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Identification
NameValproic Acid
Accession NumberDB00313  (APRD00256, DB00510, APRD00066)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Valproic acid, supplied as the sodium salt valproate semisodium or divalproex sodium, is a fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels. Typically supplied in the sodium salt form (CAS number: 76584-70-8). Valproic Acid is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-n-propyl-n-valeric acid
2-propyl-pentanoic acid
2-Propylpentanoic Acid
2-Propylvaleric Acid
4-heptanecarboxylic acid
acide valproïque
ácido valproico
acidum valproicum
di-n-propylacetic acid
Di-n-propylessigsäure
Dipropylacetic acid
DPA
n-DPA
Valproate
Valproinsäure
VPA
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Depaconinjection100 mg/mLintravenousAbb Vie Inc.1996-12-30Not applicableUs
Depakenesolution50 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Depakenecapsule250 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Depakenesolution250 mg/5mLoralAbb Vie Inc.1978-02-28Not applicableUs
Depakenecapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1978-02-28Not applicableUs
Depakene Cap 500mgcapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralAbbott Laboratories, Limited1981-12-312007-05-11Canada
Depakotetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-11-18Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-02-10Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1983-03-10Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-07-14Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1983-03-10Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-11-14Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1983-03-10Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-12-18Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakotecapsule125 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakote ERtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Depakote ERtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Depakote ERtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakote ERtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Depakote Sprinklescapsule125 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1989-09-12Not applicableUs
Deproic Syrupsyrup250 mgoralTechnilab Pharma Inc.1998-06-022006-07-28Canada
Divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralSanis Health Inc2013-02-13Not applicableCanada
Divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralSanis Health Inc2013-02-13Not applicableCanada
Divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralSanis Health Inc2013-02-13Not applicableCanada
Divalproex Sodium Delayed Release (sprinkle)capsule125 mg/1oralSandoz Inc.2015-08-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended Releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2013-08-12Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended Releasetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2013-08-12Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex-125tablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2001-08-22Not applicableCanada
Divalproex-250tablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2001-08-22Not applicableCanada
Divalproex-500tablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2001-08-22Not applicableCanada
Dom-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2002-04-15Not applicableCanada
Dom-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2002-04-15Not applicableCanada
Dom-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2002-04-15Not applicableCanada
Dom-valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1998-04-25Not applicableCanada
Dom-valproic Acid E.C.capsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1998-10-22Not applicableCanada
Dom-valproic Acid Syrupsyrup250 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1999-03-08Not applicableCanada
Epiject I.V.liquid500 mgintravenousAbbott Laboratories, Limited2000-09-012007-10-05Canada
Epivaltablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Epivaltablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Epivaltablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Epival ERtablet (extended-release)500 mgoralAbbott Laboratories, Limited2000-11-132008-06-06Canada
Ftp-valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralFtp Pharmacal Inc.1998-10-092004-08-03Canada
Mylan-divalproextablet (delayed-release)250 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2005-03-04Not applicableCanada
Mylan-divalproextablet (delayed-release)125 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2005-03-04Not applicableCanada
Mylan-divalproextablet (delayed-release)500 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2005-03-04Not applicableCanada
Mylan-valproiccapsule250 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Novo-valproiccapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1997-01-07Not applicableCanada
Novo-valproiccapsule250 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Nu-divalproex 125mgtablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1999-01-202012-09-04Canada
Nu-divalproex 250mgtablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1999-01-202012-09-04Canada
Nu-divalproex 500mgtablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1999-01-202012-09-04Canada
Nu-valproiccapsule250 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1998-07-292012-09-04Canada
Nu-valproic Syrupsyrup50 mgoralNu Pharm IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Penta-valproic Capsulescapsule250 mgoralPentapharm Ltd.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
PHL-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPharmel Inc2007-10-25Not applicableCanada
PHL-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralPharmel Inc2007-10-25Not applicableCanada
PHL-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralPharmel Inc2007-08-01Not applicableCanada
PHL-valproic Acidsyrup250 mgoralPharmel Inc1998-09-03Not applicableCanada
PHL-valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralPharmel Inc2004-12-02Not applicableCanada
PHL-valproic Acid E.C.capsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPharmel Inc2004-12-06Not applicableCanada
PMS-divalproex (125mg)tablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralPharmascience Inc2001-08-03Not applicableCanada
PMS-divalproex (250mg)tablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralPharmascience Inc2001-08-03Not applicableCanada
PMS-divalproex (500mg)tablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPharmascience Inc2001-08-03Not applicableCanada
PMS-valproic Acidsyrup250 mgoralPharmascience Inc1997-11-20Not applicableCanada
PMS-valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralPharmascience Inc1997-02-27Not applicableCanada
PMS-valproic Acid E.C.capsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPharmascience Inc1996-12-13Not applicableCanada
Ratio-valproiccapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1997-08-28Not applicableCanada
Ratio-valproiccapsule250 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1996-11-04Not applicableCanada
Ratio-valproic - Ecc 500mgcapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1996-07-172010-08-02Canada
Ratio-valproic 50mg/ml Syrupsyrup50 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1998-01-192015-10-26Canada
Ratio-valproic-cap 250mgcapsule250 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1995-12-312014-09-19Canada
Sandoz Valproiccapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-01-282008-08-07Canada
Sandoz Valproiccapsule250 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-01-28Not applicableCanada
Teva-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1999-04-14Not applicableCanada
Teva-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1999-04-14Not applicableCanada
Teva-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1999-04-14Not applicableCanada
Valproic-250capsule250 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1998-11-252012-07-23Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralApotex Inc1999-03-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralApotex Inc1999-03-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralApotex Inc1999-03-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-valproiccapsule250 mgoralApotex Inc1998-06-01Not applicableCanada
Apo-valproic Syrupsyrup50 mgoralApotex Inc1998-07-15Not applicableCanada
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-09-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-01-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-03-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-02-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2014-11-05Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-10-15Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-07-12Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2010-06-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, coated pellets125 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-04-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule125 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-12-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2013-01-07Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2013-08-11Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2013-08-11Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-06-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-03-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-02-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2014-10-24Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2010-06-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-11-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2013-01-07Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule125 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2009-01-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-03-18Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralMedsource Pharmaceuticals2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-08-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-03-09Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2013-10-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-02-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, coated pellets125 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2009-01-27Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2009-02-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2012-01-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-11-26Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-10-07Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2013-10-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-08-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2013-08-11Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-28Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, delayed release125 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-03-28Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-10-07Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-17Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralNorth Star Rx Llc2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2013-08-11Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-02-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-04-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule125 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-01-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-07-12Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2012-01-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-10-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, coated pellets125 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2009-01-27Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-01-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralNorth Star Rx Llc2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-08-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-02-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-04-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2014-10-24Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2013-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-11-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralImpax Generics2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-10-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-08-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule125 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-07-24Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-04-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralWatson Pharma, Inc.2011-02-25Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2013-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-03-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-06-15Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-02-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-02-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-11-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, coated pellets125 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-04-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2010-06-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-08-18Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-03-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralImpax Generics2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-08-28Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed Releasetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-16Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed Releasetablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed Releasetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated125 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated250 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralT Wi Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated250 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release particles500 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2009-02-10Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2009-02-10Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended Releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-05-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended Releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-24Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-02-26Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-142015-12-29Us
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-142015-12-29Us
Divalproex Sodiumdelayed-release Delayed-releasetablet, film coated250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-252016-04-05Us
Divalproex Sodiumdelayed-release Delayed-releasetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Valproate Sodiuminjection, solution100 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2003-08-18Not applicableUs
Valproate Sodiuminjection500 mg/5mLintravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2010-02-17Not applicableUs
Valproate Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLintravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2013-04-15Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-04-19Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralActavis Pharma, Inc.2009-09-08Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-05Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-09-08Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-05Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2009-09-08Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidtablet250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-06-162016-03-17Us
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-10-13Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2012-08-10Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-08-102015-12-29Us
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc1991-10-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-12-30Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution500 mg/10mLoralPrecision Dose Inc.2007-01-30Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2013-02-28Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralPrecision Dose Inc.2003-12-10Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.1995-01-13Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.1995-01-13Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2011-10-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralPliva Inc.1993-10-31Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralCardinal Health2003-12-10Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-06-04Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc1991-10-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.2005-04-11Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2012-04-18Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.2005-04-11Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1991-10-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralCardinal Health2005-04-11Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2005-03-01Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralMorton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1995-04-05Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp1993-06-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2015-07-02Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralBanner Life Sciences Llc.2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralAtlantic Biologicals Corps1995-01-13Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ConvulexNot Available
DepakineNot Available
DeprakineNot Available
EncorateNot Available
EpilimNot Available
ValcoteNot Available
ValparinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Divalproex sodium
76584-70-8
Thumb
  • InChI Key: MSRILKIQRXUYCT-UHFFFAOYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 310.212004155
  • Average Mass: 310.4047
DBSALT000185
Valproate sodium
1069-66-5
Thumb
  • InChI Key: AEQFSUDEHCCHBT-UHFFFAOYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 166.096974
  • Average Mass: 166.196
DBSALT001257
Categories
UNII614OI1Z5WI
CAS number99-66-1
WeightAverage: 144.2114
Monoisotopic: 144.115029756
Chemical FormulaC8H16O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=NIJJYAXOARWZEE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H16O2/c1-3-5-7(6-4-2)8(9)10/h7H,3-6H2,1-2H3,(H,9,10)
IUPAC Name
2-propylpentanoic acid
SMILES
CCCC(CCC)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methyl-branched fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an acyl chain that has a methyl branch. Usually, they are saturated and contain only one or more methyl group. However, branches other than methyl may be present.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMethyl-branched fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania, and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
PharmacodynamicsThe relationship between plasma concentration and clinical response is not well documented. One contributing factor is the nonlinear, concentration dependent protein binding of valproate which affects the clearance of the drug. Thus, monitoring of total serum valproate cannot provide a reliable index of the bioactive valproate species. For patients with epilepsy, the therapeutic range is commonly considered to be 50 to 100 mcg/mL of total valproate. However, patients may be controlled at lower or higher doses.
Mechanism of actionValproic Acid dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract and then binds to and inhibits GABA transaminase. The drug's anticonvulsant activity may be related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize GABA or block the reuptake of GABA into glia and nerve endings. Valproic Acid may also work by suppressing repetitive neuronal firing through inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. It is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Valproic acid has also been shown to be an inhibitor of an enzyme called histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is needed for HIV to remain in infected cells. A study published in August 2005 revealed that patients treated with valproic acid in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a 75% reduction in latent HIV infection.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapid absorption from gastrointestinal tract. Although the rate of valproate ion absorption may vary with the formulation administered (liquid, solid, or sprinkle), conditions of use (e.g., fasting or postprandial) and the method of administration (e.g., whether the contents of the capsule are sprinkled on food or the capsule is taken intact), these differences should be of minor clinical importance under the steady state conditions achieved in chronic use in the treatment of epilepsy. Food has a greater influence on the rate of absorption of the Depakote tablet (increases Tmax from 4 to 8 hours) than on the absorption of Depakote sprinkle capsules (increase Tmax from 3.3 to 4.8 hours). Furthermore, studies suggest that total daily systemic bioavailability (extent of absorption) is the primary determinant of seizure control.
Volume of distribution
  • 11 L/1.73 m2 [total valproate]
  • 92 L/1.73 m2 [free valproate]
Protein bindingConcentration-dependent, from 90% at 40 µg/mL to 81.5% at 130 µg/mL. Higher than expected free fractions occur in the elderly, in hyperlipidemic patients, and in patients with hepatic and renal diseases. It may also affect the extent of protein binding of other drugs such as phenytoin or carbamazepine.
Metabolism

Valproic Acid is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. In adult patients on monotherapy, 30-50% of an administered dose appears in urine as a glucuronide conjugate. Mitochondrial ß-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose. Usually, less than 15-20% of the dose is eliminated by other oxidative mechanisms. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Valproic Acid
4-ene-Valproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
5-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
3-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
4-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
Valproic acid β-O-glucuronideDetails
Valproic Acid
Not Available
2-ene-Valproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
Not Available
(3Z)-2-Propylpent-3-enoic acid (3Z-Ene-VPA)Details
Valproic Acid
Not Available
(3E)-2-Propylpent-3-enoic acid (3E-Ene-VPA)Details
Valproic Acid
Not Available
Valproic acid CoADetails
4-ene-Valproic acid
Not Available
2,4-Diene-VPADetails
4-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
2-n-Propyl-4-oxopentanoic acidDetails
2-n-Propyl-4-oxopentanoic acid
Not Available
2-Propylsuccinic acidDetails
5-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
2-Propylglutaric acidDetails
3-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
3-Oxovalproic acidDetails
2-ene-Valproic acid
Not Available
3-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
3-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
3-Oxovalproic acidDetails
Route of eliminationValproate is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine. Mitochondrial ß-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose.
Half life9-16 hours (following oral administration of 250 mg to 1000 mg)
Clearance
  • 0.56 L/hr/1.73 m2 [plasma clearance, total valproate]
  • 4.6 L/hr/1.73 m2 [plasma clearance, free valproate]
  • 4.8 ± 0.17 L/hr/1.73 m2 [males, unbound clearance]
  • 4.7 ± 0.07 L/hr/1.73 m2 [females, unbound clearance]
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 1098 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 670 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose may include coma, extreme drowsiness, and heart problems. The safety and tolerability of valproate in pediatric patients were shown to be comparable to those in adults.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Valproic Acid Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00635
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9828
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9626
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7345
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9695
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7405
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9277
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8247
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7033
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5447
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8174
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9397
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.957
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9583
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9364
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9805
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5266
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8523
Rat acute toxicity1.8543 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9357
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9249
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Catalent pharma solutions llc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Rp scherer north america div rp scherer corp
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Alpharma uspd inc
  • Apotex inc richmond hill
  • High technology pharmacal co inc
  • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Syruporal50 mg
Injectionintravenous100 mg/mL
Capsule, liquid filledoral250 mg/1
Solutionoral250 mg/5mL
Solutionoral50 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseoral125 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseoral250 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseoral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral250 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral500 mg/1
Capsuleoral125 mg/1
Capsule, coated pelletsoral125 mg/1
Capsule, delayed releaseoral125 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral250 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral125 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral250 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral500 mg/1
Tablet, delayed release particlesoral500 mg/1
Liquidintravenous500 mg
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral125 mg
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral250 mg
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral500 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral500 mg
Tablet (delayed-release)oral125 mg
Tablet (delayed-release)oral250 mg
Tablet (delayed-release)oral500 mg
Capsuleoral250 mg
Capsule (enteric-coated)oral500 mg
Syruporal250 mg
Injectionintravenous500 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionintravenous100 mg/mL
Capsuleoral250 mg/1
Solutionoral500 mg/10mL
Tabletoral250 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Valproic acid liquid10.2USD g
Depakene 250 mg capsule2.21USD capsule
Valproic acid 250 mg capsule0.79USD capsule
Depakene 250 mg/5ml Syrup0.66USD ml
Novo-Valproic 500 mg Enteric-Coated Capsule0.54USD capsule
Pms-Valproic Acid E.C. 500 mg Enteric-Coated Capsule0.54USD capsule
Apo-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Mylan-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Novo-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Nu-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Pms-Valproic Acid 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Ratio-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Sandoz Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Valproic Acid 250 mg/5ml Syrup0.16USD ml
Valproic acid 250 mg/5 ml syr0.15USD ml
Depakene 50 mg/ml Syrup0.11USD ml
Apo-Valproic 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
Pms-Valproic Acid 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
Ratio-Valproic 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6419953 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6511678 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6528090 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6528091 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6713086 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6720004 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point120-130 °CNot Available
water solubility1.3 mg/mLFDA label
logP2.75SANGSTER (1993)
logS-1.86ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.8FDA label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.36 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.54ALOGPS
logP2.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity40.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.07 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0udi-2900000000-156413e81733a6236c1fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0f6y-2900000000-a769cafb885b78532cacView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0gbj-7900000000-46a522b9a26459334f5aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-39a45d4e3201082d9d89View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-4ddd957d8c8dc2b1de03View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-6ba582ae102c4721034dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-58d9ba88010f1b370c58View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-3900000000-2d1032d7e8ac58235b4fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4j-9000000000-0d39870bc4521a42c50aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-3c4e21b69b8877d6df3eView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0fk9-9300000000-1a0314ea63d5a3c9bba1View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Daniel Aubert, Francis Blanc, Henri Desmolin, Michel Morre, Lucette Sindely, “Valproic acid preparations.” U.S. Patent US5017613, issued January, 1965.

US5017613
General References
  1. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. [PubMed:17514356 ]
  2. Lehrman G, Hogue IB, Palmer S, Jennings C, Spina CA, Wiegand A, Landay AL, Coombs RW, Richman DD, Mellors JW, Coffin JM, Bosch RJ, Margolis DM: Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study. Lancet. 2005 Aug 13-19;366(9485):549-55. [PubMed:16099290 ]
  3. Schwartz C, Palissot V, Aouali N, Wack S, Brons NH, Leners B, Bosseler M, Berchem G: Valproic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms in multiple myeloma cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2007 Mar;30(3):573-82. [PubMed:17273758 ]
  4. Valentini A, Gravina P, Federici G, Bernardini S: Valproic acid induces apoptosis, p16INK4A upregulation and sensitization to chemotherapy in human melanoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Feb;6(2):185-91. Epub 2007 Feb 5. [PubMed:17218782 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN03AG01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.92
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (1.41 MB)
MSDSDownload (77.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Acetaminophen can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
Aminosalicylic AcidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Aminosalicylic Acid.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
AmobarbitalThe serum concentration of Amobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
AmoxapineThe serum concentration of Amoxapine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Batimastat.
Benzoic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzoic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Valproic Acid.
Bismuth SubsalicylateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Bismuth Subsalicylate.
ButabarbitalThe serum concentration of Butabarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
ButalbitalThe serum concentration of Butalbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
ButethalThe serum concentration of Butethal can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Carbamazepine can be increased when Carbamazepine is used in combination with Valproic Acid.
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.
CilastatinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Cilastatin.
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
CosyntropinCosyntropin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Valproic Acid.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Desipramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
DihydrocodeineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Dihydrocodeine.
DoripenemThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with doripenem.
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Doxepin can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
ErtapenemThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ertapenem.
EthosuximideThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ethosuximide.
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Felbamate.
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe serum concentration of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
Glycerol PhenylbutyrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Valproic Acid.
GuanfacineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Guanfacine.
HeptabarbitalThe serum concentration of Heptabarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
HexobarbitalThe serum concentration of Hexobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
ImipenemThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Imipenem.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Indinavir.
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lamotrigine.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LorazepamThe serum concentration of Lorazepam can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
Magnesium salicylateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Magnesium salicylate.
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Valproic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.
MeropenemThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Meropenem.
MethohexitalThe serum concentration of Methohexital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Valproic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.
MinoxidilThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NortriptylineThe serum concentration of Nortriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be decreased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
OxcarbazepineThe serum concentration of Oxcarbazepine can be decreased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
PaliperidoneThe serum concentration of Paliperidone can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Pentobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Primidone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PromazineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Promazine.
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Protriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Risperidone.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RufinamideThe serum concentration of Rufinamide can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
SalsalateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Salsalate.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SecobarbitalThe serum concentration of Secobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium oxybateThe serum concentration of Sodium oxybate can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
Sodium phenylbutyrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Valproic Acid.
TemozolomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Temozolomide.
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Tipranavir.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Valproic Acid.
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Trimipramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
VorinostatValproic Acid may increase the thrombocytopenic activities of Vorinostat.
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Do not take with milk.
  • Take with food.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular Weight:
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Loscher W: Anticonvulsant and biochemical effects of inhibitors of GABA aminotransferase and valproic acid during subchronic treatment in mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Mar 1;31(5):837-42. [PubMed:6805473 ]
  4. Ha JH, Lee DU, Lee JT, Kim JS, Yong CS, Kim JA, Ha JS, Huh K: 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde from Gastrodia elata B1. is active in the antioxidation and GABAergic neuromodulation of the rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):329-33. [PubMed:11025174 ]
  5. Semba J, Kuroda Y, Takahashi R: Potential antidepressant properties of subchronic GABA transaminase inhibitors in the forced swimming test in mice. Neuropsychobiology. 1989;21(3):152-6. [PubMed:2559361 ]
  6. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. [PubMed:17514356 ]
  7. Bruni J, Wilder BJ: Valproic acid. Review of a new antiepileptic drug. Arch Neurol. 1979 Jul;36(7):393-8. [PubMed:110294 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Represses MEF2-dependent transcription.Isoform 3 lacks active site residues and therefore is catalytically in...
Gene Name:
HDAC9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKV0
Molecular Weight:
111296.29 Da
References
  1. Ylisastigui L, Archin NM, Lehrman G, Bosch RJ, Margolis DM: Coaxing HIV-1 from resting CD4 T cells: histone deacetylase inhibition allows latent viral expression. AIDS. 2004 May 21;18(8):1101-8. [PubMed:15166525 ]
  2. Michaelis M, Kohler N, Reinisch A, Eikel D, Gravemann U, Doerr HW, Nau H, Cinatl J Jr: Increased human cytomegalovirus replication in fibroblasts after treatment with therapeutical plasma concentrations of valproic acid. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 1;68(3):531-8. [PubMed:15242819 ]
  3. Kanai H, Sawa A, Chen RW, Leeds P, Chuang DM: Valproic acid inhibits histone deacetylase activity and suppresses excitotoxicity-induced GAPDH nuclear accumulation and apoptotic death in neurons. Pharmacogenomics J. 2004;4(5):336-44. [PubMed:15289798 ]
  4. Stockhausen MT, Sjolund J, Manetopoulos C, Axelson H: Effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid on Notch signalling in human neuroblastoma cells. Br J Cancer. 2005 Feb 28;92(4):751-9. [PubMed:15685243 ]
  5. Beutler AS, Li S, Nicol R, Walsh MJ: Carbamazepine is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Life Sci. 2005 May 13;76(26):3107-15. [PubMed:15850602 ]
  6. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. [PubMed:17514356 ]
  7. Kawano T, Akiyama M, Agawa-Ohta M, Mikami-Terao Y, Iwase S, Yanagisawa T, Ida H, Agata N, Yamada H: Histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and depsipeptide sensitize retinoblastoma cells to radiotherapy by increasing H2AX phosphorylation and p53 acetylation-phosphorylation. Int J Oncol. 2010 Oct;37(4):787-95. [PubMed:20811699 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor
Specific Function:
Has greatest activity toward short branched chain acyl-CoA derivative such as (s)-2-methylbutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and 2-methylhexanoyl-CoA as well as toward short straight chain acyl-CoAs such as butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA. Can use valproyl-CoA as substrate and may play a role in controlling the metabolic flux of valproic acid in the development of toxicity of this agent.
Gene Name:
ACADSB
Uniprot ID:
P45954
Molecular Weight:
47485.035 Da
References
  1. Ito M, Ikeda Y, Arnez JG, Finocchiaro G, Tanaka K: The enzymatic basis for the metabolism and inhibitory effects of valproic acid: dehydrogenation of valproyl-CoA by 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 May 16;1034(2):213-8. [PubMed:2112956 ]
  2. Bazinet RP, Weis MT, Rapoport SI, Rosenberger TA: Valproic acid selectively inhibits conversion of arachidonic acid to arachidonoyl-CoA by brain microsomal long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases: relevance to bipolar disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jan;184(1):122-9. Epub 2005 Dec 13. [PubMed:16344985 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Thiamine pyrophosphate binding
Specific Function:
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
OGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q02218
Molecular Weight:
115934.37 Da
References
  1. Johannessen CU, Johannessen SI: Valproate: past, present, and future. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Summer;9(2):199-216. [PubMed:12847559 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name:
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID:
P51649
Molecular Weight:
57214.23 Da
References
  1. Johannessen CU, Johannessen SI: Valproate: past, present, and future. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Summer;9(2):199-216. [PubMed:12847559 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphaP35498 Details
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphaQ9Y5Y9 Details
Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alphaQ9UI33 Details
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphaQ99250 Details
Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphaQ9NY46 Details
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphaP35499 Details
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphaQ14524 Details
Sodium channel protein type 7 subunit alphaQ01118 Details
Sodium channel protein type 8 subunit alphaQ9UQD0 Details
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphaQ15858 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-1Q07699 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-2O60939 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-3Q9NY72 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-4Q8IWT1 Details
References
  1. Farber NB, Jiang XP, Heinkel C, Nemmers B: Antiepileptic drugs and agents that inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels prevent NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(7):726-33. [PubMed:12192617 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Forms transcriptional repressor c...
Gene Name:
HDAC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92769
Molecular Weight:
55363.855 Da
References
  1. Kramer OH, Zhu P, Ostendorff HP, Golebiewski M, Tiefenbach J, Peters MA, Brill B, Groner B, Bach I, Heinzel T, Gottlicher M: The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid selectively induces proteasomal degradation of HDAC2. EMBO J. 2003 Jul 1;22(13):3411-20. [PubMed:12840003 ]
  2. Gottlicher M: Valproic acid: an old drug newly discovered as inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Ann Hematol. 2004;83 Suppl 1:S91-2. [PubMed:15124690 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular Weight:
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular Weight:
60024.535 Da
References
  1. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Effect of aging on glucuronidation of valproic acid in human liver microsomes and the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022426. Epub 2008 Oct 6. [PubMed:18838507 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW9
Molecular Weight:
59741.035 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW8
Molecular Weight:
59809.075 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 3 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular Weight:
60750.215 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P35503
Molecular Weight:
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113 ]
  2. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Effect of aging on glucuronidation of valproic acid in human liver microsomes and the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022426. Epub 2008 Oct 6. [PubMed:18838507 ]
  3. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [PubMed:17687269 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol...
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular Weight:
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [PubMed:17687269 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xenobiotic substrates, including simple phenolic compounds, 7-hydroxylated coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and certain drugs and their hydroxylated metabolites. It also catalyzes the glucuronidatio...
Gene Name:
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID:
P54855
Molecular Weight:
61035.815 Da
References
  1. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [PubMed:17687269 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular Weight:
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (By similarity). Mediates the sodium-in...
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular Weight:
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Sekine T, Watanabe N, Hosoyamada M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Expression cloning and characterization of a novel multispecific organic anion transporter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 25;272(30):18526-9. [PubMed:9228014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Ohtsuki S, Asaba H, Takanaga H, Deguchi T, Hosoya K, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Role of blood-brain barrier organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) in the efflux of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin: its involvement in neurotransmitter metabolite clearance from the brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Oct;83(1):57-66. [PubMed:12358729 ]
  2. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Depending on the tissue and on cicumstances, mediates the import or export of lactic acid and ketone bod...
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular Weight:
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular Weight:
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Shibusawa A, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Sekine T, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Isolation, characterization and differential gene expression of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 in mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;62(1):7-14. [PubMed:12065749 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 26, 2016 03:07