You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameValproic Acid
Accession NumberDB00313  (APRD00066, APRD00256, DB00510)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Valproic acid, supplied as the sodium salt valproate semisodium or divalproex sodium, is a fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels. Typically supplied in the sodium salt form (CAS number: 76584-70-8). Valproic Acid is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
2-n-propyl-n-valeric acidNot AvailableNot Available
2-PROPYL-pentanoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
2-Propylpentanoic AcidNot AvailableNot Available
2-Propylvaleric AcidNot AvailableNot Available
4-heptanecarboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Acide valproiqueNot AvailableNot Available
Acido valproicoNot AvailableNot Available
Acidum valproicumNot AvailableNot Available
DepakeneNot AvailableNot Available
di-n-propylacetic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Di-N-propylessigsaeureNot AvailableNot Available
Di-n-propylessigsäureGermanNot Available
Dipropylacetic acidNot AvailableNot Available
DPANot AvailableNot Available
n-DPANot AvailableNot Available
ValproateNot AvailableNot Available
VALPROIC acidNot AvailableNot Available
ValproinsaeureNot AvailableNot Available
ValproinsäureGermanNot Available
VPANot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Depaconinjection100 mg/mLintravenousAbb Vie Inc.1996-12-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakote ERtablet, extended release250 mgoralAbb Vie Inc.2000-08-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakenecapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralAbb Vie Inc.1978-02-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakenesolution250 mg/5mLoralAbb Vie Inc.1978-02-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, delayed release125 mgoralAbb Vie Inc.1983-03-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, delayed release250 mgoralAbb Vie Inc.1983-03-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, delayed release500 mgoralAbb Vie Inc.1983-03-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakote ERtablet, extended release500 mgoralAbb Vie Inc.2000-08-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, extended release500 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp2010-06-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, extended release250 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp2010-06-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakote ERtablet, extended release500 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2000-08-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, delayed release250 mgoralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-11-14Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, delayed release500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-07-14Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, extended release500 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-11-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, extended release250 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-02-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotecapsule125 mgoralCardinal Health2010-06-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, extended release500 mgoralCardinal Health2010-06-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakotetablet, delayed release250 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-12-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Depakote ERtablet, extended release500 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2010-06-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Stavzorcapsule, delayed release125 mgoralNOVEN THERAPEUTICS, LLC2008-08-012015-02-28Us 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Stavzorcapsule, delayed release250 mgoralNOVEN THERAPEUTICS, LLC2008-08-012015-02-28Us 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Stavzorcapsule, delayed release500 mgoralNOVEN THERAPEUTICS, LLC2008-08-012015-02-28Us 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Epivaltablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralBgp Pharma UlcNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Epivaltablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralBgp Pharma UlcNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Epivaltablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralBgp Pharma UlcNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Depakenecapsule250 mgoralBgp Pharma UlcNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Divalproextablet (enteric-coated)125 mgoralSanis Health IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Divalproextablet (enteric-coated)250 mgoralSanis Health IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Divalproextablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralSanis Health IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Depakenesolution50 mgoralBgp Pharma UlcNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.2005-04-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.2005-04-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.1995-01-13Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralActavis Pharma, Inc.2009-09-08Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-10-13Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1991-10-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-09-08Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc1991-10-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc1991-10-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralAtlantic Biologicals Corps1995-01-13Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp1993-06-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidtablet250 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-06-16Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralPliva Inc.1993-10-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.1995-01-13Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-08-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-04-19Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralCardinal Health2003-12-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralCardinal Health2010-06-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralCardinal Health2012-08-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralCardinal Health2005-04-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2012-04-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralClinical Solutions Wholesale2009-09-08Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralMorton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1995-04-05Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2013-02-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2005-03-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-05Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproiccapsule, liquid filled250 mgoralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-05Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidcapsule250 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc1991-10-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution250 mg/5mLoralPrecision Dose Inc.2003-12-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Valproic Acidsolution500 mg/10mLoralPrecision Dose Inc.2007-01-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ConvulexNot Available
DepakineNot Available
DeprakineNot Available
EncorateNot Available
EpilimNot Available
ValcoteNot Available
ValparinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Valproate Semisodium
76584-70-8
Thumb
  • InChI Key: MSRILKIQRXUYCT-UHFFFAOYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 310.212004155
  • Average Mass: 310.4047
DBSALT000185
Categories
CAS number99-66-1
WeightAverage: 144.2114
Monoisotopic: 144.115029756
Chemical FormulaC8H16O2
InChI KeyNIJJYAXOARWZEE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H16O2/c1-3-5-7(6-4-2)8(9)10/h7H,3-6H2,1-2H3,(H,9,10)
IUPAC Name
2-propylpentanoic acid
SMILES
CCCC(CCC)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methyl-branched fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an acyl chain that has a methyl branch. Usually, they are saturated and contain only one or more methyl group. However, branches other than methyl may be present.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMethyl-branched fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania, and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
PharmacodynamicsThe relationship between plasma concentration and clinical response is not well documented. One contributing factor is the nonlinear, concentration dependent protein binding of valproate which affects the clearance of the drug. Thus, monitoring of total serum valproate cannot provide a reliable index of the bioactive valproate species. For patients with epilepsy, the therapeutic range is commonly considered to be 50 to 100 mcg/mL of total valproate. However, patients may be controlled at lower or higher doses.
Mechanism of actionValproic Acid dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract and then binds to and inhibits GABA transaminase. The drug's anticonvulsant activity may be related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize GABA or block the reuptake of GABA into glia and nerve endings. Valproic Acid may also work by suppressing repetitive neuronal firing through inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. It is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Valproic acid has also been shown to be an inhibitor of an enzyme called histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is needed for HIV to remain in infected cells. A study published in August 2005 revealed that patients treated with valproic acid in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a 75% reduction in latent HIV infection.
AbsorptionRapid absorption from gastrointestinal tract. Although the rate of valproate ion absorption may vary with the formulation administered (liquid, solid, or sprinkle), conditions of use (e.g., fasting or postprandial) and the method of administration (e.g., whether the contents of the capsule are sprinkled on food or the capsule is taken intact), these differences should be of minor clinical importance under the steady state conditions achieved in chronic use in the treatment of epilepsy. Food has a greater influence on the rate of absorption of the Depakote tablet (increases Tmax from 4 to 8 hours) than on the absorption of Depakote sprinkle capsules (increase Tmax from 3.3 to 4.8 hours). Furthermore, studies suggest that total daily systemic bioavailability (extent of absorption) is the primary determinant of seizure control.
Volume of distribution
  • 11 L/1.73 m2 [total valproate]
  • 92 L/1.73 m2 [free valproate]
Protein bindingConcentration-dependent, from 90% at 40 µg/mL to 81.5% at 130 µg/mL. Higher than expected free fractions occur in the elderly, in hyperlipidemic patients, and in patients with hepatic and renal diseases. It may also affect the extent of protein binding of other drugs such as phenytoin or carbamazepine.
Metabolism

Valproic Acid is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. In adult patients on monotherapy, 30-50% of an administered dose appears in urine as a glucuronide conjugate. Mitochondrial ß-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose. Usually, less than 15-20% of the dose is eliminated by other oxidative mechanisms. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Valproic Acid
4-ene-Valproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
5-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
3-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
4-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
Valproic acid β-O-glucuronideDetails
Valproic Acid
Not Available
2-ene-Valproic acidDetails
Valproic Acid
Not Available
(3Z)-2-Propylpent-3-enoic acid (3Z-Ene-VPA)Details
Valproic Acid
Not Available
(3E)-2-Propylpent-3-enoic acid (3E-Ene-VPA)Details
Valproic Acid
Not Available
Valproic acid CoADetails
4-ene-Valproic acid
Not Available
2,4-Diene-VPADetails
4-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
2-n-Propyl-4-oxopentanoic acidDetails
2-n-Propyl-4-oxopentanoic acid
Not Available
2-Propylsuccinic acidDetails
5-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
2-Propylglutaric acidDetails
3-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
3-Oxovalproic acidDetails
2-ene-Valproic acid
Not Available
3-Hydroxyvalproic acidDetails
3-Hydroxyvalproic acid
Not Available
3-Oxovalproic acidDetails
Route of eliminationValproate is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine. Mitochondrial ß-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose.
Half life9-16 hours (following oral administration of 250 mg to 1000 mg)
Clearance
  • 0.56 L/hr/1.73 m2 [plasma clearance, total valproate]
  • 4.6 L/hr/1.73 m2 [plasma clearance, free valproate]
  • 4.8 ± 0.17 L/hr/1.73 m2 [males, unbound clearance]
  • 4.7 ± 0.07 L/hr/1.73 m2 [females, unbound clearance]
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 1098 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 670 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose may include coma, extreme drowsiness, and heart problems. The safety and tolerability of valproate in pediatric patients were shown to be comparable to those in adults.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Valproic Acid Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00635
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9828
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9626
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7345
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9695
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7405
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9277
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8247
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7033
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5447
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8174
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9397
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.957
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9583
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9364
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9805
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5266
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8523
Rat acute toxicity1.8543 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9357
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9249
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Catalent pharma solutions llc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Rp scherer north america div rp scherer corp
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Alpharma uspd inc
  • Apotex inc richmond hill
  • High technology pharmacal co inc
  • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral125 mg
Capsuleoral250 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseoral125 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseoral250 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseoral500 mg
Capsule, liquid filledoral250 mg
Injectionintravenous100 mg/mL
Solutionoral250 mg/5mL
Solutionoral50 mg
Solutionoral500 mg/10mL
Tabletoral250 mg
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral125 mg
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral250 mg
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral500 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseoral125 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseoral250 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseoral500 mg
Tablet, extended releaseoral250 mg
Tablet, extended releaseoral500 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Valproic acid liquid10.2USD g
Depakene 250 mg capsule2.21USD capsule
Valproic acid 250 mg capsule0.79USD capsule
Depakene 250 mg/5ml Syrup0.66USD ml
Novo-Valproic 500 mg Enteric-Coated Capsule0.54USD capsule
Pms-Valproic Acid E.C. 500 mg Enteric-Coated Capsule0.54USD capsule
Apo-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Mylan-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Novo-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Nu-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Pms-Valproic Acid 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Ratio-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Sandoz Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Valproic Acid 250 mg/5ml Syrup0.16USD ml
Valproic acid 250 mg/5 ml syr0.15USD ml
Depakene 50 mg/ml Syrup0.11USD ml
Apo-Valproic 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
Pms-Valproic Acid 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
Ratio-Valproic 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States65116781999-06-182019-06-18
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point120-130 °CNot Available
water solubility1.3 mg/mLFDA label
logP2.75SANGSTER (1993)
logS-1.86ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.8FDA label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.36 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.54ALOGPS
logP2.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity40.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.07 KB)
SpectraMS/MSLC-MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Daniel Aubert, Francis Blanc, Henri Desmolin, Michel Morre, Lucette Sindely, “Valproic acid preparations.” U.S. Patent US5017613, issued January, 1965.

US5017613
General Reference
  1. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. Pubmed
  2. Lehrman G, Hogue IB, Palmer S, Jennings C, Spina CA, Wiegand A, Landay AL, Coombs RW, Richman DD, Mellors JW, Coffin JM, Bosch RJ, Margolis DM: Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study. Lancet. 2005 Aug 13-19;366(9485):549-55. Pubmed
  3. Schwartz C, Palissot V, Aouali N, Wack S, Brons NH, Leners B, Bosseler M, Berchem G: Valproic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms in multiple myeloma cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2007 Mar;30(3):573-82. Pubmed
  4. Valentini A, Gravina P, Federici G, Bernardini S: Valproic acid induces apoptosis, p16INK4A upregulation and sensitization to chemotherapy in human melanoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Feb;6(2):185-91. Epub 2007 Feb 5. Pubmed
  5. FDA label
External Links
ATC CodesN03AG01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.92
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (1.41 MB)
MSDSDownload (77.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Acetylsalicylic acidMay increase the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
BatimastatMay decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
ButabarbitalValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
ButethalValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
CarbamazepineValproic Acid and Derivatives may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of CarBAMazepine. Parent carbamazepine concentrations may be increased, decreased, or unchanged. CarBAMazepine may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
ChlorpromazineMay increase the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
CosyntropinMay enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
EthosuximideMay decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives. Valproic Acid and Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Ethosuximide.
FelbamateMay increase the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
GuanfacineMay increase the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
HeptabarbitalValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
HexobarbitalValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
IsoflurophateMay decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
LamotrigineValproic Acid and Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of LamoTRIgine. Valproic Acid and Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of LamoTRIgine.
LorazepamValproic Acid and Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of LORazepam.
MefloquineMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticonvulsants. Mefloquine may decrease the serum concentration of Anticonvulsants.
MethohexitalValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
MianserinMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticonvulsants.
OlanzapineValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the serum concentration of OLANZapine.
OrlistatMay decrease the serum concentration of Anticonvulsants.
OxcarbazepineValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the serum concentration of OXcarbazepine.
PaliperidoneValproic Acid and Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Paliperidone.
PentobarbitalValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
PrimidoneValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
RisperidoneValproic Acid and Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of RisperiDONE. Generalized edema has developed.
RufinamideValproic Acid and Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Rufinamide.
Salicylate-sodiumMay increase the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
SecobarbitalValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
SimeprevirMay decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
TemozolomideValproic Acid and Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Temozolomide. Valproic Acid and Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Temozolomide.
TopiramateMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
VorinostatValproic Acid and Derivatives may enhance the thrombocytopenic effect of Vorinostat. This may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.
ZidovudineValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Zidovudine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Do not take with milk.
  • Take with food.

Targets

1. Histone deacetylase 9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Histone deacetylase 9 Q9UKV0 Details

References:

  1. Ylisastigui L, Archin NM, Lehrman G, Bosch RJ, Margolis DM: Coaxing HIV-1 from resting CD4 T cells: histone deacetylase inhibition allows latent viral expression. AIDS. 2004 May 21;18(8):1101-8. Pubmed
  2. Michaelis M, Kohler N, Reinisch A, Eikel D, Gravemann U, Doerr HW, Nau H, Cinatl J Jr: Increased human cytomegalovirus replication in fibroblasts after treatment with therapeutical plasma concentrations of valproic acid. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 1;68(3):531-8. Pubmed
  3. Kanai H, Sawa A, Chen RW, Leeds P, Chuang DM: Valproic acid inhibits histone deacetylase activity and suppresses excitotoxicity-induced GAPDH nuclear accumulation and apoptotic death in neurons. Pharmacogenomics J. 2004;4(5):336-44. Pubmed
  4. Stockhausen MT, Sjolund J, Manetopoulos C, Axelson H: Effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid on Notch signalling in human neuroblastoma cells. Br J Cancer. 2005 Feb 28;92(4):751-9. Pubmed
  5. Beutler AS, Li S, Nicol R, Walsh MJ: Carbamazepine is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Life Sci. 2005 May 13;76(26):3107-15. Pubmed
  6. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. Pubmed
  7. Kawano T, Akiyama M, Agawa-Ohta M, Mikami-Terao Y, Iwase S, Yanagisawa T, Ida H, Agata N, Yamada H: Histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and depsipeptide sensitize retinoblastoma cells to radiotherapy by increasing H2AX phosphorylation and p53 acetylation-phosphorylation. Int J Oncol. 2010 Oct;37(4):787-95. Pubmed

2. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial P80404 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Loscher W: Anticonvulsant and biochemical effects of inhibitors of GABA aminotransferase and valproic acid during subchronic treatment in mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Mar 1;31(5):837-42. Pubmed
  4. Ha JH, Lee DU, Lee JT, Kim JS, Yong CS, Kim JA, Ha JS, Huh K: 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde from Gastrodia elata B1. is active in the antioxidation and GABAergic neuromodulation of the rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):329-33. Pubmed
  5. Semba J, Kuroda Y, Takahashi R: Potential antidepressant properties of subchronic GABA transaminase inhibitors in the forced swimming test in mice. Neuropsychobiology. 1989;21(3):152-6. Pubmed
  6. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. Pubmed
  7. Bruni J, Wilder BJ: Valproic acid. Review of a new antiepileptic drug. Arch Neurol. 1979 Jul;36(7):393-8. Pubmed

3. Short/branched chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Short/branched chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P45954 Details

References:

  1. Ito M, Ikeda Y, Arnez JG, Finocchiaro G, Tanaka K: The enzymatic basis for the metabolism and inhibitory effects of valproic acid: dehydrogenation of valproyl-CoA by 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 May 16;1034(2):213-8. Pubmed
  2. Bazinet RP, Weis MT, Rapoport SI, Rosenberger TA: Valproic acid selectively inhibits conversion of arachidonic acid to arachidonoyl-CoA by brain microsomal long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases: relevance to bipolar disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jan;184(1):122-9. Epub 2005 Dec 13. Pubmed

4. 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial Q02218 Details

References:

  1. Johannessen CU, Johannessen SI: Valproate: past, present, and future. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Summer;9(2):199-216. Pubmed

5. Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P51649 Details

References:

  1. Johannessen CU, Johannessen SI: Valproate: past, present, and future. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Summer;9(2):199-216. Pubmed

6. Sodium channel protein

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha P35498 Details
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha Q9Y5Y9 Details
Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha Q9UI33 Details
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha Q99250 Details
Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha Q9NY46 Details
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha P35499 Details
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha Q14524 Details
Sodium channel protein type 7 subunit alpha Q01118 Details
Sodium channel protein type 8 subunit alpha Q9UQD0 Details
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha Q15858 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-1 Q07699 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-2 O60939 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-3 Q9NY72 Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-4 Q8IWT1 Details

References:

  1. Farber NB, Jiang XP, Heinkel C, Nemmers B: Antiepileptic drugs and agents that inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels prevent NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(7):726-33. Pubmed

7. Histone deacetylase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Histone deacetylase 2 Q92769 Details

References:

  1. Kramer OH, Zhu P, Ostendorff HP, Golebiewski M, Tiefenbach J, Peters MA, Brill B, Groner B, Bach I, Heinzel T, Gottlicher M: The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid selectively induces proteasomal degradation of HDAC2. EMBO J. 2003 Jul 1;22(13):3411-20. Pubmed
  2. Gottlicher M: Valproic acid: an old drug newly discovered as inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Ann Hematol. 2004;83 Suppl 1:S91-2. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2A6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2A6 P11509 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Lexicomp

2. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Lexicomp

4. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

5. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 P23219 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 2C18

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C18 P33260 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

9. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

10. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

11. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 P22310 Details

References:

  1. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Effect of aging on glucuronidation of valproic acid in human liver microsomes and the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022426. Epub 2008 Oct 6. Pubmed

12. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8 Q9HAW9 Details

References:

  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. Pubmed

13. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10 Q9HAW8 Details

References:

  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. Pubmed

14. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6 P19224 Details

References:

  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. Pubmed

15. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3 P35503 Details

References:

  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. Pubmed
  2. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Effect of aging on glucuronidation of valproic acid in human liver microsomes and the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022426. Epub 2008 Oct 6. Pubmed
  3. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. Pubmed

16. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 P16662 Details

References:

  1. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. Pubmed

17. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 P54855 Details

References:

  1. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. Pubmed

18. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9 O60656 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 5 O76082 Details

References:

  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 6 Q4U2R8 Details

References:

  1. Sekine T, Watanabe N, Hosoyamada M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Expression cloning and characterization of a novel multispecific organic anion transporter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 25;272(30):18526-9. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier family 22 member 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 8 Q8TCC7 Details

References:

  1. Ohtsuki S, Asaba H, Takanaga H, Deguchi T, Hosoya K, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Role of blood-brain barrier organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) in the efflux of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin: its involvement in neurotransmitter metabolite clearance from the brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Oct;83(1):57-66. Pubmed
  2. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. Pubmed

4. Monocarboxylate transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 P53985 Details

References:

  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. Pubmed

5. Solute carrier family 22 member 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 7 Q9Y694 Details

References:

  1. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Shibusawa A, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Sekine T, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Isolation, characterization and differential gene expression of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 in mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;62(1):7-14. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 03, 2013 14:46