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Identification
NameBortezomib
Accession NumberDB00188  (APRD00828)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, investigational
Description

Bortezomib (originally PS-341 and marketed as Velcade by Millennium Pharmaceuticals) is the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be tested in humans. It is approved in the U.S. for treating relapsed multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. In multiple myeloma, complete clinical responses have been obtained in patients with otherwise refractory or rapidly advancing disease.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
N-[(1R)-1-(DIHYDROXYBORYL)-3-methylbutyl]-N-(pyrazin-2-ylcarbonyl)-L-phenylalaninamideNot AvailableNot Available
PS 341Not AvailableNot Available
PS-341Not AvailableNot Available
VelcadeNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
VelcadeNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number179324-69-7
WeightAverage: 384.237
Monoisotopic: 384.196885774
Chemical FormulaC19H25BN4O4
InChI KeyGXJABQQUPOEUTA-RDJZCZTQSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H25BN4O4/c1-13(2)10-17(20(27)28)24-18(25)15(11-14-6-4-3-5-7-14)23-19(26)16-12-21-8-9-22-16/h3-9,12-13,15,17,27-28H,10-11H2,1-2H3,(H,23,26)(H,24,25)/t15-,17-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
[(1R)-3-methyl-1-[(2S)-3-phenyl-2-(pyrazin-2-ylformamido)propanamido]butyl]boronic acid
SMILES
CC(C)C[C@H](NC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)C1=CN=CC=N1)B(O)O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct parentN-acyl-alpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Alternative parentsAlpha Amino Acid Amides; Amphetamines and Derivatives; Phenylpropylamines; Pyrazinecarboxamides; Boronic Acids; Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Carboxylic Acids; Polyamines; Enolates; Organoboron Compounds
Substituentsamphetamine or derivative; phenylpropylamine; pyrazinecarboxamide; pyrazine carboxylic acid or derivative; pyrazine; benzene; boronic acid; secondary carboxylic acid amide; carboxamide group; boronic acid derivative; polyamine; enolate; carboxylic acid; amine; organonitrogen compound; organic metalloid moeity; organoboron compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the n-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing an alpha amino acid (or a derivative thereof) which bears an acyl group at his terminal nitrogen atom.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of multiple myeloma in patients who have not been successfully treated with at least two previous therapies.
PharmacodynamicsBortezomib is a drug that inhibits the mammalian 26S proteasome. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an essential role in regulating the intracellular concentration of specific proteins, thereby maintaining homeostasis within cells. Inhibition of the 26S proteasome prevents this targeted proteolysis, which can affect multiple signaling cascades within the cell. This disruption of normal homeostatic mechanisms can lead to cell death. Experiments have demonstrated that bortezomib is cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cell types in vitro. Bortezomib causes a delay in tumor growth in vivo in nonclinical tumor models, including multiple myeloma. Tumor cells, that is, rapidly dividing cells, appear to be more sensitive to proteasome inhibition.
Mechanism of actionBortezomib is a reversible inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 26S proteasome in mammalian cells. The 26S proteasome is a large protein complex that degrades ubiquitinated proteins. The active site of the proteasome has chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and postglutamyl peptide hydrolysis activity. The 26S proteasome degrades various proteins critical to cancer cell survival, such as cyclins, tumor suppressors, BCL-2, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Inhibition of these degradations sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Bortezomib is a potent inhibitor of 26S proteasome, which sensitizes activity in dividing multiple myeloma and leukemic cells, thus inducing apoptosis. In addition, bortezomib appears to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to traditional anticancer agents (e.g., gemcitabine, cisplatin, paclitaxel, irinotecan, and radiation).
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding83% over the concentration range of 100-1000 ng/ml.
Metabolism

In vitro studies with human liver microsomes and human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 isozymes indicate that bortezomib is primarily oxidatively metabolized via cytochrome P450 enzymes 3A4, 2C19, and 1A2, while bortezomib metabolism by CYP 2D6 and 2C9 enzymes is minor. The major metabolic pathway is deboronation to form 2 deboronated metabolites that subsequently undergo hydroxylation to several metabolites which are inactive as 26S proteasome inhibitors.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Bortezomib
Bortezomib metabolite M1Details
Bortezomib
Bortezomib metabolite M2Details
Bortezomib metabolite M1
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M3Details
Bortezomib metabolite M2
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M3Details
Bortezomib metabolite M3
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M4Details
Bortezomib metabolite M1
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M5Details
Bortezomib metabolite M2
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M6Details
Bortezomib metabolite M2
Bortezomib metabolite M8Details
Bortezomib metabolite M8
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M33Details
Bortezomib
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M34Details
Bortezomib metabolite M1
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M25Details
Bortezomib metabolite M1
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M26Details
Bortezomib metabolite M2
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M27Details
Bortezomib metabolite M2
Not Available
Bortezomib metabolite M28Details
Bortezomib
Bortezomib metabolite M23 or M24 (1)Details
Bortezomib
Bortezomib metabolite M23 or M24 (2)Details
Route of eliminationThe pathways of elimination of bortezomib have not been characterized in humans.
Half lifeThe mean elimination half-life of bortezomib after first dose ranged from 9 to 15 hours at doses ranging from 1.45 to 2.00 mg/m2 in patients with advanced malignancies.
Clearance
  • 102 L/h [patients with multiple myeloma following the first dose for doses of 1 mg/m2]
  • 112 L/h [patients with multiple myeloma following the first dose for doses of 1.3 mg/m2]
  • 15 – 32 L/h [patients with multiple myeloma following subsequent doses for doses of 1 and 1.3 mg/m2]
ToxicityCardiovascular safety pharmacology studies in monkeys show that lethal IV doses are associated with decreases in blood pressure, increases in heart rate, increases in contractility, and ultimately terminal hypotension. In monkeys, doses of 3.0 mg/m2 and greater (approximately twice the recommended clinical dose) resulted in progressive hypotension starting at 1 hour and progressing to death by 12 to 14 hours following drug administration.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption - 0.6935
Blood Brain Barrier - 0.6533
Caco-2 permeable - 0.6576
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.5909
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.785
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 1.0
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9445
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7145
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.5209
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.855
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8267
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9304
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8108
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9604
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.7439
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8064
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9943
Rat acute toxicity 2.4537 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9936
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8593
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Millennium pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Velcade 3.5 mg vial1590.0USDvial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States67134462002-01-252022-01-25
United States60839031994-10-282014-10-28
Canada22039362005-04-122015-10-27
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityThe solubility of bortezomib, as the monomeric boronic acid, is 3.3 to 3.8 mg/mL in a pH range of 2 to 6.5.Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility5.32e-02 g/lALOGPS
logP0.89ALOGPS
logP1.53ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)13.04ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-0.7ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count6ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count4ChemAxon
polar surface area124.44ChemAxon
rotatable bond count9ChemAxon
refractivity99.37ChemAxon
polarizability40.48ChemAxon
number of rings2ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Raghavendracharyulu Venkata Palle, Rajasekhar Kadaboina, Veerendeer Murki, Amarendhar Manda, Nageshwar Gunda, Ramaseshagiri Rao Pulla, Mallesha Hanmanthu, Narasimha Naidu Mopidevi, Suresh Kumar Ramdoss, “BORTEZOMIB AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCING SAME.” U.S. Patent US20100226597, issued September 09, 2010.

US20100226597
General Reference
  1. Adams J, Kauffman M: Development of the proteasome inhibitor Velcade (Bortezomib). Cancer Invest. 2004;22(2):304-11. Pubmed
  2. Bonvini P, Zorzi E, Basso G, Rosolen A: Bortezomib-mediated 26S proteasome inhibition causes cell-cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in CD-30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Leukemia. 2007 Apr;21(4):838-42. Epub 2007 Feb 1. Pubmed
  3. Voorhees PM, Dees EC, O’Neil B, Orlowski RZ: The proteasome as a target for cancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Dec 15;9(17):6316-25. Pubmed
  4. Oakervee HE, Popat R, Curry N, Smith P, Morris C, Drake M, Agrawal S, Stec J, Schenkein D, Esseltine DL, Cavenagh JD: PAD combination therapy (PS-341/bortezomib, doxorubicin and dexamethasone) for previously untreated patients with multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol. 2005 Jun;129(6):755-62. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
ChEBI52717
ChEMBLCHEMBL325041
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001318
PharmGKBPA10252
Drug Product Database2262452
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/velcade.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/bortezomib.html
WikipediaBortezomib
ATC CodesL01XX32
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(199 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
ClopidogrelModerate CYP2C19 Inhibitors like bortezomib may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clopidogrel. Avoid concurrent use of moderate CYP2C19 inhibitors with clopidogrel whenever possible. If such a combination must be used, monitor closely for evidence of reduced clinical response to clopidogrel.
EtravirineBortezombib, when used concomitantly with etravirine, may experience a decrease in serum concentration. It is recommended to avoid this combination.
TelithromycinTelithromycin may reduce clearance of Bortezomib. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Bortezomib if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TiclopidineTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Bortezomib. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Bortezomib if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of bortezomib by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of bortezomib if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Citrus fruits - Patients should avoid taking extra vitamin C (ascorbic acid) supplements and vitamin C-containing multi-vitamins during their bortezomib therapy. Ascorbic Acid may diminish the therapeutic effect of Bortezomib.
  • Green Tea - Green Tea may diminish the antineoplastic effect of Bortezomib. Avoid concurrent use of green tea extract and other green tea products during treatment with bortezomib.

Targets

1. 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 2 Q13200 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. von Schwarzenberg K, Held SA, Schaub A, Brauer KM, Bringmann A, Brossart P: Proteasome inhibition overcomes the resistance of renal cell carcinoma cells against the PPARgamma ligand troglitazone. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009 Apr;66(7):1295-308. Pubmed
  4. Marchi E, Paoluzzi L, Scotto L, Seshan VE, Zain JM, Zinzani PL, O’Connor OA: Pralatrexate is synergistic with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in in vitro and in vivo models of T-cell lymphoid malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Jul 15;16(14):3648-58. Epub 2010 May 25. Pubmed
  5. Saeki Y, Fukunaga K, Tanaka K: [Proteasome inhibitors]. Nippon Rinsho. 2010 Oct;68(10):1818-22. Pubmed

2. Proteasome subunit beta type-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proteasome subunit beta type-1 P20618 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Saeki Y, Fukunaga K, Tanaka K: [Proteasome inhibitors]. Nippon Rinsho. 2010 Oct;68(10):1818-22. Pubmed

3. Proteasome subunit beta type-5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proteasome subunit beta type-5 P28074 Details

References:

  1. Politou M, Karadimitris A, Terpos E, Kotsianidis I, Apperley JF, Rahemtulla A: No evidence of mutations of the PSMB5 (beta-5 subunit of proteasome) in a case of myeloma with clinical resistance to Bortezomib. Leuk Res. 2006 Feb;30(2):240-1. Epub 2005 Aug 2. Pubmed
  2. Saeki Y, Fukunaga K, Tanaka K: [Proteasome inhibitors]. Nippon Rinsho. 2010 Oct;68(10):1818-22. Pubmed

4. Proteasome subunit beta type-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proteasome subunit beta type-2 P49721 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Saeki Y, Fukunaga K, Tanaka K: [Proteasome inhibitors]. Nippon Rinsho. 2010 Oct;68(10):1818-22. Pubmed

5. 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 1 Q99460 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Saeki Y, Fukunaga K, Tanaka K: [Proteasome inhibitors]. Nippon Rinsho. 2010 Oct;68(10):1818-22. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Lexicomp.

2. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Lexicomp

3. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Lexicomp.

4. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Lexicomp.

5. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 P23219 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 1A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. High affinity copper uptake protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
High affinity copper uptake protein 1 O15431 Details

References:

  1. Jandial DD, Farshchi-Heydari S, Larson CA, Elliott GI, Wrasidlo WJ, Howell SB: Enhanced delivery of cisplatin to intraperitoneal ovarian carcinomas mediated by the effects of bortezomib on the human copper transporter 1. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 15;15(2):553-60. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08