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Identification
NameLovastatin
Accession NumberDB00227  (APRD00370)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Lovastatin is a cholesterol-lowering agent that belongs to the class of medications called statins. It was the second agent of this class discovered. It was discovered by Alfred Alberts and his team at Merck in 1978 after screening only 18 compounds over 2 weeks. The agent, also known as mevinolin, was isolated from the fungi Aspergillus terreus. Research on this compound was suddenly shut down in 1980 and the drug was not approved until 1987. Interesting, Akira Endo at Sankyo Co. (Japan) patented lovastatin isolated from Monascus ruber four months before Merck. Lovastatin was found to be 2 times more potent than its predecessor, mevastatin, the first discovered statin. Like mevastatin, lovastatin is structurally similar to hydroxymethylglutarate (HMG), a substituent of HMG-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), a substrate of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway via the mevalonic acid pathway. Lovastatin is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with a binding affinity 20,000 times greater than HMG-CoA. Lovastatin differs structurally from mevastatin by a single methyl group at the 6’ position. Lovastatin is a prodrug that is activated by in vivo hydrolysis of the lactone ring. It, along with mevastatin, has served as one of the lead compounds for the development of the synthetic compounds used today.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(1S,3R,7S,8S,8AR)-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-(2-(2R,4R)-(tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)ethyl)-1-naphthalenyl (S)-2-methyl-butyrate
2beta,6alpha-Dimethyl-8alpha-(2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-mevinic acid lactone
6-alpha-methylcompactin
6alpha-Methylcompactin
6α-methylcompactin
LOVASTATIN
Lovastatina
Lovastatine
Lovastatinum
Mevacor
Mevinolin
MK-803
ML-530b
External Identifiers
  • MK-803
  • ML-530B
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Lovastatintablet40 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2004-07-28Not applicableCanada
Act Lovastatintablet20 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2004-07-28Not applicableCanada
Altoprevtablet, extended release60 mg/1oralShionogi Inc.2002-06-262016-12-31Us
Altoprevtablet, extended release40 mg/1oralShionogi Inc.2002-06-262018-02-28Us
Altoprevtablet, extended release20 mg/1oralShionogi Inc.2002-06-262017-12-31Us
Ava-lovastatintablet40 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-08-182014-08-21Canada
Ava-lovastatintablet20 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-08-182014-08-21Canada
Dom-lovastatintablet40 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2003-02-25Not applicableCanada
Dom-lovastatintablet20 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2003-02-25Not applicableCanada
Lovastatintablet40 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Lovastatintablet20 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Lovastatintablet40 mgoralSanis Health Inc2010-07-26Not applicableCanada
Lovastatintablet20 mgoralSanis Health Inc2010-07-26Not applicableCanada
Lovastatin-20tablet20 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2003-08-152008-07-09Canada
Lovastatin-40tablet40 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2003-08-152008-07-09Canada
Mevacortablet20 mg/1oralMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.1987-08-31Not applicableUs
Mevacortablet20 mgoralMerck Canada Inc1988-12-312014-06-06Canada
Mevacortablet40 mgoralMerck Canada Inc1990-12-312014-06-06Canada
Mevacortablet40 mg/1oralMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.1987-08-31Not applicableUs
Mylan-lovastatintablet40 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2001-02-19Not applicableCanada
Mylan-lovastatintablet20 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2001-02-08Not applicableCanada
Nu-lovastatin Tabletstablet20 mgoralNu Pharm Inc2004-12-172012-09-04Canada
PHL-lovastatintablet20 mgoralPharmel Inc2003-01-07Not applicableCanada
PHL-lovastatintablet40 mgoralPharmel Inc2003-01-07Not applicableCanada
PMS-lovastatintablet40 mgoralPharmascience Inc2002-07-16Not applicableCanada
PMS-lovastatintablet20 mgoralPharmascience Inc2002-07-12Not applicableCanada
Pro-lovastatintablet20 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-09Not applicableCanada
Pro-lovastatintablet40 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-09Not applicableCanada
Ran-lovastatintablet40 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2005-07-052012-06-13Canada
Ran-lovastatintablet20 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2005-07-052012-06-13Canada
Ratio-lovastatintablet40 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited2002-05-222013-01-09Canada
Ratio-lovastatintablet20 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited2002-05-222013-01-09Canada
Riva-lovastatintablet40 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2005-12-07Not applicableCanada
Riva-lovastatintablet20 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2005-12-01Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Lovastatintablet40 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2003-02-27Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Lovastatintablet20 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2003-02-27Not applicableCanada
Teva-lovastatintablet20 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2003-01-20Not applicableCanada
Teva-lovastatintablet40 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2003-01-20Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-lovastatin - Tab 20mgtablet20 mgoralApotex Inc1997-03-27Not applicableCanada
Apo-lovastatin - Tab 40mgtablet40 mgoralApotex Inc1997-03-27Not applicableCanada
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2010-04-10Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.2006-04-14Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2014-01-30Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-12-02Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralActavis Inc.2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-02-20Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-04-29Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2012-01-31Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-04-09Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2005-10-27Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-12-14Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2008-03-27Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-07-11Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-10-20Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralActavis Inc.2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-09-26Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-04-29Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2012-01-31Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2005-10-27Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-08-18Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2008-03-27Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2014-06-24Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-03-16Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralActavis Inc.2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-14Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-04-29Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2012-01-31Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2007-08-06Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2005-10-27Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-03-09Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2011-07-18Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2002-06-06Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-11-04Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2010-06-22Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2014-02-10Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2007-09-12Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2016-03-03Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-03-18Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-04-14Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2008-03-27Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2014-06-24Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2002-01-15Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-10-09Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2014-02-10Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-03-18Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-01-28Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2015-05-20Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2014-06-24Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-10-24Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2011-07-18Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-03-18Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2001-12-21Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2015-05-20Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-09-23Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2011-07-18Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-09-11Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-10-09Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2014-02-10Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2010-03-22Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.2006-04-14Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-06-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2002-06-06Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-12-12Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-15Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-10-09Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2009-06-15Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-07-29Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2010-04-03Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.2006-04-14Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2014-04-21Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-10-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2002-06-06Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2001-12-17Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet40 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2002-11-25Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-07-29Not applicableUs
Lovastatintablet20 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AltocorNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
AdvicorAbb Vie Inc.
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII9LHU78OQFD
CAS number75330-75-5
WeightAverage: 404.5396
Monoisotopic: 404.256274262
Chemical FormulaC24H36O5
InChI KeyInChIKey=PCZOHLXUXFIOCF-BXMDZJJMSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H36O5/c1-5-15(3)24(27)29-21-11-14(2)10-17-7-6-16(4)20(23(17)21)9-8-19-12-18(25)13-22(26)28-19/h6-7,10,14-16,18-21,23,25H,5,8-9,11-13H2,1-4H3/t14-,15-,16-,18+,19+,20-,21-,23-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3R,7S,8S,8aR)-8-{2-[(2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-6-oxooxan-2-yl]ethyl}-3,7-dimethyl-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate
SMILES
[H][C@]12[[email protected]](C[C@@H](C)C=C1C=C[[email protected]](C)[C@@H]2CC[C@@H]1C[C@@H](O)CC(=O)O1)OC(=O)[C@@H](C)CC
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as delta valerolactones. These are cyclic organic compounds containing an oxan-2- one moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassLactones
Sub ClassDelta valerolactones
Direct ParentDelta valerolactones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Delta_valerolactone
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Delta valerolactone
  • Fatty acyl
  • Oxane
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor management as an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG levels in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia. For primary prevention of coronary heart disease and to slow progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary heart disease.
PharmacodynamicsThe primary cause of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerotic plaque formation. Sustained elevations of cholesterol in the blood increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Lovastatin lowers hepatic cholesterol synthesis by competitively inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway via the mevalonic acid pathway. Decreased hepatic cholesterol levels causes increased uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and reduces cholesterol levels in the circulation. At therapeutic doses, lovastatin decreases serum LDL cholesterol by 29-32%, increases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 4.6-7.3%, and decrease triglyceride levels by 2-12%. HDL cholesterol is thought to confer protective effects against CV disease, whereas high LDL and triglyceride levels are associated with higher risk of disease.
Mechanism of actionLovastatin is structurally similar to the HMG, a substituent of the endogenous substrate of HMG-CoA reductase. Lovastatin is a prodrug that is activated in vivo via hydrolysis of the lactone ring to form the β-hydroxyacid. The hydrolyzed lactone ring mimics the tetrahedral intermediate produced by the reductase allowing the agent to bind to HMG-CoA reductase with 20,000 times greater affinity than its natural substrate. The bicyclic portion of lovastatin binds to the coenzyme A portion of the active site.
Related Articles
AbsorptionStudies suggest that <5% of the oral dose reaches the general circulation as active inhibitors. Time to peak serum concentration is 2-4 hours. Lovastatin undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism so the availability of the drug in the system is low and variable.
Volume of distribution

Lovastatin is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier and placenta.

Protein bindingLovastatin and its β-hydroxyacid metabolites are highly protein bound (>95%).
Metabolism

Lovastatin is hepatically metabolized in which the major active metabolites are the β-hydroxyacid of lovastatin, the 6’-hydroxy derivative, and two additional metabolites.

Route of eliminationLovastatin undergoes extensive first-pass extraction in the liver, its primary site of action, with subsequent excretion of drug equivalents in the bile. 83% of the orally administered dose is excreted in bile and 10% is excreted in urine.
Half life5.3 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50>1000 mg/kg (orally in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Lovastatin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00099
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9452
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9287
Caco-2 permeable-0.5484
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7861
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7046
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8388
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8299
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8333
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6868
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9291
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8682
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8475
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9519
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8819
Rat acute toxicity2.0554 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7272
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7484
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Andrx labs llc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Carlsbad technology inc
  • Lupin ltd
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Merck research laboratories div merck co inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet (immediate release); tablet (extended-release)oral
Tablet, extended releaseoral
Tablet, extended releaseoral20 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral40 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral60 mg/1
Tabletoral20 mg
Tabletoral40 mg
Tabletoral10 mg/1
Tabletoral20 mg/1
Tabletoral40 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Altoprev 60 mg 24 Hour tablet7.99USD tablet
Altoprev 60 mg tablet7.74USD tablet
Altoprev 20 mg 24 Hour tablet6.88USD tablet
Altoprev 20 mg tablet6.61USD tablet
Mevacor 40 mg tablet4.57USD tablet
Altoprev 40 mg tablet4.41USD tablet
Lovastatin 40 mg tablet4.36USD tablet
Altoprev 10 mg 24 Hour tablet3.07USD tablet
Mevacor 20 mg tablet2.53USD tablet
Lovastatin 20 mg tablet2.42USD tablet
Altocor 20 mg 24 Hour tablet2.36USD tablet
Apo-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Co Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Mylan-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Novo-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Pms-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Ran-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Ratio-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Sandoz Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Mevacor 10 mg tablet1.65USD tablet
Lovastatin 10 mg tablet1.37USD tablet
Apo-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Co Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Mylan-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Novo-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Pms-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Ran-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Ratio-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Sandoz Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5916595 No1997-12-122017-12-12Us
US6080428 No1997-05-272017-05-27Us
US6080778 No1998-03-232018-03-23Us
US6469035 No1998-03-152018-03-15Us
US6485748 No1997-12-122017-12-12Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point174.5 °CNot Available
water solubility0.0004 mg/mLNot Available
logP4.26HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0243 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.11ALOGPS
logP3.9ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.91ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.83 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity113.18 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability46.11 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Donald F. Gerson, Xinfa Xiao, “Process for the production of lovastatin using Coniothyrium fuckelii.” U.S. Patent US5409820, issued January, 1984.

US5409820
General References
  1. Bobek P, Ozdin L, Galbavy S: Dose- and time-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats. Nutrition. 1998 Mar;14(3):282-6. [PubMed:9583372 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC10AA02C10BA01
AHFS Codes
  • 24:06.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (126 KB)
MSDSDownload (99.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcipimoxAcipimox may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Lovastatin.
Aluminum hydroxideThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Lovastatin can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AzithromycinAzithromycin may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Lovastatin.
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Batimastat.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BezafibrateBezafibrate may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Lovastatin.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Boceprevir.
BosentanThe metabolism of Lovastatin can be increased when combined with Bosentan.
Calcium carbonateThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Calcium carbonate.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
CiprofibrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ciprofibrate is combined with Lovastatin.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
ColchicineColchicine may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Lovastatin.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Cyclosporine.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.
DanazolThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Danazol.
DaptomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lovastatin is combined with Daptomycin.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DicoumarolLovastatin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Diltiazem can be increased when it is combined with Lovastatin.
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Dronedarone.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Erythromycin.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.
FenofibrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenofibrate is combined with Lovastatin.
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
Fusidic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fusidic Acid is combined with Lovastatin.
GemfibrozilGemfibrozil may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Lovastatin.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Indinavir.
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.
LanthanumThe serum concentration of Lanthanum can be decreased when it is combined with Lovastatin.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
Magnesium oxideThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Magnesium oxide.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NiacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Lovastatin.
NicotinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicotinamide is combined with Lovastatin.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PazopanibLovastatin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Pazopanib.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
RaltegravirRaltegravir may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Lovastatin.
RanolazineRanolazine may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Lovastatin.
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
St. John's WortThe metabolism of Lovastatin can be increased when combined with St. John&#39;s Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Telaprevir.
TelithromycinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Telithromycin.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ticagrelor.
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Tipranavir.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TrabectedinLovastatin may increase the myopathic rhabdomyolysis activities of Trabectedin.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Voriconazole.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid drastic changes in dietary habit.
  • Avoid taking with grapefruit juice.
  • Take with food, 50% increase in bioavailability when taken with food.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Nadph binding
Specific Function:
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Gene Name:
HMGCR
Uniprot ID:
P04035
Molecular Weight:
97475.155 Da
References
  1. Abe Y, Suzuki T, Ono C, Iwamoto K, Hosobuchi M, Yoshikawa H: Molecular cloning and characterization of an ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic gene cluster in Penicillium citrinum. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002 Jul;267(5):636-46. Epub 2002 Jun 28. [PubMed:12172803 ]
  2. Miyazaki A, Koieyama T, Shimada Y, Kikuchi T, Nezu H, Ito K, Kasanuki N, Koga T: Effects of pravastatin sodium on mevalonate metabolism in common marmosets. J Biochem. 2002 Sep;132(3):395-400. [PubMed:12204108 ]
  3. Buxbaum JD, Geoghagen NS, Friedhoff LT: Cholesterol depletion with physiological concentrations of a statin decreases the formation of the Alzheimer amyloid Abeta peptide. J Alzheimers Dis. 2001 Apr;3(2):221-229. [PubMed:12214063 ]
  4. Baranova NA, Kreier VG, Egorov NS: [Concentration on Diapak C 16 capsules of lovastatin, mevinolinic acid and other inhibitors of biosynthesis of sterins produced by Penicillium citrinum 89]. Antibiot Khimioter. 2002;47(4):3-6. [PubMed:12369143 ]
  5. Farina HG, Bublik DR, Alonso DF, Gomez DE: Lovastatin alters cytoskeleton organization and inhibits experimental metastasis of mammary carcinoma cells. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2002;19(6):551-9. [PubMed:12405293 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  7. Podar K, Tai YT, Hideshima T, Vallet S, Richardson PG, Anderson KC: Emerging therapies for multiple myeloma. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2009 Mar;14(1):99-127. doi: 10.1517/14728210802676278 . [PubMed:19249983 ]
  8. Dimitroulakos J, Marhin WH, Tokunaga J, Irish J, Gullane P, Penn LZ, Kamel-Reid S: Microarray and biochemical analysis of lovastatin-induced apoptosis of squamous cell carcinomas. Neoplasia. 2002 Jul-Aug;4(4):337-46. [PubMed:12082550 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4. It is involved in a variety of immune phenomena including leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytotoxic T-cell mediated killing, and antibody dependent killing by granulocytes and monocytes.
Gene Name:
ITGAL
Uniprot ID:
P20701
Molecular Weight:
128768.495 Da
References
  1. Kallen J, Welzenbach K, Ramage P, Geyl D, Kriwacki R, Legge G, Cottens S, Weitz-Schmidt G, Hommel U: Structural basis for LFA-1 inhibition upon lovastatin binding to the CD11a I-domain. J Mol Biol. 1999 Sep 10;292(1):1-9. [PubMed:10493852 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
other
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Forms transcriptional repressor c...
Gene Name:
HDAC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92769
Molecular Weight:
55363.855 Da
References
  1. Lin YC, Lin JH, Chou CW, Chang YF, Yeh SH, Chen CC: Statins increase p21 through inhibition of histone deacetylase activity and release of promoter-associated HDAC1/2. Cancer Res. 2008 Apr 1;68(7):2375-83. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5807. [PubMed:18381445 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M, Backman JT: Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Dec;80(6):565-81. [PubMed:17178259 ]
  2. Cohen LH, van Leeuwen RE, van Thiel GC, van Pelt JF, Yap SH: Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 Dec;21(9):353-64. [PubMed:11523064 ]
  3. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  5. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Has low activity towards the organophosphate paraxon and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Rapidly hydrolyzes lactones such as statin prodrugs (e.g. lovastatin). Hydrolyzes aromatic lactones and 5- or 6-member ring lactones with aliphatic substituents but not simple lactones or those with polar substituents.
Gene Name:
PON3
Uniprot ID:
Q15166
Molecular Weight:
39607.185 Da
References
  1. Draganov DI, Stetson PL, Watson CE, Billecke SS, La Du BN: Rabbit serum paraoxonase 3 (PON3) is a high density lipoprotein-associated lactonase and protects low density lipoprotein against oxidation. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 27;275(43):33435-42. [PubMed:10931838 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Tornio A, Pasanen MK, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT: Comparison of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2C8. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Aug;97(2):104-8. [PubMed:15998357 ]
  2. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Cohen LH, van Leeuwen RE, van Thiel GC, van Pelt JF, Yap SH: Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 Dec;21(9):353-64. [PubMed:11523064 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Cohen LH, van Leeuwen RE, van Thiel GC, van Pelt JF, Yap SH: Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 Dec;21(9):353-64. [PubMed:11523064 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naph...
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular Weight:
59590.91 Da
References
  1. http://www.pharmacologyweekly.com/content/pages/ugt-enzymes-medications-herbs-substrate-inhibitor-inducer
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P35503
Molecular Weight:
60337.835 Da
References
  1. http://www.pharmacologyweekly.com/content/pages/ugt-enzymes-medications-herbs-substrate-inhibitor-inducer
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol...
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular Weight:
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Prueksaritanont T, Subramanian R, Fang X, Ma B, Qiu Y, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Baillie TA: Glucuronidation of statins in animals and humans: a novel mechanism of statin lactonization. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 May;30(5):505-12. [PubMed:11950779 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang E, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) characterized as direct inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Jun;18(6):800-6. [PubMed:11474784 ]
  2. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [PubMed:11716514 ]
  3. Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, Cvetkovic M, Fromm MF, Dempsey PJ, Roden MM, Belas F, Chaudhary AK, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR: Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 1999 Mar;16(3):408-14. [PubMed:10213372 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. [PubMed:10421612 ]
  2. Hsiang B, Zhu Y, Wang Z, Wu Y, Sasseville V, Yang WP, Kirchgessner TG: A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion transporting polypeptide and identification of rat and human hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor transporters. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 24;274(52):37161-8. [PubMed:10601278 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Hsiang B, Zhu Y, Wang Z, Wu Y, Sasseville V, Yang WP, Kirchgessner TG: A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion transporting polypeptide and identification of rat and human hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor transporters. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 24;274(52):37161-8. [PubMed:10601278 ]
  2. Sandhu P, Lee W, Xu X, Leake BF, Yamazaki M, Stone JA, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Kim RB: Hepatic uptake of the novel antifungal agent caspofungin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 May;33(5):676-82. Epub 2005 Feb 16. [PubMed:15716364 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Ellis LC, Hawksworth GM, Weaver RJ: ATP-dependent transport of statins by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Jun 1;269(2):187-94. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.03.019. Epub 2013 Apr 2. [PubMed:23562342 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 29, 2016 02:11