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Identification
NameBiotin
Accession NumberDB00121  (NUTR00019)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(+)-cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4]imidazole-4-valeric acidNot AvailableNot Available
cis-(+)-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno[3,4]imidazoline-4-valeric acidNot AvailableNot Available
Coenzyme RNot AvailableNot Available
D-BiotinNot AvailableNot Available
D(+)-BiotinNot AvailableNot Available
Vitamin B7Not AvailableNot Available
Vitamin HNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
AppearexNot Available
BiodermatinNot Available
Biotin ForteNot Available
MeribinNot Available
Nail-exNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number58-85-5
WeightAverage: 244.311
Monoisotopic: 244.088163078
Chemical FormulaC10H16N2O3S
InChI KeyYBJHBAHKTGYVGT-ZKWXMUAHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H16N2O3S/c13-8(14)4-2-1-3-7-9-6(5-16-7)11-10(15)12-9/h6-7,9H,1-5H2,(H,13,14)(H2,11,12,15)/t6-,7-,9-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
5-[(3aS,4S,6aR)-2-oxo-hexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazolidin-4-yl]pentanoic acid
SMILES
[H][C@]12CS[C@@H](CCCCC(O)=O)[C@@]1([H])NC(=O)N2
Mass Specshow(9.84 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBiotin and Derivatives
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentBiotin and Derivatives
Alternative parentsThienoimidazolidines; Heterocyclic Fatty Acids; Imidazolidinones; Thiophenes; Polyamines; Thioethers; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids
Substituentsthienoimidazolidine; imidazolidinone; thiophene; imidazolidine; carboxylic acid derivative; polyamine; thioether; enolate; carboxylic acid; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the biotin and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a ureido (tetrahydroimidizalone) ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.
PharmacodynamicsBiotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin which is composed of an ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. A valeric acid substituent is attached to one of the carbon atoms of the tetrahydrothiophene ring. Biotin is used in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats, and amino acids. It plays a role in the Kreb cycle, which is the process in which energy is released from food. Biotin not only assists in various metabolic chemical conversions, but also helps with the transfer of carbon dioxide. Biotin is also helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level. Biotin is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails. Consequenty, it is found in many cosmetic and health products for the hair and skin. Biotin deficiency is a rare nutritional disorder caused by a deficiency of biotin. Initial symptoms of biotin deficiency include: Dry skin, Seborrheic dermatitis, Fungal infections, rashes including erythematous periorofacial macular rash, fine and brittle hair, and hair loss or total alopecia. If left untreated, neurological symptoms can develop, including mild depression, which may progress to profound lassitude and, eventually, to somnolence; changes in mental status, generalized muscular pains (myalgias), hyperesthesias and paresthesias. The treatment for biotin deficiency is to simply start taking some biotin supplements. A lack of biotin in infants will lead to a condition called seborrheic dermatitis or "cradle cap". Biotin deficiencies are extremely rare in adults but if it does occur, it will lead to anemia, depression, hair loss, high blood sugar levels, muscle pain, nausea, loss of appetite and inflamed mucous membranes.
Mechanism of actionBiotin is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes that transport carboxyl units and fix carbon dioxide, and is required for various metabolic functions, including gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, propionate metabolism, and catabolism of branched-chain amino acids.
AbsorptionSystemic - approximately 50%
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityProlonged skin contact may cause irritation.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency 1 (PEPCK1)DiseaseSMP00560
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00562
Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1A (GSD1A) or Von Gierke DiseaseDiseaseSMP00374
2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiencyDiseaseSMP00549
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00137
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)DiseaseSMP00136
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationMetabolicSMP00452
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00138
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaDiseaseSMP00522
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVDiseaseSMP00141
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IDiseaseSMP00139
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00521
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type IDiseaseSMP00237
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIIDiseaseSMP00140
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00243
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaMetabolicSMP00466
Citric Acid CycleMetabolicSMP00057
Fatty Acid BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00456
Lactic AcidemiaDiseaseSMP00313
Propionic AcidemiaDiseaseSMP00236
Isovaleric acidemiaDiseaseSMP00524
Congenital lactic acidosisDiseaseSMP00546
Methylmalonic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00200
Methylmalonic Aciduria Due to Cobalamin-Related DisordersDiseaseSMP00201
Malonic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00198
Isovaleric AciduriaDiseaseSMP00238
Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00055
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolicSMP00009
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationMetabolicSMP00032
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00173
Biotin MetabolismMetabolicSMP00066
Biotinidase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00174
Multiple carboxylase deficiency, neonatal or early onset formDiseaseSMP00564
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00350
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00523
Malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00502
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00212
Mitochondrial complex II deficiencyDiseaseSMP00548
Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00334
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)DiseaseSMP00550
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00567
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00384
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E2)DiseaseSMP00551
Fumarase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00547
Pyruvate kinase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00559
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseDiseaseSMP00199
Glycogenosis, Type IA. Von gierke diseaseDiseaseSMP00581
Warburg EffectMetabolicSMP00654
GluconeogenesisMetabolicSMP00128
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00072
Glycogenosis, Type ICDiseaseSMP00574
Glycogenosis, Type IBDiseaseSMP00573
HomocarnosinosisDiseaseSMP00385
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDiseaseSMP00339
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2DiseaseSMP00558
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type IDiseaseSMP00352
Triosephosphate isomeraseDiseaseSMP00563
Leigh SyndromeDiseaseSMP00196
Pyruvate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00060
Propanoate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00016
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.7395
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9383
Caco-2 permeable - 0.7206
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.6413
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9561
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 1.0
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8803
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7602
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.7872
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.6911
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9046
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9252
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8959
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9762
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9133
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9598
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.8923
Rat acute toxicity 2.0581 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9596
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9145
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Biotin powder14.69USDg
D-biotin powder12.0USDg
Diachrome capsule0.29USDcapsule
Appearex 2.5 mg tablet0.26USDtablet
Stress b tablet0.1USDtablet
Stress 600 tablet0.08USDtablet
Biotin 800 mcg tablet0.06USDtablet
Biotin 300 mcg tablet0.03USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point232 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility220 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.22e+00 g/lALOGPS
logP0.17ALOGPS
logP0.32ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)4.4ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-1.9ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area78.43ChemAxon
rotatable bond count5ChemAxon
refractivity60.05ChemAxon
polarizability24.92ChemAxon
number of rings2ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Takayoshi Mitsunaga, Kiyoto Chinushi, Tadashi Umezu, “Water-soluble biotin-containing preparation.” U.S. Patent US4277488, issued May, 1940.

US4277488
General Reference
  1. Holmberg A, Blomstergren A, Nord O, Lukacs M, Lundeberg J, Uhlen M: The biotin-streptavidin interaction can be reversibly broken using water at elevated temperatures. Electrophoresis. 2005 Feb;26(3):501-10. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00029
KEGG CompoundC00120
PubChem Compound171548
PubChem Substance46508694
ChemSpider149962
BindingDB12
ChEBI15956
ChEMBLCHEMBL857
PharmGKBPA448625
HETBTN
Drug Product Database189189
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cons/biotin.html
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/bio_0035.shtml
WikipediaBiotin
ATC CodesA11HA05
AHFS Codes
  • 88:08.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(71.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Propionyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrial P05166 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Vlasova TI, Stratton SL, Wells AM, Mock NI, Mock DM: Biotin deficiency reduces expression of SLC19A3, a potential biotin transporter, in leukocytes from human blood. J Nutr. 2005 Jan;135(1):42-7. Pubmed
  4. Cherbonnel-Lasserre CL, Linares-Cruz G, Rigaut JP, Sabatier L, Dutrillaux B: Strong decrease in biotin content may correlate with metabolic alterations in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1997 Sep 4;72(5):768-75. Pubmed
  5. Ishii M, Chuakrut S, Arai H, Igarashi Y: Occurrence, biochemistry and possible biotechnological application of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004 Jun;64(5):605-10. Epub 2004 Feb 28. Pubmed

2. Biotin--protein ligase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Biotin--protein ligase P50747 Details

References:

  1. Velazquez-Arellano A: From an inborn error patient to a search for regulatory meaning: a biotin conducted voyage. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Mar;87(3):194-7. Epub 2005 Dec 15. Pubmed
  2. Hassan YI, Zempleni J: Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and gene function by biotin. J Nutr. 2006 Jul;136(7):1763-5. Pubmed
  3. Camporeale G, Giordano E, Rendina R, Zempleni J, Eissenberg JC: Drosophila melanogaster holocarboxylase synthetase is a chromosomal protein required for normal histone biotinylation, gene transcription patterns, lifespan, and heat tolerance. J Nutr. 2006 Nov;136(11):2735-42. Pubmed

3. Sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter Q9Y289 Details

References:

  1. Luo S, Kansara VS, Zhu X, Mandava NK, Pal D, Mitra AK: Functional characterization of sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter in MDCK-MDR1 cells and its utilization as a target for drug delivery. Mol Pharm. 2006 May-Jun;3(3):329-39. Pubmed
  2. Janoria KG, Hariharan S, Paturi D, Pal D, Mitra AK: Biotin uptake by rabbit corneal epithelial cells: role of sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Curr Eye Res. 2006 Oct;31(10):797-809. Pubmed
  3. Reidling JC, Said HM: Regulation of the human biotin transporter hSMVT promoter by KLF-4 and AP-2: confirmation of promoter activity in vivo. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Apr;292(4):C1305-12. Epub 2006 Nov 29. Pubmed
  4. Camporeale G, Zempleni J, Eissenberg JC: Susceptibility to heat stress and aberrant gene expression patterns in holocarboxylase synthetase-deficient Drosophila melanogaster are caused by decreased biotinylation of histones, not of carboxylases. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):885-9. Pubmed

4. Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrial Q9HCC0 Details

References:

  1. Santoro N, Brtva T, Roest SV, Siegel K, Waldrop GL: A high-throughput screening assay for the carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Anal Biochem. 2006 Jul 1;354(1):70-7. Epub 2006 May 3. Pubmed
  2. de Queiroz MS, Waldrop GL: Modeling and numerical simulation of biotin carboxylase kinetics: implications for half-sites reactivity. J Theor Biol. 2007 May 7;246(1):167-75. Epub 2006 Dec 28. Pubmed
  3. Ludke A, Kramer R, Burkovski A, Schluesener D, Poetsch A: A proteomic study of Corynebacterium glutamicum AAA+ protease FtsH. BMC Microbiol. 2007 Jan 25;7:6. Pubmed
  4. Jitrapakdee S, Surinya KH, Adina-Zada A, Polyak SW, Stojkoski C, Smyth R, Booker GW, Cleland WW, Attwood PV, Wallace JC: Conserved Glu40 and Glu433 of the biotin carboxylase domain of yeast pyruvate carboxylase I isoenzyme are essential for the association of tetramers. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(11):2120-34. Epub 2007 Jun 27. Pubmed

5. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 O00763 Details

References:

  1. Liu Y, Zalameda L, Kim KW, Wang M, McCarter JD: Discovery of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 2 inhibitors: comparison of a fluorescence intensity-based phosphate assay and a fluorescence polarization-based ADP Assay for high-throughput screening. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2007 Apr;5(2):225-35. Pubmed

6. Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase subunit alpha, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase subunit alpha, mitochondrial Q96RQ3 Details

References:

  1. Friebel D, von der Hagen M, Baumgartner ER, Fowler B, Hahn G, Feyh P, Heubner G, Baumgartner MR, Hoffmann GF: The first case of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency responsive to biotin. Neuropediatrics. 2006 Apr;37(2):72-8. Pubmed

7. Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial P11498 Details

References:

  1. Liu L, Li Y, Zhu Y, Du G, Chen J: Redistribution of carbon flux in Torulopsis glabrata by altering vitamin and calcium level. Metab Eng. 2007 Jan;9(1):21-9. Epub 2006 Aug 12. Pubmed
  2. Ferreira G, Weiss WP: Effect of biotin on activity and gene expression of biotin-dependent carboxylases in the liver of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Mar;90(3):1460-6. Pubmed
  3. Jitrapakdee S, Surinya KH, Adina-Zada A, Polyak SW, Stojkoski C, Smyth R, Booker GW, Cleland WW, Attwood PV, Wallace JC: Conserved Glu40 and Glu433 of the biotin carboxylase domain of yeast pyruvate carboxylase I isoenzyme are essential for the association of tetramers. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(11):2120-34. Epub 2007 Jun 27. Pubmed
  4. Jitrapakdee S, Adina-Zada A, Besant PG, Surinya KH, Cleland WW, Wallace JC, Attwood PV: Differential regulation of the yeast isozymes of pyruvate carboxylase and the locus of action of acetyl CoA. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(6):1211-23. Epub 2007 Mar 30. Pubmed
  5. Ozimek PZ, Klompmaker SH, Visser N, Veenhuis M, van der Klei IJ: The transcarboxylase domain of pyruvate carboxylase is essential for assembly of the peroxisomal flavoenzyme alcohol oxidase. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007 Oct;7(7):1082-92. Epub 2007 Feb 20. Pubmed

8. Propionyl-CoA carboxylase alpha chain, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase alpha chain, mitochondrial P05165 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Clavero S, Martinez MA, Perez B, Perez-Cerda C, Ugarte M, Desviat LR: Functional characterization of PCCA mutations causing propionic acidemia. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Nov 20;1588(2):119-25. Pubmed
  4. Cherbonnel-Lasserre CL, Linares-Cruz G, Rigaut JP, Sabatier L, Dutrillaux B: Strong decrease in biotin content may correlate with metabolic alterations in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1997 Sep 4;72(5):768-75. Pubmed
  5. Vlasova TI, Stratton SL, Wells AM, Mock NI, Mock DM: Biotin deficiency reduces expression of SLC19A3, a potential biotin transporter, in leukocytes from human blood. J Nutr. 2005 Jan;135(1):42-7. Pubmed

9. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 Q13085 Details

References:

  1. Bilder P, Lightle S, Bainbridge G, Ohren J, Finzel B, Sun F, Holley S, Al-Kassim L, Spessard C, Melnick M, Newcomer M, Waldrop GL: The structure of the carboxyltransferase component of acetyl-coA carboxylase reveals a zinc-binding motif unique to the bacterial enzyme. Biochemistry. 2006 Feb 14;45(6):1712-22. Pubmed
  2. Brownsey RW, Boone AN, Elliott JE, Kulpa JE, Lee WM: Regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Apr;34(Pt 2):223-7. Pubmed
  3. Aoki H, Kimura K, Igarashi K, Takenaka A: Soy protein suppresses gene expression of acetyl-coA carboxylase alpha from promoter PI in rat liver. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Apr;70(4):843-9. Pubmed
  4. Santoro N, Brtva T, Roest SV, Siegel K, Waldrop GL: A high-throughput screening assay for the carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Anal Biochem. 2006 Jul 1;354(1):70-7. Epub 2006 May 3. Pubmed
  5. Leonard E, Lim KH, Saw PN, Koffas MA: Engineering central metabolic pathways for high-level flavonoid production in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jun;73(12):3877-86. Epub 2007 Apr 27. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 1B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1B1 Q16678 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08