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Identification
NameValproic Acid
Accession NumberDB00313  (APRD00256, DB00510, APRD00066)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionValproic acid, supplied as the sodium salt valproate semisodium or divalproex sodium, is a fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels. Typically supplied in the sodium salt form (CAS number: 76584-70-8). Valproic Acid is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-n-propyl-n-valeric acid
2-propyl-pentanoic acid
2-Propylpentanoic Acid
2-Propylvaleric Acid
4-heptanecarboxylic acid
acide valproïque
ácido valproico
acidum valproicum
di-n-propylacetic acid
Di-n-propylessigsäure
Dipropylacetic acid
DPA
n-DPA
Valproate
Valproinsäure
VPA
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Depaconinjection100 mg/mLintravenousAbb Vie Inc.1996-12-30Not applicableUs
Depakenecapsule250 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Depakenesolution50 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Depakenecapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1978-02-28Not applicableUs
Depakenesolution250 mg/5mLoralAbb Vie Inc.1978-02-28Not applicableUs
Depakene Cap 500mgcapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralAbbott Laboratories, Limited1981-12-312007-05-11Canada
Depakotetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1983-03-10Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-11-18Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-12-18Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1983-03-10Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-02-10Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-11-14Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1983-03-10Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakotecapsule125 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakotetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-07-14Not applicableUs
Depakote ERtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Depakote ERtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Depakote ERtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Depakote ERtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2010-06-07Not applicableUs
Depakote Sprinklescapsule125 mg/1oralAbb Vie Inc.1989-09-12Not applicableUs
Deproic Syrupsyrup250 mgoralTechnilab Pharma Inc.1998-06-022006-07-28Canada
Divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralSanis Health Inc2013-02-13Not applicableCanada
Divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralSanis Health Inc2013-02-13Not applicableCanada
Divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralSanis Health Inc2013-02-13Not applicableCanada
Divalproex Sodium Delayed Release (sprinkle)capsule125 mg/1oralSandoz Inc.2015-08-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended Releasetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended Releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2013-08-12Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2000-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2013-08-12Not applicableUs
Divalproex-125tablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2001-08-22Not applicableCanada
Divalproex-250tablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2001-08-22Not applicableCanada
Divalproex-500tablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2001-08-22Not applicableCanada
Dom-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2002-04-15Not applicableCanada
Dom-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2002-04-15Not applicableCanada
Dom-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2002-04-15Not applicableCanada
Dom-valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1998-04-25Not applicableCanada
Dom-valproic Acid E.C.capsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1998-10-22Not applicableCanada
Dom-valproic Acid Syrupsyrup250 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1999-03-08Not applicableCanada
Epiject I.V.liquid500 mgintravenousAbbott Laboratories, Limited2000-09-012007-10-05Canada
Epivaltablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Epivaltablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Epivaltablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralBgp Pharma Ulc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Epival ERtablet (extended-release)500 mgoralAbbott Laboratories, Limited2000-11-132008-06-06Canada
Ftp-valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralFtp Pharmacal Inc.1998-10-092004-08-03Canada
Mylan-divalproextablet (delayed-release)125 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2005-03-04Not applicableCanada
Mylan-divalproextablet (delayed-release)250 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2005-03-04Not applicableCanada
Mylan-divalproextablet (delayed-release)500 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2005-03-04Not applicableCanada
Mylan-valproiccapsule250 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1995-12-312016-06-28Canada
Novo-valproiccapsule250 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Novo-valproiccapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1997-01-07Not applicableCanada
Nu-divalproex 125mgtablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1999-01-202012-09-04Canada
Nu-divalproex 250mgtablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1999-01-202012-09-04Canada
Nu-divalproex 500mgtablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1999-01-202012-09-04Canada
Nu-valproiccapsule250 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1998-07-292012-09-04Canada
Nu-valproic Syrupsyrup50 mgoralNu Pharm IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Penta-valproic Capsulescapsule250 mgoralPentapharm Ltd.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
PHL-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralPharmel Inc2007-08-01Not applicableCanada
PHL-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralPharmel Inc2007-10-25Not applicableCanada
PHL-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPharmel Inc2007-10-25Not applicableCanada
PHL-valproic Acidsyrup250 mgoralPharmel Inc1998-09-03Not applicableCanada
PHL-valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralPharmel Inc2004-12-02Not applicableCanada
PHL-valproic Acid E.C.capsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPharmel Inc2004-12-06Not applicableCanada
PMS-divalproex (125mg)tablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralPharmascience Inc2001-08-03Not applicableCanada
PMS-divalproex (250mg)tablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralPharmascience Inc2001-08-03Not applicableCanada
PMS-divalproex (500mg)tablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPharmascience Inc2001-08-03Not applicableCanada
PMS-valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralPharmascience Inc1997-02-27Not applicableCanada
PMS-valproic Acidsyrup250 mgoralPharmascience Inc1997-11-20Not applicableCanada
PMS-valproic Acid E.C.capsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPharmascience Inc1996-12-13Not applicableCanada
Ratio-valproiccapsule250 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1996-11-04Not applicableCanada
Ratio-valproiccapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1997-08-28Not applicableCanada
Ratio-valproic - Ecc 500mgcapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1996-07-172010-08-02Canada
Ratio-valproic 50mg/ml Syrupsyrup50 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1998-01-192015-10-26Canada
Ratio-valproic-cap 250mgcapsule250 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1995-12-312014-09-19Canada
Sandoz Valproiccapsule250 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-01-28Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Valproiccapsule (enteric-coated)500 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-01-282008-08-07Canada
Teva-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1999-04-14Not applicableCanada
Teva-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1999-04-14Not applicableCanada
Teva-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1999-04-14Not applicableCanada
Valproic-250capsule250 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1998-11-252012-07-23Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralApotex Inc1999-03-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralApotex Inc1999-03-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralApotex Inc1999-03-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-valproiccapsule250 mgoralApotex Inc1998-06-01Not applicableCanada
Apo-valproic Syrupsyrup50 mgoralApotex Inc1998-07-15Not applicableCanada
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-08-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-06-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, coated pellets125 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2009-01-27Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2013-01-07Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2014-11-05Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-10-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2010-06-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-04-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2013-10-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2013-08-11Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-02-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-03-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-02-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-11-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-17Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralImpax Generics2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-01-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule125 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-12-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2013-08-11Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-07-12Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-11-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-03-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-09-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2009-02-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-07-12Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-11-26Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2010-06-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-04-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-11-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralNorth Star Rx Llc2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-08-28Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-03-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-02-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-08-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-08-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-02-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule125 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2009-01-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2013-08-11Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-06-15Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2014-10-24Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-10-07Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralNorth Star Rx Llc2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-10-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralMedsource Pharmaceuticals2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, coated pellets125 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-04-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-03-09Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2012-01-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2013-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, delayed release125 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-03-28Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, coated pellets125 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-04-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule, coated pellets125 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2009-01-27Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-02-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule125 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-01-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-08-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-03-18Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-28Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-08-18Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-02-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2010-06-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-04-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2013-10-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, extended release250 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd2013-08-11Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-02-08Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumcapsule125 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-07-24Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-10-15Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralWatson Pharma, Inc.2011-02-25Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2008-07-31Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2014-10-24Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-10-07Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-01-03Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralImpax Generics2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2014-03-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2013-01-07Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2014-06-02Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-03-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2012-01-23Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2013-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed Releasetablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed Releasetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-20Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed Releasetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-16Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated250 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated125 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, film coated250 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Delayed-releasetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralT Wi Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release125 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release particles500 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2008-07-29Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Drtablet, delayed release250 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2009-02-10Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralWOCKHARDT USA LLC2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release250 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2009-02-10Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium ERtablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended Releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-24Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended Releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-05-06Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-142015-12-29Us
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-08-04Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-142015-12-29Us
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release250 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-02-26Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodium Extended-releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-10-14Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumdelayed-release Delayed-releasetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2009-11-30Not applicableUs
Divalproex Sodiumdelayed-release Delayed-releasetablet, film coated250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-252016-04-05Us
Valproate Sodiuminjection500 mg/5mLintravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2010-02-17Not applicableUs
Valproate Sodiuminjection, solution100 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2003-08-18Not applicableUs
Valproate Sodiuminjection100 mg/mLintravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2013-04-15Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-05Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralActavis Pharma, Inc.2009-09-08Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2009-09-08Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-05Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-09-08Not applicableUs
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-04-19Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2013-02-28Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.2005-04-11Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralPrecision Dose Inc.2003-12-10Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralCardinal Health2005-04-11Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidtablet250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-06-162016-03-17Us
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralCardinal Health2003-12-10Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-10-13Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2011-10-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2005-03-01Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1991-10-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2012-08-10Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution500 mg/10mLoralPrecision Dose Inc.2007-01-30Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2015-07-02Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc1991-10-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-08-102015-12-29Us
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-06-04Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralBanner Life Sciences Llc.2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc1991-10-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralAtlantic Biologicals Corps1995-01-13Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralPliva Inc.1993-10-31Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralMorton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1995-04-05Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2012-04-18Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.2005-04-11Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.1995-01-13Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp1993-06-29Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.1995-01-13Not applicableUs
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-12-30Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ConvulexNot Available
DepakineNot Available
DeprakineNot Available
EncorateNot Available
EpilimNot Available
ValcoteNot Available
ValparinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Divalproex sodium
76584-70-8
Thumb
  • InChI Key: MSRILKIQRXUYCT-UHFFFAOYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 310.212004155
  • Average Mass: 310.4047
DBSALT000185
Valproate sodium
1069-66-5
Thumb
  • InChI Key: AEQFSUDEHCCHBT-UHFFFAOYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 166.096974
  • Average Mass: 166.196
DBSALT001257
Categories
UNII614OI1Z5WI
CAS number99-66-1
WeightAverage: 144.2114
Monoisotopic: 144.115029756
Chemical FormulaC8H16O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=NIJJYAXOARWZEE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H16O2/c1-3-5-7(6-4-2)8(9)10/h7H,3-6H2,1-2H3,(H,9,10)
IUPAC Name
2-propylpentanoic acid
SMILES
CCCC(CCC)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methyl-branched fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an acyl chain that has a methyl branch. Usually, they are saturated and contain only one or more methyl group. However, branches other than methyl may be present.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMethyl-branched fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania, and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
PharmacodynamicsThe relationship between plasma concentration and clinical response is not well documented. One contributing factor is the nonlinear, concentration dependent protein binding of valproate which affects the clearance of the drug. Thus, monitoring of total serum valproate cannot provide a reliable index of the bioactive valproate species. For patients with epilepsy, the therapeutic range is commonly considered to be 50 to 100 mcg/mL of total valproate. However, patients may be controlled at lower or higher doses.
Mechanism of actionValproic Acid dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract and then binds to and inhibits GABA transaminase. The drug's anticonvulsant activity may be related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize GABA or block the reuptake of GABA into glia and nerve endings. Valproic Acid may also work by suppressing repetitive neuronal firing through inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. It is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Valproic acid has also been shown to be an inhibitor of an enzyme called histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is needed for HIV to remain in infected cells. A study published in August 2005 revealed that patients treated with valproic acid in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a 75% reduction in latent HIV infection.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapid absorption from gastrointestinal tract. Although the rate of valproate ion absorption may vary with the formulation administered (liquid, solid, or sprinkle), conditions of use (e.g., fasting or postprandial) and the method of administration (e.g., whether the contents of the capsule are sprinkled on food or the capsule is taken intact), these differences should be of minor clinical importance under the steady state conditions achieved in chronic use in the treatment of epilepsy. Food has a greater influence on the rate of absorption of the Depakote tablet (increases Tmax from 4 to 8 hours) than on the absorption of Depakote sprinkle capsules (increase Tmax from 3.3 to 4.8 hours). Furthermore, studies suggest that total daily systemic bioavailability (extent of absorption) is the primary determinant of seizure control.
Volume of distribution
  • 11 L/1.73 m2 [total valproate]
  • 92 L/1.73 m2 [free valproate]
Protein bindingConcentration-dependent, from 90% at 40 µg/mL to 81.5% at 130 µg/mL. Higher than expected free fractions occur in the elderly, in hyperlipidemic patients, and in patients with hepatic and renal diseases. It may also affect the extent of protein binding of other drugs such as phenytoin or carbamazepine.
Metabolism

Valproic Acid is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. In adult patients on monotherapy, 30-50% of an administered dose appears in urine as a glucuronide conjugate. Mitochondrial ß-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose. Usually, less than 15-20% of the dose is eliminated by other oxidative mechanisms. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Valproic Acid
4-ene-Valproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
5-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
3-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
4-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
Valproic acid β-O-glucuronideDetails
Valproic Acid
Not Available
2-ene-Valproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
Not Available
(3Z)-2-Propylpent-3-enoic acid (3Z-Ene-VPA)Details
Valproic Acid
Not Available
(3E)-2-Propylpent-3-enoic acid (3E-Ene-VPA)Details
Valproic Acid
Not Available
Valproic acid CoADetails
4-ene-Valproic acid
Not Available
2,4-Diene-VPADetails
4-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
2-n-Propyl-4-oxopentanoic acidDetails
2-n-Propyl-4-oxopentanoic acid
Not Available
2-Propylsuccinic acidDetails
5-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
2-Propylglutaric acidDetails
3-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
3-Oxovalproic acidDetails
2-ene-Valproic acid
Not Available
3-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
3-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
3-Oxovalproic acidDetails
Route of eliminationValproate is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine. Mitochondrial ß-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose.
Half life9-16 hours (following oral administration of 250 mg to 1000 mg)
Clearance
  • 0.56 L/hr/1.73 m2 [plasma clearance, total valproate]
  • 4.6 L/hr/1.73 m2 [plasma clearance, free valproate]
  • 4.8 ± 0.17 L/hr/1.73 m2 [males, unbound clearance]
  • 4.7 ± 0.07 L/hr/1.73 m2 [females, unbound clearance]
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 1098 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 670 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose may include coma, extreme drowsiness, and heart problems. The safety and tolerability of valproate in pediatric patients were shown to be comparable to those in adults.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Valproic Acid Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00635
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9828
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9626
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7345
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9695
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7405
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9277
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8247
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7033
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5447
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8174
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9397
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.957
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9583
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9364
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9805
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5266
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8523
Rat acute toxicity1.8543 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9357
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9249
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Catalent pharma solutions llc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Rp scherer north america div rp scherer corp
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Alpharma uspd inc
  • Apotex inc richmond hill
  • High technology pharmacal co inc
  • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral125 mg
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral250 mg
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral500 mg
Syruporal50 mg
Injectionintravenous100 mg/mL
Capsule, liquid filledoral250 mg/1
Solutionoral250 mg/5mL
Solutionoral50 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseoral125 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseoral250 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseoral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral250 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral500 mg/1
Capsuleoral125 mg/1
Capsule, coated pelletsoral125 mg/1
Capsule, delayed releaseoral125 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral250 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral125 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral250 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral500 mg/1
Tablet, delayed release particlesoral500 mg/1
Liquidintravenous500 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral500 mg
Tablet (delayed-release)oral125 mg
Tablet (delayed-release)oral250 mg
Tablet (delayed-release)oral500 mg
Capsuleoral250 mg
Capsule (enteric-coated)oral500 mg
Syruporal250 mg
Injectionintravenous500 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionintravenous100 mg/mL
Capsuleoral250 mg/1
Solutionoral500 mg/10mL
Tabletoral250 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Valproic acid liquid10.2USD g
Depakene 250 mg capsule2.21USD capsule
Valproic acid 250 mg capsule0.79USD capsule
Depakene 250 mg/5ml Syrup0.66USD ml
Novo-Valproic 500 mg Enteric-Coated Capsule0.54USD capsule
Pms-Valproic Acid E.C. 500 mg Enteric-Coated Capsule0.54USD capsule
Apo-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Mylan-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Novo-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Nu-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Pms-Valproic Acid 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Ratio-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Sandoz Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Valproic Acid 250 mg/5ml Syrup0.16USD ml
Valproic acid 250 mg/5 ml syr0.15USD ml
Depakene 50 mg/ml Syrup0.11USD ml
Apo-Valproic 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
Pms-Valproic Acid 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
Ratio-Valproic 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6419953 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6511678 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6528090 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6528091 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6713086 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6720004 Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point120-130 °CNot Available
water solubility1.3 mg/mLFDA label
logP2.75SANGSTER (1993)
logS-1.86ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.8FDA label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.36 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.54ALOGPS
logP2.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity40.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.07 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0udi-2900000000-156413e81733a6236c1fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0f6y-2900000000-a769cafb885b78532cacView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0gbj-7900000000-46a522b9a26459334f5aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-39a45d4e3201082d9d89View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-4ddd957d8c8dc2b1de03View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-6ba582ae102c4721034dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-58d9ba88010f1b370c58View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-3900000000-2d1032d7e8ac58235b4fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4j-9000000000-0d39870bc4521a42c50aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-3c4e21b69b8877d6df3eView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0fk9-9300000000-1a0314ea63d5a3c9bba1View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Daniel Aubert, Francis Blanc, Henri Desmolin, Michel Morre, Lucette Sindely, “Valproic acid preparations.” U.S. Patent US5017613, issued January, 1965.

US5017613
General References
  1. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. [PubMed:17514356 ]
  2. Lehrman G, Hogue IB, Palmer S, Jennings C, Spina CA, Wiegand A, Landay AL, Coombs RW, Richman DD, Mellors JW, Coffin JM, Bosch RJ, Margolis DM: Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study. Lancet. 2005 Aug 13-19;366(9485):549-55. [PubMed:16099290 ]
  3. Schwartz C, Palissot V, Aouali N, Wack S, Brons NH, Leners B, Bosseler M, Berchem G: Valproic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms in multiple myeloma cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2007 Mar;30(3):573-82. [PubMed:17273758 ]
  4. Valentini A, Gravina P, Federici G, Bernardini S: Valproic acid induces apoptosis, p16INK4A upregulation and sensitization to chemotherapy in human melanoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Feb;6(2):185-91. Epub 2007 Feb 5. [PubMed:17218782 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN03AG01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.92
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (1.41 MB)
MSDSDownload (77.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AceclofenacThe metabolism of Aceclofenac can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Acepromazine.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Aceprometazine.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe metabolism of Acetylsalicylic acid can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with adipiplon.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Alfaxalone.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Alfentanil.
AlosetronThe metabolism of Alosetron can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Alprazolam.
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Amiodarone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Amisulpride.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Amobarbital.
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Amoxapine.
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Amperozide.
AmprenavirThe metabolism of Amprenavir can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
AntipyrineThe metabolism of Antipyrine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ApixabanThe metabolism of Apixaban can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
AprepitantThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be increased when combined with Aprepitant.
Arachidonic AcidThe metabolism of Arachidonic Acid can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ArformoterolThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Aripiprazole.
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Artemether can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Articaine.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Atazanavir can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Azaperone.
AzelastineValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Valproic Acid.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Baclofen.
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Barbital.
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Benzocaine.
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Benzyl alcohol.
BexaroteneThe metabolism of Bexarotene can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Bosentan can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Brimonidine.
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Bromazepam.
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Brompheniramine.
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Brotizolam.
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Valproic Acid.
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Buprenorphine.
BupropionThe metabolism of Bupropion can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Buspirone.
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Valproic Acid.
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Butacaine.
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Butalbital.
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Butamben.
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Butethal.
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Butorphanol.
CabozantinibThe metabolism of Cabozantinib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
CaffeineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
CandesartanThe metabolism of Candesartan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Carbinoxamine.
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Carfentanil.
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Carisoprodol.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Carvedilol can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Celecoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cetirizine.
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chloral hydrate.
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlordiazepoxide.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlormezanone.
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chloroprocaine.
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorpropamideThe metabolism of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlorprothixene.
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlorzoxazone.
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
CimetidineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cinchocaine.
CinnarizineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
CisaprideThe metabolism of Cisapride can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Citalopram.
CitalopramThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clemastine.
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clidinium.
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clobazam.
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with clomethiazole.
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clonazepam.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clonidine.
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Clopidogrel can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clorazepate.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clozapine.
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cocaine.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Codeine.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.
CyclophosphamideThe metabolism of Cyclophosphamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cyproheptadine.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dantrolene.
DapagliflozinThe metabolism of Dapagliflozin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Valproic Acid.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dapoxetine.
DapsoneThe metabolism of Dapsone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with deramciclane.
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Desflurane.
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Desipramine.
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Desloratadine.
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Detomidine.
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dexmedetomidine.
DextromethorphanThe metabolism of Dextromethorphan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dextromoramide.
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dezocine.
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Diazepam.
DiclofenacThe metabolism of Diclofenac can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DicoumarolThe metabolism of Dicoumarol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Difenoxin.
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dihydrocodeine.
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dihydroetorphine.
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dihydromorphine.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Diphenhydramine.
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Diphenoxylate.
DolasetronThe metabolism of Dolasetron can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DonepezilThe metabolism of Donepezil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DopamineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Doramectin.
DorzolamideThe metabolism of Dorzolamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Doxepin.
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Doxylamine.
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with DPDPE.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Dronabinol can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Droperidol.
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Drotebanol.
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dyclonine.
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ecgonine.
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Efavirenz.
EletriptanThe metabolism of Eletriptan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Valproic Acid.
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Entacapone.
EpoprostenolThe metabolism of Epoprostenol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Escitalopram.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Estazolam.
EstradiolThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
EstroneThe metabolism of Estrone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Eszopiclone.
EthanolValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Valproic Acid.
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Valproic Acid.
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethosuximide.
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethotoin.
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethyl carbamate.
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethylmorphine.
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etidocaine.
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etifoxine.
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etizolam.
EtodolacThe metabolism of Etodolac can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Valproic Acid.
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etoperidone.
EtoricoxibThe metabolism of Etoricoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etorphine.
EtravirineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ezogabine.
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Felbamate.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fencamfamine.
FenfluramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fenfluramine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fentanyl.
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fexofenadine.
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Flibanserin.
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fludiazepam.
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Flunarizine.
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Flunitrazepam.
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fluoxetine.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fluphenazine.
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Flurazepam.
FlurbiprofenThe metabolism of Flurbiprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fluspirilene.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Fluvastatin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FormoterolThe metabolism of Formoterol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fospropofol.
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Gabapentin.
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
GavestinelThe metabolism of Gavestinel can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
GliclazideThe metabolism of Gliclazide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
GlimepirideThe metabolism of Glimepiride can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
GlipizideThe metabolism of Glipizide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Glutethimide.
GlyburideThe metabolism of Glyburide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Guanfacine.
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Halazepam.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Haloperidol.
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Halothane.
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Heroin.
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Hexobarbital.
Histamine PhosphateThe metabolism of Histamine Phosphate can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Hydrocodone.
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Hydromorphone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.
HydroxyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Hydroxyzine.
IbuprofenThe metabolism of Ibuprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
IdarubicinThe metabolism of Idarubicin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
IfosfamideThe metabolism of Ifosfamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Iloperidone.
ImatinibThe metabolism of Imatinib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Imipramine.
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Indalpine.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
indisulamThe metabolism of indisulam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
IndomethacinThe metabolism of Indomethacin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Irbesartan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Isoflurane.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
IxazomibThe metabolism of Ixazomib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ketamine.
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ketazolam.
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ketobemidone.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
KetoprofenThe metabolism of Ketoprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lamotrigine.
LansoprazoleThe metabolism of Lansoprazole can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Leflunomide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
LesinuradThe metabolism of Lesinurad can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levetiracetam.
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levobupivacaine.
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levocabastine.
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levocetirizine.
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levodopa.
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levorphanol.
LicofeloneThe metabolism of Licofelone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Valproic Acid.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lithium.
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lofentanil.
LopinavirThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be increased when combined with Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Loratadine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Valproic Acid.
LornoxicamThe metabolism of Lornoxicam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
LosartanThe metabolism of Losartan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Loxapine.
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lu AA21004.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
LumiracoxibThe metabolism of Lumiracoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lurasidone.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Maprotiline.
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Meclizine.
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Medetomidine.
Mefenamic acidThe metabolism of Mefenamic acid can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Valproic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Melatonin.
MeloxicamThe metabolism of Meloxicam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Melperone.
MephenytoinThe metabolism of Mephenytoin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Mepivacaine.
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Meprobamate.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Mesoridazine.
MestranolThe metabolism of Mestranol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Metaxalone.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methadone.
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methadyl Acetate.
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methapyrilene.
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methaqualone.
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methocarbamol.
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methohexital.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methoxyflurane.
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methsuximide.
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methylphenobarbital.
MetronidazoleThe metabolism of Metronidazole can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
MetyrosineValproic Acid may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Valproic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Midazolam.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Milnacipran.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.
MirtazapineValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Valproic Acid.
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.
ModafinilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Molindone.
MontelukastThe metabolism of Montelukast can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Valproic Acid.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Nabilone.
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Nalbuphine.
NaproxenThe metabolism of Naproxen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
NateglinideThe metabolism of Nateglinide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe metabolism of Netupitant can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Nevirapine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.
NiclosamideThe metabolism of Niclosamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Nitrazepam.
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Nitrous oxide.
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Normethadone.
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Nortriptyline.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Olanzapine.
OlodaterolThe metabolism of Olodaterol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Olopatadine.
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ondansetron.
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Opium.
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
OrphenadrineValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orphenadrine is combined with Valproic Acid.
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Osanetant.
OspemifeneThe metabolism of Ospemifene can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
OxaprozinThe metabolism of Oxaprozin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Oxazepam.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Oxprenolol.
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Oxybuprocaine.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Oxycodone.
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Oxymorphone.
PaclitaxelThe metabolism of Paclitaxel can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Paliperidone.
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.
ParaldehydeValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paraldehyde is combined with Valproic Acid.
ParamethadioneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ParecoxibThe metabolism of Parecoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Paroxetine.
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pentazocine.
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Valproic Acid.
PerampanelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Perampanel.
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Perospirone.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Perphenazine.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pethidine.
PhenacetinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Phenoxyethanol.
PhenprocoumonThe metabolism of Phenprocoumon can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PhenylbutazoneThe metabolism of Phenylbutazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pimozide.
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pipamperone.
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pipotiazine.
PiroxicamThe metabolism of Piroxicam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PitavastatinThe metabolism of Pitavastatin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pizotifen.
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pomalidomide.
PramipexoleValproic Acid may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pramocaine.
PrasugrelThe metabolism of Prasugrel can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PravastatinThe metabolism of Pravastatin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Prazepam.
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Valproic Acid.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Prilocaine.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Primidone.
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Procaine.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Prochlorperazine.
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ProguanilThe metabolism of Proguanil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Promazine.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Promethazine.
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Proparacaine.
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Propofol.
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Propoxycaine.
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Protriptyline.
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with PSD502.
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Quazepam.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Quetiapine.
QuinidineThe metabolism of Quinidine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
QuinineThe metabolism of Quinine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ramelteon.
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Remifentanil.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Remoxipride.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Valproic Acid.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Risperidone.
RofecoxibThe metabolism of Rofecoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Romifidine.
RopiniroleValproic Acid may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Valproic Acid.
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
RosuvastatinThe metabolism of Rosuvastatin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
RotigotineValproic Acid may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Valproic Acid.
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.
Salicylic acidThe metabolism of Salicylic acid can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Scopolamine.
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Secobarbital.
SelegilineThe metabolism of Selegiline can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
SeratrodastThe metabolism of Seratrodast can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sertindole.
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sertraline.
SertralineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sevoflurane.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SitaxentanThe metabolism of Sitaxentan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sodium oxybate.
SorafenibThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Stiripentol.
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sufentanil.
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Sulfadiazine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Sulfamethoxazole can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
SulfamoxoleThe metabolism of Sulfamoxole can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
SulfinpyrazoneThe metabolism of Sulfinpyrazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Sulfisoxazole can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sulpiride.
SuprofenThe metabolism of Suprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
SuvorexantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Suvorexant.
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Tamoxifen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tapentadol.
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tasimelteon.
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Valproic Acid.
TenoxicamThe metabolism of Tenoxicam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Terbinafine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TerfenadineThe metabolism of Terfenadine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TestosteroneThe metabolism of Testosterone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tetrabenazine.
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tetracaine.
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tetrodotoxin.
ThalidomideValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Valproic Acid.
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Thiamylal.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Thiopental.
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Thioridazine.
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Thiothixene.
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tiagabine.
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tiletamine.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tizanidine.
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Tolbutamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tolcapone.
TolterodineThe metabolism of Tolterodine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Topiramate.
TorasemideThe metabolism of Torasemide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TrabectedinThe metabolism of Trabectedin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Valproic Acid.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Trazodone.
TreprostinilThe metabolism of Treprostinil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TretinoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Triazolam.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Triflupromazine.
TrimethadioneThe metabolism of Trimethadione can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Trimethoprim can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Trimipramine.
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Triprolidine.
TroglitazoneThe metabolism of Troglitazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ValdecoxibThe metabolism of Valdecoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ValsartanThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Venlafaxine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
VicrivirocThe metabolism of Vicriviroc can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Vigabatrin.
VilazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Vilazodone.
VismodegibThe metabolism of Vismodegib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Vortioxetine.
WarfarinThe metabolism of Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
XimelagatranThe metabolism of Ximelagatran can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Xylazine.
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Zafirlukast can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ZalcitabineThe metabolism of Zalcitabine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zaleplon.
ZaltoprofenThe metabolism of Zaltoprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ziconotide.
ZidovudineThe metabolism of Zidovudine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ZileutonThe metabolism of Zileuton can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Valproic Acid.
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zolazepam.
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zolpidem.
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zonisamide.
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zopiclone.
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zotepine.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Do not take with milk.
  • Take with food.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular Weight:
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Loscher W: Anticonvulsant and biochemical effects of inhibitors of GABA aminotransferase and valproic acid during subchronic treatment in mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Mar 1;31(5):837-42. [PubMed:6805473 ]
  4. Ha JH, Lee DU, Lee JT, Kim JS, Yong CS, Kim JA, Ha JS, Huh K: 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde from Gastrodia elata B1. is active in the antioxidation and GABAergic neuromodulation of the rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):329-33. [PubMed:11025174 ]
  5. Semba J, Kuroda Y, Takahashi R: Potential antidepressant properties of subchronic GABA transaminase inhibitors in the forced swimming test in mice. Neuropsychobiology. 1989;21(3):152-6. [PubMed:2559361 ]
  6. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. [PubMed:17514356 ]
  7. Bruni J, Wilder BJ: Valproic acid. Review of a new antiepileptic drug. Arch Neurol. 1979 Jul;36(7):393-8. [PubMed:110294 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Represses MEF2-dependent transcription.Isoform 3 lacks active site residues and therefore is catalytically in...
Gene Name:
HDAC9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKV0
Molecular Weight:
111296.29 Da
References
  1. Ylisastigui L, Archin NM, Lehrman G, Bosch RJ, Margolis DM: Coaxing HIV-1 from resting CD4 T cells: histone deacetylase inhibition allows latent viral expression. AIDS. 2004 May 21;18(8):1101-8. [PubMed:15166525 ]
  2. Michaelis M, Kohler N, Reinisch A, Eikel D, Gravemann U, Doerr HW, Nau H, Cinatl J Jr: Increased human cytomegalovirus replication in fibroblasts after treatment with therapeutical plasma concentrations of valproic acid. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 1;68(3):531-8. [PubMed:15242819 ]
  3. Kanai H, Sawa A, Chen RW, Leeds P, Chuang DM: Valproic acid inhibits histone deacetylase activity and suppresses excitotoxicity-induced GAPDH nuclear accumulation and apoptotic death in neurons. Pharmacogenomics J. 2004;4(5):336-44. [PubMed:15289798 ]
  4. Stockhausen MT, Sjolund J, Manetopoulos C, Axelson H: Effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid on Notch signalling in human neuroblastoma cells. Br J Cancer. 2005 Feb 28;92(4):751-9. [PubMed:15685243 ]
  5. Beutler AS, Li S, Nicol R, Walsh MJ: Carbamazepine is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Life Sci. 2005 May 13;76(26):3107-15. [PubMed:15850602 ]
  6. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. [PubMed:17514356 ]
  7. Kawano T, Akiyama M, Agawa-Ohta M, Mikami-Terao Y, Iwase S, Yanagisawa T, Ida H, Agata N, Yamada H: Histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and depsipeptide sensitize retinoblastoma cells to radiotherapy by increasing H2AX phosphorylation and p53 acetylation-phosphorylation. Int J Oncol. 2010 Oct;37(4):787-95. [PubMed:20811699 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor
Specific Function:
Has greatest activity toward short branched chain acyl-CoA derivative such as (s)-2-methylbutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and 2-methylhexanoyl-CoA as well as toward short straight chain acyl-CoAs such as butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA. Can use valproyl-CoA as substrate and may play a role in controlling the metabolic flux of valproic acid in the development of toxicity of this agent.
Gene Name:
ACADSB
Uniprot ID:
P45954
Molecular Weight:
47485.035 Da
References
  1. Ito M, Ikeda Y, Arnez JG, Finocchiaro G, Tanaka K: The enzymatic basis for the metabolism and inhibitory effects of valproic acid: dehydrogenation of valproyl-CoA by 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 May 16;1034(2):213-8. [PubMed:2112956 ]
  2. Bazinet RP, Weis MT, Rapoport SI, Rosenberger TA: Valproic acid selectively inhibits conversion of arachidonic acid to arachidonoyl-CoA by brain microsomal long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases: relevance to bipolar disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jan;184(1):122-9. Epub 2005 Dec 13. [PubMed:16344985 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Thiamine pyrophosphate binding
Specific Function:
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
OGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q02218
Molecular Weight:
115934.37 Da
References
  1. Johannessen CU, Johannessen SI: Valproate: past, present, and future. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Summer;9(2):199-216. [PubMed:12847559 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name:
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID:
P51649
Molecular Weight:
57214.23 Da
References
  1. Johannessen CU, Johannessen SI: Valproate: past, present, and future. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Summer;9(2):199-216. [PubMed:12847559 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphaP35498 Details
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphaQ9Y5Y9 Details
Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alphaQ9UI33 Details
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphaQ99250 Details
Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphaQ9NY46 Details
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphaP35499 Details
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphaQ14524 Details
Sodium channel protein type 7 subunit alphaQ01118 Details
Sodium channel protein type 8 subunit alphaQ9UQD0 Details
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphaQ15858 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-1Q07699 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-2O60939 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-3Q9NY72 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-4Q8IWT1 Details
References
  1. Farber NB, Jiang XP, Heinkel C, Nemmers B: Antiepileptic drugs and agents that inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels prevent NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(7):726-33. [PubMed:12192617 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Forms transcriptional repressor c...
Gene Name:
HDAC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92769
Molecular Weight:
55363.855 Da
References
  1. Kramer OH, Zhu P, Ostendorff HP, Golebiewski M, Tiefenbach J, Peters MA, Brill B, Groner B, Bach I, Heinzel T, Gottlicher M: The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid selectively induces proteasomal degradation of HDAC2. EMBO J. 2003 Jul 1;22(13):3411-20. [PubMed:12840003 ]
  2. Gottlicher M: Valproic acid: an old drug newly discovered as inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Ann Hematol. 2004;83 Suppl 1:S91-2. [PubMed:15124690 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular Weight:
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular Weight:
60024.535 Da
References
  1. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Effect of aging on glucuronidation of valproic acid in human liver microsomes and the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022426. Epub 2008 Oct 6. [PubMed:18838507 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW9
Molecular Weight:
59741.035 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW8
Molecular Weight:
59809.075 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 3 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular Weight:
60750.215 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P35503
Molecular Weight:
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113 ]
  2. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Effect of aging on glucuronidation of valproic acid in human liver microsomes and the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022426. Epub 2008 Oct 6. [PubMed:18838507 ]
  3. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [PubMed:17687269 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol...
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular Weight:
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [PubMed:17687269 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xenobiotic substrates, including simple phenolic compounds, 7-hydroxylated coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and certain drugs and their hydroxylated metabolites. It also catalyzes the glucuronidatio...
Gene Name:
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID:
P54855
Molecular Weight:
61035.815 Da
References
  1. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [PubMed:17687269 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular Weight:
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (By similarity). Mediates the sodium-in...
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular Weight:
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Sekine T, Watanabe N, Hosoyamada M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Expression cloning and characterization of a novel multispecific organic anion transporter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 25;272(30):18526-9. [PubMed:9228014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Ohtsuki S, Asaba H, Takanaga H, Deguchi T, Hosoya K, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Role of blood-brain barrier organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) in the efflux of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin: its involvement in neurotransmitter metabolite clearance from the brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Oct;83(1):57-66. [PubMed:12358729 ]
  2. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Depending on the tissue and on cicumstances, mediates the import or export of lactic acid and ketone bod...
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular Weight:
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular Weight:
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Shibusawa A, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Sekine T, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Isolation, characterization and differential gene expression of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 in mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;62(1):7-14. [PubMed:12065749 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 24, 2016 03:31