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Identification
NameMinoxidil
Accession NumberDB00350  (APRD00086, DB08225)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (vasodilator agents) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in blood pressure. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2,4-Diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine 3-oxide
6-Piperidin-1-ylpyrimidine-2,4-diamine 3-oxide
Alostil
Apo-gain
Loniten
Lonolox
Minossidile
Minoxidil
Minoxidilum
Minoximen
Normoxidil
Regaine
Rogaine
Tricoxidil
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Loniten 10mgtablet10 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Loniten 2.5mgtablet2.5 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2009-10-26Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1988-11-14Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical Inc1988-11-14Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-08-21Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-05-18Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2007-07-30Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.1995-12-14Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2013-08-01Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2007-07-30Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.1995-12-14Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2013-08-01Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2007-07-30Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-20Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-09-13Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1988-11-14Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-26Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2009-10-26Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-10-16Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2009-10-26Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet10 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical Inc1988-11-14Not applicableUs
Minoxidiltablet2.5 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management1995-12-14Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-gain Liq 20mg/mlliquid20 mgtopicalApotex Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Boost Regrowth for Womenliquid2 g/100mLtopicalSHELBY PROFESSIONAL, INC.2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Bosley Professional Strength Hair Regrowth Treatment Regular Strength for Menliquid50 mg/mLtopicalPure Source Inc.2013-08-15Not applicableUs
Bosley Professional Strength Hair Regrowth Treatment Regular Strength for Womenliquid20 mg/mLtopicalPure Source Inc.2013-08-15Not applicableUs
Careone Hair Regrowth Treatmentaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalAmerican Sales Company2012-07-27Not applicableUs
Careone Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra Strengthsolution3 g/60mLtopicalAmerican Sales Company2009-12-15Not applicableUs
Cerafill Retaliatesolution20 mg/mLtopicalL'oreal Usa, Inc.2014-04-28Not applicableUs
Cerafill Retaliate Extra Strength for Mensolution50 mg/mLtopicalL'oreal Usa, Inc.2014-04-28Not applicableUs
Equaline Hair Regrowth Treatment for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalSupervalu Inc2009-12-04Not applicableUs
Equaline Hair Regrowth Treatment for Menaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalSupervalu Inc2012-03-13Not applicableUs
Equaline Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalSupervalu Inc2007-03-11Not applicableUs
Equaline Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalSupervalu Inc2011-04-17Not applicableUs
Equate Hair Regrowth Treatmentaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalWal Mart Stores Inc2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Equate Hair Regrowth Treatment for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalWal Mart Stores Inc2011-02-01Not applicableUs
Equate Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalWal Mart Stores Inc2011-01-27Not applicableUs
Gen-minoxidil Liq 2%liquid2 %topicalGenpharm Ulc1994-12-312009-08-05Canada
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Hair Regrowth Treatment for Menaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalAmerisource Bergen2012-03-02Not applicableUs
Good Sense Hair Regrowth Treatmentaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalL. Perrigo Company2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Good Sense Hair Regrowth Treatment for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalL. Perrigo Company2010-02-10Not applicableUs
Good Sense Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalL Perrigo Company2012-02-11Not applicableUs
Good Sense Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalL Perrigo Company2010-02-11Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowsolution50 mg/mLtopicalBentley Laboratories, LLC2004-08-24Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Formulasolution20 mgtopicalVita Health Products Inc2011-04-15Not applicableCanada
Hair Regrowth Treatmentaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalMeijer Distribution Inc2012-03-19Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatmentsolution2 %topicalVita Health Products Inc2001-01-162012-07-04Canada
Hair Regrowth Treatmentsolution2 g/100mLtopicalActavis Mid Atlantic LLC2000-01-01Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatmentsolution3 g/60mLtopicalSafeway2013-11-30Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra Strength for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalMeijer Distribution Inc2009-12-29Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra Strength for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalKroger Company2009-12-05Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra Strength for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalSafeway2009-12-10Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Mensolution5 g/100mLtopicalCVS Pharmacy2005-07-18Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Mensolution50 mg/mLtopicalActavis Mid Atlantic LLC2000-11-17Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalCVS Pharmacy2010-01-05Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Menaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalSafeway2012-05-11Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Menaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalKroger Company2012-04-10Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Menaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalCVS Pharmacy2012-03-02Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Mensolution2 g/100mLtopicalCVS Pharmacy1991-09-04Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Men Extra Strengthsolution50 mg/mLtopicalArmy and Air Force Exchange Service2007-05-17Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Men Extra Strengthsolution50 mg/mLtopicalWal Mart Stores, Inc.2002-05-02Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Men Extra Strengthsolution50 mg/mLtopicalRite Aid2005-11-01Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalKroger Company2011-02-05Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalCVS Pharmacy1990-04-15Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalRite Aid2003-01-01Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalMeijer Distribution Inc2011-04-07Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalCVS Pharmacy2006-09-08Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalChain Drug Consortium, LLC2000-01-01Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalMeijer Distribution Inc2007-12-19Not applicableUs
Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution20 mg/mLtopicalWal Mart Stores, Inc.2004-02-04Not applicableUs
Hairgrosolution2 %topicalVita Health Products Inc2000-11-022005-07-20Canada
Harmon Face Values Minoxidilsolution3 g/60mLtopicalHarmon Stores Inc.2011-12-18Not applicableUs
Harmon Face Values Minoxidilsolution2 g/100mLtopicalHarmon Stores Inc.2011-12-18Not applicableUs
Harmon Face Values Minoxidil Mensaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalHarmon Stores Inc.2015-07-14Not applicableUs
Image Essentials Hair Regrowth Treatmentsolution2 g/100mLtopicalKmart Corporation2011-06-20Not applicableUs
Image Essentials Hair Regrowth Treatmentsolution3 g/60mLtopicalKmart Corporation2011-07-12Not applicableUs
Image Essentials Hair Regrowth Treatment for Menaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalKmart Corporation2012-07-16Not applicableUs
Keranique for Women Hair Regrowth Treatmentliquid20 mg/mLtopicalPure Source, Inc.2014-02-06Not applicableUs
Kirkland Signature Minoxidilaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalCostco Wholesale Company2012-04-17Not applicableUs
Kirkland Signature Minoxidilsolution3 g/60mLtopicalCostco Wholesale Company2012-05-22Not applicableUs
Kirkland Signature Minoxidilsolution5 g/100mLtopicalCostco Wholesale Company2013-08-25Not applicableUs
Leader Hair Regrowth Treatmentaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalCardinal Health2012-03-16Not applicableUs
Loesch Hair Regrowth Formula Unscented Topical Solution Extra-strength for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalLoesch Laboratory Consultants, Inc.2014-07-30Not applicableUs
Loesch Hair Regrowth Formula Unscented Topical Solution Regular-strength for Men and Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalLoesch Laboratory Consultants, Inc.2014-08-11Not applicableUs
Members Mark Minoxidilaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalSam's West Inc2015-09-24Not applicableUs
Members Mark Minoxidilsolution3 g/60mLtopicalSam's West Inc2009-11-10Not applicableUs
Mens Comback Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra Strength Unscentedliquid50 mg/mLtopicalCombback International LLC2013-06-062016-01-07Us
Mens Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra Strengthsolution50 mg/mLtopicalCVS Pharmacy2000-08-01Not applicableUs
Mens Kirkland Extra Strengthsolution50 mg/mLtopicalCostco Wholesale Corporation2010-07-16Not applicableUs
Mens Rogaine Extra Strengthsolution50 mg/mLtopicalJohnson & Johnson Consumer Inc.2010-07-16Not applicableUs
Mens Rogaine Minoxidil - Unscented Formulaaerosol, foam50 mg/gtopicalJohnson & Johnson Consumer Inc.2010-10-01Not applicableUs
Mens Rogaine Unscented Formulaaerosol, foam50 mg/gtopicalJohnson & Johnson Healthcare Products, Division Of Mc Neil Ppc, Inc.2010-10-012016-03-29Us
Minox - Liq Top 20mg/mlsolution20 mgtopicalLaboratoire Riva Inc1997-08-27Not applicableCanada
Minoxidilsolution2 g/100mLtopicalWalgreen Company2011-02-25Not applicableUs
Minoxidilaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalWalgreen Company2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Minoxidilsolution2 g/100mLtopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-06-04Not applicableUs
Minoxidilaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalCVS Pharmacy2014-04-29Not applicableUs
Minoxidilaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalH E B2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Minoxidilsolution2 g/100mLtopicalHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.1996-12-24Not applicableUs
Minoxidilsolution3 g/60mLtopicalPublix Super Markets Inc2010-10-25Not applicableUs
Minoxidilsolution2 g/100mLtopicalH E B2011-04-04Not applicableUs
Minoxidilsolution3 g/60mLtopicalCVS Pharmacy2014-10-07Not applicableUs
Minoxidilsolution2 g/100mLtopicalWalgreen Company2006-09-14Not applicableUs
Minoxidil Foamaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalPublix Super Markets Inc2013-06-17Not applicableUs
Minoxidil for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalH E B2010-02-16Not applicableUs
Minoxidil for Mensolution3 g/60mLtopicalWalgreen Company2009-11-13Not applicableUs
Minoxidil for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalCVS2003-01-01Not applicableUs
Minoxidil for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalWalgreen Company2011-02-28Not applicableUs
Minoxidil for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalPublix Super Markets Inc2011-04-04Not applicableUs
Minoxidil Form Men Extra Strengthsolution50 mg/mLtopicalChain Drug Consortium, LLC2003-09-11Not applicableUs
Minoxidil Regular Strengthsolution2 g/100mLtopicalH E B2006-11-09Not applicableUs
Minoxidil Regular Strengthsolution2 g/100mLtopicalH E B2011-05-06Not applicableUs
Minoxigaine Topical Solution - 2%solution20 mgtopicalAltimed Pharma Inc.1995-12-311999-09-17Canada
Nioxin Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra Strength for Mensolution5 g/100mLtopicalThe Wella Corporation2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Nioxin Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalThe Wella Corporation2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Nutrastim Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution20 mg/mLtopicalVbbeauty Inc.2016-04-06Not applicableUs
Nutrastim Hair Regrowth Treatment Unscented for Mensolution50 mg/mLtopicalVbbeauty Inc.2016-04-06Not applicableUs
Pantene Pro-V Expert Collection Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womenliquid2 g/100mLtopicalProcter & Gamble Manufacturing Co.2013-11-15Not applicableUs
Qilib Hair Regrowth Treatment for Mensolution5 g/100mLtopicalGalderma Laboratories, L.P.2015-12-01Not applicableUs
Qilib Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalGalderma Laboratories, L.P.2015-12-01Not applicableUs
Re-grosolution2 g/100mLtopicalEmpress Hair Products, Ltd.2014-04-01Not applicableUs
Renewal for Menaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalRite Aid Corporation2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Rogaine Foam 5%aerosol, foam5 %topicalJohnson & Johnson Inc2012-11-19Not applicableCanada
Rogaine Minoxidil Topical 2% Solutionsolution20 mgtopicalJohnson & Johnson Inc1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Signature Care Hair Regrowth Treatmentsolution3 g/60mLtopicalSafeway2015-09-04Not applicableUs
Simply Right Minoxidilaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalSam's West Inc2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Simply Right Minoxidil Extra Strengthsolution3 g/60mLtopicalSam's West Inc2011-06-30Not applicableUs
Solutionsolution.02 g/mLtopicalWalgreens2014-08-08Not applicableUs
Toppik Mens Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra Strengthsolution50 mg/mLtopicalSpencer Forrest, Inc.2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Toppik Womens Hair Regrowth Treatmentsolution20 mg/mLtopicalSpencer Forrest, Inc.2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Up and Up Hair Regrowth Treatment for Menaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalTarget Corporation2015-08-14Not applicableUs
Up and Up Hair Regrowth Treatment for Mensolution5 g/100mLtopicalTarget Corporation2015-07-29Not applicableUs
Up and Up Hair Regrowth Treatment for Womensolution2 g/100mLtopicalTarget Corporation2015-08-31Not applicableUs
Up and Up Minoxidilsolution5 g/100mLtopicalTarget Corporation2009-05-20Not applicableUs
Up and Up Minoxidilsolution2 g/100mLtopicalTarget Corporation2009-05-27Not applicableUs
Up and Up Minoxidilaerosol, foam5 g/100gtopicalTarget Corporation2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Vanarex Hair Regrowth Treatmentsolution3 g/60mLtopicalManchester Laboratories Inc.2011-02-01Not applicableUs
Women's Rogaine Foam 5%aerosol, foam5 %topicalJohnson & Johnson Inc2015-03-16Not applicableCanada
Womens Rogaine - Unscentedsolution20 mg/mLtopicalJohnson & Johnson Consumer Inc.2010-08-01Not applicableUs
Womens Rogaine Unscentedaerosol, foam50 mg/gtopicalJohnson & Johnson Consumer Inc.2011-04-01Not applicableUs
Womens Rogaine Unscentedaerosol, foam50 mg/gtopicalJohnson & Johnson Consumer Inc.2014-09-22Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AlostilMcNeil
Apo-GainApotex
AvogainNot Available
LipogaineNot Available
LonitenPfizer
LonoloxPfizer
MinodylNot Available
MinoxigaineNot Available
MinoximenMenarini
MintopDr. Reddy's
RegaineMcNeil
RogaineJohnson & Johnson
TheroxidilEi
TricoxidilNot Available
VanarexNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII5965120SH1
CAS number38304-91-5
WeightAverage: 209.2483
Monoisotopic: 209.127660127
Chemical FormulaC9H15N5O
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZFMITUMMTDLWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H15N5O/c10-7-6-8(12-9(11)14(7)15)13-4-2-1-3-5-13/h6H,1-5,10H2,(H2,11,12)
IUPAC Name
2,6-diamino-4-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidin-1-ium-1-olate
SMILES
NC1=CC(=NC(N)=[N+]1[O-])N1CCCCC1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylarylamines. These are aliphatic aromatic amines in which the amino group is linked to two aliphatic chains and one aromatic group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassAmines
Sub ClassTertiary amines
Direct ParentDialkylarylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Pyrimidine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Piperidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Primary amine
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of severe hypertension and in the topical treatment (regrowth) of androgenic alopecia in males and females and stabilisation of hair loss in patients with androgenic alopecia.
PharmacodynamicsMinoxidil is an orally effective direct acting peripheral vasodilator that reduces elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. Minoxidil is also used topically to treat androgenetic alopecia. Microcirculatory blood flow in animals is enhanced or maintained in all systemic vascular beds. In man, forearm and renal vascular resistance decline; forearm blood flow increases while renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate are preserved. The predominant site of minoxidil action is arterial. Venodilation does not occur with minoxidil; thus, postural hypotension is unusual with its administration. The antihypertensive activity of minoxidil is due to its sulphate metabolite, minoxidil sulfate.
Mechanism of actionMinoxidil is thought to promote the survival of human dermal papillary cells (DPCs) or hair cells by activating both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of BCl-2/Bax. Minoxidil may stimulate the growth of human hairs by prolonging anagen through these proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs. Minoxidil, when used as a vasodilator, acts by opening adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. This vasodilation may also improve the viability of hair cells or hair follicles.
Related Articles
AbsorptionMinoxidil is at least 90% absorbed from the GI tract in experimental animals and man.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingMinoxidil does not bind to plasma proteins.
Metabolism

Approximately 90% of the administered drug is metabolized, predominantly by conjugation with glucuronic acid at the N-oxide position in the pyrimidine ring, but also by conversion to more polar products. Known metabolites exert much less pharmacologic effect than minoxidil itself.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life4.2 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral LD50 in rats has ranged from 1321-3492 mg/kg; in mice, 2456-2648 mg/kg. Side effects include cardiovascular effects associated with hypotension such as sudden weight gain, rapid heart beat, faintness or dizziness.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9945
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9496
Caco-2 permeable+0.7214
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.596
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8959
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8453
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5721
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8761
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6099
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6999
Ames testAMES toxic0.5253
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9006
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9616
Rat acute toxicity2.2308 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.678
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7016
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Johnson and johnson group consumer companies
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Copley pharmaceutical inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Novex pharma
  • Perrigo co
  • Sight pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Avacor products llc
  • L perrigo co
  • Perrigo new york inc
  • Harmony laboratories
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Quantum pharmics ltd
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Royce laboratories inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidtopical20 mg
Liquidtopical2 g/100mL
Liquidtopical20 mg/mL
Liquidtopical2 %
Aerosol, foamtopical5 g/100g
Solutiontopical3 g/60mL
Solutiontopical2 g/100mL
Solutiontopical20 mg
Solutiontopical50 mg/mL
Solutiontopical2 %
Tabletoral10 mg
Tabletoral2.5 mg
Liquidtopical50 mg/mL
Aerosol, foamtopical50 mg/g
Tabletoral10 mg/1
Tabletoral2.5 mg/1
Aerosol, foamtopical5 %
Solutiontopical.02 g/mL
Solutiontopical5 g/100mL
Solutiontopical20 mg/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rogaine ex-str starter kit28.32USD kit
Minoxidil powder2.07USD g
Loniten 10 mg Tablet1.52USD tablet
Minoxidil 10 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Minoxidil 2.5 mg tablet0.7USD tablet
Loniten 2.5 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
Rogaine 5 % foam0.27USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6946120 No1999-04-202019-04-20Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point248 °CPhysProp
water solubility2200 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
logP1.24HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa4.61MERCK INDEX (2001)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility19.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.24ALOGPS
logP1.3ChemAxon
logS-1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.22ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area93.63 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity60.74 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Paul S. Uster, Yolanda P. Quinn, “Non-crystalline minoxidil composition, its production and application.” U.S. Patent US4828837, issued March, 1985.

US4828837
General References
  1. Olsen EA, Whiting D, Bergfeld W, Miller J, Hordinsky M, Wanser R, Zhang P, Kohut B: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of a novel formulation of 5% minoxidil topical foam versus placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Nov;57(5):767-74. Epub 2007 Aug 29. [PubMed:17761356 ]
External Links
ATC CodesD11AX01C02DC01
AHFS Codes
  • 24:08.20
  • 84:92.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (145 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Minoxidil.
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
AmifostineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
ButabarbitalButabarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
ButethalButethal may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
CyclosporineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclosporine is combined with Minoxidil.
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
DiazoxideDiazoxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
DuloxetineMinoxidil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.
HeptabarbitalHeptabarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
LevodopaMinoxidil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
MoxonidineMoxonidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
ObinutuzumabMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
QuinineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
RisperidoneMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.
RituximabMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Rituximab.
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
TadalafilTadalafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
TreprostinilTreprostinil may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Minoxidil.
VardenafilVardenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
YohimbineYohimbine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function:
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive vol...
Gene Name:
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID:
P48048
Molecular Weight:
44794.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kirsten R, Nelson K, Kirsten D, Heintz B: Clinical pharmacokinetics of vasodilators. Part I. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998 Jun;34(6):457-82. [PubMed:9646008 ]
  4. Evans JM, Allan AK, Davies SA, Dow JA: Sulphonylurea sensitivity and enriched expression implicate inward rectifier K+ channels in Drosophila melanogaster renal function. J Exp Biol. 2005 Oct;208(Pt 19):3771-83. [PubMed:16169954 ]
  5. Loffler-Walz C, Quast U: Binding of K(ATP) channel modulators in rat cardiac membranes. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;123(7):1395-402. [PubMed:9579735 ]
  6. Bray KM, Quast U: A specific binding site for K+ channel openers in rat aorta. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 15;267(17):11689-92. [PubMed:1601843 ]
  7. Black KL, Yin D, Konda BM, Wang X, Hu J, Ko MK, Bayan JA, Sacapano MR, Espinoza AJ, Ong JM, Irvin D, Shu Y: Different effects of KCa and KATP agonists on brain tumor permeability between syngeneic and allogeneic rat models. Brain Res. 2008 Aug 28;1227:198-206. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.06.046. Epub 2008 Jun 21. [PubMed:18602898 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Kurbel S, Kurbel B, Zanic-Matanic D: Minoxidil and male-pattern alopecia: a potential role for a local regulator of sebum secretion with vasoconstrictive effects? Med Hypotheses. 1999 Nov;53(5):402-6. [PubMed:10616041 ]
  2. Gaffar A, Scherl D, Afflitto J, Coleman EJ: The effect of triclosan on mediators of gingival inflammation. J Clin Periodontol. 1995 Jun;22(6):480-4. [PubMed:7560228 ]
  3. Michelet JF, Commo S, Billoni N, Mahe YF, Bernard BA: Activation of cytoprotective prostaglandin synthase-1 by minoxidil as a possible explanation for its hair growth-stimulating effect. J Invest Dermatol. 1997 Feb;108(2):205-9. [PubMed:9008235 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 24, 2016 01:52