S, Bardin PG, Freezer NJ: Airway inflammation in asymptomatic children with episodic wheeze. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006 Jun;41(6):577-83. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Interleukin-2 receptor subunit alpha

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Interleukin-2 receptor subunit alpha P01589 Details

References:

  1. Waldmann TA: Anti-Tac (daclizumab, Zenapax) in the treatment of leukemia, autoimmune diseases, and in the prevention of allograft rejection: a 25-year personal odyssey. J Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;27(1):1-18. Epub 2007 Jan 11. Pubmed
  2. Recchia F, Cesta A, Rea S: Low dose interleukin-2 and 13-cis-retinoic acid as maintenance therapy in patients with solid tumors responsive to chemotherapy. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Dec;22(4 Suppl):135-43. Pubmed
  3. Waldmann TA: Daclizumab (anti-Tac, Zenapax) in the treatment of leukemia/lymphoma. Oncogene. 2007 May 28;26(25):3699-703. Pubmed
  4. Vlad G, Ho EK, Vasilescu ER, Fan J, Liu Z, Cai JW, Jin Z, Burke E, Deng M, Cadeiras M, Cortesini R, Itescu S, Marboe C, Mancini D, Suciu-Foca N: Anti-CD25 treatment and FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells in heart transplantation. Transpl Immunol. 2007 Jul;18(1):13-21. Epub 2007 Apr 2. Pubmed
  5. Liu BY, Zhu P, Luo HB, Fu N: [Screening of short peptides binding to cell surface interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Jul;26(7):971-4. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  7. Ouyang Y, Kaminski NE: Phospholipase A2 inhibitors p-bromophenacyl bromide and arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) expression in murine primary splenocytes. Arch Toxicol. 1999 Feb;73(1):1-6. Pubmed

3. Cytokine receptor common subunit gamma

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytokine receptor common subunit gamma P31785 Details

References:

  1. Stauber DJ, Debler EW, Horton PA, Smith KA, Wilson IA: Crystal structure of the IL-2 signaling complex: paradigm for a heterotrimeric cytokine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 21;103(8):2788-93. Epub 2006 Feb 13. Pubmed
  2. Shibata F, Toma T, Wada T, Inoue M, Tone Y, Ohta K, Kasahara Y, Sano F, Kimura M, Ikeno M, Koizumi S, Yachie A: Skin infiltration of CD56 CD16 natural killer cells in a case of X-SCID with Omenn syndrome-like manifestations. Eur J Haematol. 2007 Jul;79(1):81-5. Pubmed
  3. Fonseca SG, Reis MM, Coelho V, Nogueira LG, Monteiro SM, Mairena EC, Bacal F, Bocchi E, Guilherme L, Zheng XX, Liew FY, Higuchi ML, Kalil J, Cunha-Neto E: Locally produced survival cytokines IL-15 and IL-7 may be associated to the predominance of CD8+ T cells at heart lesions of human chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. Scand J Immunol. 2007 Aug-Sep;66(2-3):362-71. Pubmed
  4. Blank RB, Lamb EW, Tocheva AS, Crow ET, Lim KC, McKerrow JH, Davies SJ: The common gamma chain cytokines interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-7 indirectly modulate blood fluke development via effects on CD4+ T cells. J Infect Dis. 2006 Dec 1;194(11):1609-16. Epub 2006 Oct 23. Pubmed
  5. Smyth CM, Ginn SL, Deakin CT, Logan GJ, Alexander IE: Limiting {gamma}c expression differentially affects signaling via the interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-15 receptors. Blood. 2007 Jul 1;110(1):91-8. Epub 2007 Mar 15. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 P35354 Details

References:

  1. Pyeon D, Diaz FJ, Splitter GA: Prostaglandin E(2) increases bovine leukemia virus tax and pol mRNA levels via cyclooxygenase 2: regulation by interleukin-2, interleukin-10, and bovine leukemia virus. J Virol. 2000 Jun;74(12):5740-5. Pubmed
  2. Hamada T, Tsuchihashi S, Avanesyan A, Duarte S, Moore C, Busuttil RW, Coito AJ: Cyclooxygenase-2 deficiency enhances Th2 immune responses and impairs neutrophil recruitment in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 1;180(3):1843-53. Pubmed

2. Cytosolic phospholipase A2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 P47712 Details

References:

  1. Wolbink GJ, Schalkwijk C, Baars JW, Wagstaff J, van den Bosch H, Hack CE: Therapy with interleukin-2 induces the systemic release of phospholipase-A2. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1995 Nov;41(5):287-92. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Elkahwaji J, Robin MA, Berson A, Tinel M, Letteron P, Labbe G, Beaune P, Elias D, Rougier P, Escudier B, Duvillard P, Pessayre D: Decrease in hepatic cytochrome P450 after interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Apr 15;57(8):951-4. Pubmed
  2. Sunman JA, Hawke RL, LeCluyse EL, Kashuba AD: Kupffer cell-mediated IL-2 suppression of CYP3A activity in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):359-63. Pubmed

4. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase P47989 Details

References:

  1. Faggioni R, Allavena P, Cantoni L, Carelli M, Demitri MT, Delgado R, Gatti S, Gnocchi P, Isetta AM, Paganin C, et al.: Mechanisms of interleukin-2-induced hydrothoraxy in mice: protective effect of endotoxin tolerance and dexamethasone and possible role of reactive oxygen intermediates. J Immunother Emphasis Tumor Immunol. 1994 Apr;15(3):194-201. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Elkahwaji J, Robin MA, Berson A, Tinel M, Letteron P, Labbe G, Beaune P, Elias D, Rougier P, Escudier B, Duvillard P, Pessayre D: Decrease in hepatic cytochrome P450 after interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Apr 15;57(8):951-4. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 13, 2013 10:48