You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameTacrine
Accession NumberDB00382  (APRD00690)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsWithdrawn
Description

A centerally active cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other central nervous system disorders. Tacrine has been discontinued for the United States market.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-amine
Tacrin
Tacrine
Tacrinum
Tetrahydroaminacrine
Tetrahydroaminoacridine
THA
External Identifiers
  • CI 970
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CognexShionogi
TalemLKM
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Tacrine Hydrochloride
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001053
Categories
UNII4VX7YNB537
CAS number321-64-2
WeightAverage: 198.2637
Monoisotopic: 198.115698458
Chemical FormulaC13H14N2
InChI KeyInChIKey=YLJREFDVOIBQDA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H14N2/c14-13-9-5-1-3-7-11(9)15-12-8-4-2-6-10(12)13/h1,3,5,7H,2,4,6,8H2,(H2,14,15)
IUPAC Name
1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-amine
SMILES
NC1=C2CCCCC2=NC2=CC=CC=C12
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acridines. These are organic compounds containing the acridine moiety, a linear tricyclic heterocycle which consists of two benzene rings joined by a pyridine ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassQuinolines and derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoquinolines
Direct ParentAcridines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Acridine
  • Aminoquinoline
  • Aminopyridine
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the palliative treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
PharmacodynamicsTacrine is a parasympathomimetic- a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor that is indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. An early pathophysiological feature of Alzheimer's disease that is associated with memory loss and cognitive deficits is a deficiency of acetylcholine as a result of selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex, nucleus basalis, and hippocampus. Tacrine is postulated to exert its therapeutic effect by enhancing cholinergic function. This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase. If this proposed mechanism of action is correct, tacrine's effect may lessen as the disease progresses and fewer cholinergic neurons remain functionally intact. There is no evidence that tacrine alters the course of the underlying dementing process.
Mechanism of actionThe mechanism of tacrine is not fully known, but it is suggested that the drug is an anticholinesterase agent which reversibly binds with and inactivates cholinesterases. This inhibits the hydrolysis of acetylcholine released from functioning cholinergic neurons, thus leading to an accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. The result is a prolonged effect of acetylcholine.
AbsorptionTacrine is rapidly absorbed. Absolute bioavailability of tacrine is approximately 17%.
Volume of distribution
  • 349 ± 193 L
Protein binding55%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Cytochrome P450 1A2 is the principal isozyme involved in tacrine metabolism. The major metabolite, 1-hydroxy-tacrine (velnacrine), has central cholinergic activity.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Tacrine
1-hydroxytacrineDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life2 to 4 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOverdosage with cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. The estimated median lethal dose of tacrine following a single oral dose in rats is 40 mg/kg, or approximately 12 times the maximum recommended human dose of 160 mg/day.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9783
Blood Brain Barrier+0.978
Caco-2 permeable-0.5267
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6195
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9247
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9103
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5073
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8532
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7248
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5541
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9404
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9773
Rat acute toxicity3.4207 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9351
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6164
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Shionogi pharma inc
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cognex 10 mg capsule3.03USD capsule
Cognex 20 mg capsule3.03USD capsule
Cognex 40 mg capsule3.03USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point183.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility217 mg/LNot Available
logP2.71HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa9.95 (at 20 °C)PERRIN,DD (1972)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.136 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.13ALOGPS
logP2.63ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.91 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity61.74 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.79 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.22 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

S. Shirley Yang, Wayne Boisvert, Nouman A. Muhammad, Jay Weiss, “Controlled release tacrine drug delivery systems and methods for preparing same.” U.S. Patent US5576022, issued February, 1993.

US5576022
General References
  1. Qizilbash N, Whitehead A, Higgins J, Wilcock G, Schneider L, Farlow M: Cholinesterase inhibition for Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis of the tacrine trials. Dementia Trialists’ Collaboration. JAMA. 1998 Nov 25;280(20):1777-82. Pubmed
  2. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesN06DA01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (19.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Aclidinium can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
AmitriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amitriptyline can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
AmoxapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amoxapine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
AripiprazoleTacrine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Aripiprazole.
AsenapineTacrine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Asenapine.
AtenololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Atenolol.
Atracurium besylateTacrine may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
AtropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
AzelastineThe therapeutic efficacy of Azelastine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
BendroflumethiazideTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Bendroflumethiazide.
BenzatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
BetamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betamethasone is combined with Tacrine.
BetaxololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Betaxolol.
BethanecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrine is combined with Bethanechol.
BisoprololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Bisoprolol.
BrexpiprazoleTacrine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Brexpiprazole.
BrompheniramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Brompheniramine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrine is combined with Carbachol.
CarbinoxamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Carbinoxamine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
CarteololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Carteolol.
CarvedilolTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Carvedilol.
CetirizineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cetirizine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
CevimelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrine is combined with Cevimeline.
ChlordiazepoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlordiazepoxide can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
ChlorphenamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorphenamine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
ChlorpromazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
Cisatracurium besylateTacrine may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium besylate.
ClemastineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clemastine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
ClidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Clidinium can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
ClofedanolThe therapeutic efficacy of Clofedanol can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
ClomipramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clomipramine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clozapine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
CodeineThe therapeutic efficacy of Codeine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
CorticotropinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Corticotropin is combined with Tacrine.
Cortisone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cortisone acetate is combined with Tacrine.
CyclizineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclizine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
CyclobenzaprineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclobenzaprine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
CyclopentolateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclopentolate can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
CyproheptadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyproheptadine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DarifenacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Darifenacin can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DesipramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Desipramine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DesloratadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Desloratadine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DexamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexamethasone is combined with Tacrine.
DexbrompheniramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dexbrompheniramine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
Dexchlorpheniramine maleateThe therapeutic efficacy of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DicyclomineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dicyclomine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DifenoxinThe therapeutic efficacy of Difenoxin can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DimenhydrinateThe therapeutic efficacy of Dimenhydrinate can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DiphenhydramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Diphenhydramine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DiphenoxylateThe therapeutic efficacy of Diphenoxylate can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DipyridamoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Tacrine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipyridamole.
DisopyramideThe therapeutic efficacy of Disopyramide can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DoxepinThe therapeutic efficacy of Doxepin can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DoxylamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Doxylamine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
DroperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Droperidol can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
EsmololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.
FenoterolThe therapeutic efficacy of Fenoterol can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
FesoterodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fesoterodine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
FexofenadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fexofenadine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
FlavoxateThe therapeutic efficacy of Flavoxate can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludrocortisone is combined with Tacrine.
FlupentixolThe therapeutic efficacy of Flupentixol can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
FluphenazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluphenazine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
Fluticasone PropionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluticasone Propionate can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
GlycopyrrolateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycopyrrolate can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
GuanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrine is combined with Guanidine.
HaloperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Haloperidol can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
HomatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Homatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
HydrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrocortisone is combined with Tacrine.
HydroxyzineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydroxyzine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
HyoscyamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyoscyamine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
IloperidoneTacrine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Iloperidone.
ImipramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Imipramine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
Ipratropium bromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Ipratropium bromide can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
IsocarboxazidThe therapeutic efficacy of Isocarboxazid can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
LabetalolTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Labetalol.
LevocabastineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levocabastine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
LevocetirizineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levocetirizine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
LoratadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Loratadine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
LoxapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Loxapine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
LurasidoneTacrine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Lurasidone.
MaprotilineThe therapeutic efficacy of Maprotiline can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
MeclizineThe therapeutic efficacy of Meclizine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
MepenzolateThe therapeutic efficacy of Mepenzolate can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
MethacholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrine is combined with Methacholine.
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Methotrimeprazine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
MethscopolamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Methscopolamine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
MethylprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylprednisolone is combined with Tacrine.
MetoprololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Metoprolol.
MoclobemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Moclobemide can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
NadololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Nadolol.
NebivololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Nebivolol.
NortriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Nortriptyline can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Olanzapine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
OlopatadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Olopatadine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
OrphenadrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Orphenadrine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
OxybutyninThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxybutynin can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
PaliperidoneTacrine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Paliperidone.
PancuroniumTacrine may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.
PenbutololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
PerphenazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Perphenazine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
PhenelzineThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenelzine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
PilocarpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrine is combined with Pilocarpine.
PimozideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pimozide can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
PindololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Pindolol.
PizotifenThe therapeutic efficacy of Pizotifen can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
PrednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisolone is combined with Tacrine.
PrednisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisone is combined with Tacrine.
ProchlorperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Prochlorperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
ProcyclidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Procyclidine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
PromazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Promazine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
PromethazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Promethazine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
PropanthelineThe therapeutic efficacy of Propantheline can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
PropranololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Propranolol.
ProtriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Protriptyline can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Quetiapine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
Repository corticotropinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Repository corticotropin is combined with Tacrine.
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Risperidone can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
RocuroniumTacrine may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.
ScopolamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Scopolamine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
Scopolamine butylbromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Scopolamine butylbromide can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
SolifenacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Solifenacin can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
SotalolTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Sotalol.
SuccinylcholineThe serum concentration of Succinylcholine can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.
ThioridazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thioridazine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
ThiothixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Thiothixene can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TimololTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Timolol.
TiotropiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Tiotropium can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TolterodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolterodine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TranylcypromineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tranylcypromine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamcinolone is combined with Tacrine.
TrifluoperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Trifluoperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TrihexyphenidylThe therapeutic efficacy of Trihexyphenidyl can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TrimethobenzamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Trimethobenzamide can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TrimipramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Trimipramine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TriprolidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Triprolidine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TrospiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Trospium can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
UmeclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Umeclidinium can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
VecuroniumTacrine may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.
ZiprasidoneTacrine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Ziprasidone.
ZuclopenthixolThe therapeutic efficacy of Zuclopenthixol can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Acetylcholinesterase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acetylcholinesterase P22303 Details

References:

  1. Davis KL: Alzheimer’s disease: seeking new ways to preserve brain function. Interview by Alice V. Luddington. Geriatrics. 1999 Feb;54(2):42-7; quiz 48. Pubmed
  2. Wang H, Carlier PR, Ho WL, Wu DC, Lee NT, Li CP, Pang YP, Han YF: Effects of bis(7)-tacrine, a novel anti-Alzheimer’s agent, on rat brain AChE. Neuroreport. 1999 Mar 17;10(4):789-93. Pubmed
  3. Traykov L, Tavitian B, Jobert A, Boller F, Forette F, Crouzel C, Di Giamberardino L, Pappata S: In vivo PET study of cerebral [11C] methyl- tetrahydroaminoacridine distribution and kinetics in healthy human subjects. Eur J Neurol. 1999 May;6(3):273-8. Pubmed
  4. Wang H, Tang XC: Anticholinesterase effects of huperzine A, E2020, and tacrine in rats. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998 Jan;19(1):27-30. Pubmed
  5. Kosasa T, Kuriya Y, Matsui K, Yamanishi Y: Effect of donepezil hydrochloride (E2020) on basal concentration of extracellular acetylcholine in the hippocampus of rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 10;380(2-3):101-7. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  7. Takatori Y: [Mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of therapeutic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used in treatment of Alzheimer’s disease] Yakugaku Zasshi. 2006 Aug;126(8):607-16. Pubmed
  8. Du DM, Carlier PR: Development of bivalent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors as potential therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(25):3141-56. Pubmed
  9. Krustev AD, Argirova MD, Getova DP, Turiiski VI, Prissadova NA: Calcium-independent tacrine-induced relaxation of rat gastric corpus smooth muscles. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;84(11):1133-8. Pubmed
  10. Villarroya M, Garcia AG, Marco JL: New classes of AChE inhibitors with additional pharmacological effects of interest for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(25):3177-84. Pubmed
  11. Marco JL, Carreiras MC: Recent developments in the synthesis of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2003 Sep;3(6):518-24. Pubmed
  12. Ahmed M, Rocha JB, Correa M, Mazzanti CM, Zanin RF, Morsch AL, Morsch VM, Schetinger MR: Inhibition of two different cholinesterases by tacrine. Chem Biol Interact. 2006 Aug 25;162(2):165-71. Epub 2006 Jun 17. Pubmed

2. Cholinesterase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholinesterase P06276 Details

References:

  1. Wang H, Tang XC: Anticholinesterase effects of huperzine A, E2020, and tacrine in rats. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998 Jan;19(1):27-30. Pubmed
  2. Krustev AD, Argirova MD, Getova DP, Turiiski VI, Prissadova NA: Calcium-independent tacrine-induced relaxation of rat gastric corpus smooth muscles. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;84(11):1133-8. Pubmed
  3. Marco JL, Carreiras MC: Recent developments in the synthesis of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2003 Sep;3(6):518-24. Pubmed
  4. Ahmed M, Rocha JB, Correa M, Mazzanti CM, Zanin RF, Morsch AL, Morsch VM, Schetinger MR: Inhibition of two different cholinesterases by tacrine. Chem Biol Interact. 2006 Aug 25;162(2):165-71. Epub 2006 Jun 17. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. Pubmed
  2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  4. Obach RS, Reed-Hagen AE: Measurement of Michaelis constants for cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation reactions using a substrate depletion approach. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Jul;30(7):831-7. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 15, 2014 15:29