You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameZolpidem
Accession NumberDB00425  (APRD00095)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Zolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to benzodiazepine receptors which are located on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Zolpidem is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (2-3 hours). It is classified as an imidazopyridine. As an anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, the beneficial effects start to emerge at 10 and 20 times the dose required for sedation, respectively. For that reason, it has never been approved for either muscle relaxation or seizure prevention. Recently, zolpidem has been cited in various medical reports mainly in the United Kingdom as waking persistent vegetative state (PVS) patients, and dramatically improving the conditions of people with brain injuries. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
N,N,6-Trimethyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine-3-acetamideNot AvailableNot Available
ZolpidemFrench/German/SpanishBAN, DCF, DCIT
ZolpidemumLatinINN
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ambientablet, film coated5 mgoralSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-04-01Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated10 mgoralSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc1993-04-01Not AvailableUs
Ambien CRtablet, coated6.25 mgoralSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2005-09-19Not AvailableUs
Ambien CRtablet, coated12.5 mgoralSanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2005-09-19Not AvailableUs
Edluartablet10 mgoralMeda Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-07-24Not AvailableUs
Edluartablet5 mgoralMeda Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-07-24Not AvailableUs
Zolpimistspray, metered5 mgoralECR Pharmaceuticals2010-12-01Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, coated5 mgoralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2008-10-01Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, coated10 mgoralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2008-10-01Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release6.25 mgoralWinthrop U.S, A Business Of Sanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2010-10-14Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release12.5 mgoralWinthrop U.S, A Business Of Sanofi Aventis U.S. Llc2010-12-06Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated5 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC1993-04-01Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated10 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC1993-04-01Not AvailableUs
Ambien CRtablet, coated12.5 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2009-06-30Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated5 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2009-06-30Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated10 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2009-06-30Not AvailableUs
Ambien Crtablet, coated12.5 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2009-06-30Not AvailableUs
Ambien Crtablet, coated6.25 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2009-06-30Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release12.5 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2010-12-06Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated10 mgoralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2009-06-30Not AvailableUs
Ambien CRtablet, coated12.5 mgoralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-12-13Not AvailableUs
Ambien CRtablet6.25 mgoralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-11-10Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated5 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc1993-04-01Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated10 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc1993-04-01Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated5 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc1993-04-01Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated10 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc1993-04-01Not AvailableUs
Ambien CRtablet, coated12.5 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2005-09-19Not AvailableUs
Ambien Crtablet, coated12.5 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-11-24Not AvailableUs
Ambien Crtablet, coated6.25 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-10-07Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release12.5 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-12-16Not AvailableUs
Ambien CRtablet, coated12.5 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-06-30Not AvailableUs
Intermezzotablet3.5 mgsublingualPurdue Pharma LP2012-04-05Not AvailableUs
Intermezzotablet1.75 mgsublingualPurdue Pharma LP2012-04-05Not AvailableUs
Ambien Crtablet, coated12.5 mgoralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2010-12-01Not AvailableUs
Ambientablet, film coated10 mgoralbryant ranch prepack1993-04-01Not AvailableUs
Ambien Crtablet, coated12.5 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2009-06-30Not AvailableUs
Ambien Crtablet, coated6.25 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2009-06-30Not AvailableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralRoxane Laboratories, Inc2007-04-27Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralRoxane Laboratories, Inc2007-04-27Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidemtablet5 mgoralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2008-04-30Not AvailableUs
Zolpidemtablet10 mgoralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2008-04-30Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release6.25 mgoralActavis Elizabeth LLC2010-10-13Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release12.5 mgoralActavis Elizabeth LLC2011-06-07Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release6.25 mgoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2013-03-25Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release12.5 mgoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2013-03-25Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, extended release6.25 mgoralSandoz Inc2011-10-31Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, extended release12.5 mgoralSandoz Inc2011-10-31Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, coated5 mgoralSandoz Inc2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, coated10 mgoralSandoz Inc2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-11-02Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-11-02Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralApotheca, Inc2007-07-25Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralApotheca, Inc2007-09-25Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralNorth Star Rx Llc2007-05-04Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralNorth Star Rx Llc2007-05-04Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralRx Change Co.2014-11-20Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralRx Change Co.2014-11-27Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2007-04-27Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2007-04-27Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release6.25 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-10-13Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-12-10Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-04-15Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-11-07Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release12.5 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-06-07Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release6.25 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2010-10-13Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralUnit Dose Services2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralUnit Dose Services2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, extended release12.5 mgoralUnit Dose Services2011-10-31Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-01-09Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-01-09Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-22Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-10Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release12.5 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-06-07Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release6.25 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2010-10-13Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-10-09Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release6.25 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-11-02Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralCardinal Health2009-11-02Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralCardinal Health2009-11-02Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralCardinal Health2009-10-14Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralCardinal Health2009-10-14Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralCardinal Health2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralCardinal Health2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralCardinal Health2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralCardinal Health2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralCardinal Health2011-01-28Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralCardinal Health2011-01-28Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralCardinal Health2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralCardinal Health2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-12-10Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralWockhardt Limited2007-05-15Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralWockhardt Limited2007-05-15Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralApotex Corp.2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralApotex Corp.2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-12-16Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, extended release12.5 mgoralProficient Rx LP2011-10-31Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralProficient Rx LP2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralProficient Rx LP2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.2007-04-23Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, extended release12.5 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2011-10-31Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, extended release6.25 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2011-10-31Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2011-06-01Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralWockhardt USA LLC.2007-05-15Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralWockhardt USA LLC.2007-05-15Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralTYA Pharmaceuticals2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2007-05-04Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2007-05-04Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralRed Pharm Drug, Inc.2007-05-04Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralRed Pharm Drug Inc.2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralRed Pharm Drug Inc.2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralRed Pharm Drug Inc.2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, coated5 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2014-01-07Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, coated10 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2014-01-07Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-14Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2009-10-14Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release12.5 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2011-12-01Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated, extended release6.25 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2014-12-15Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, extended release6.25 mgoralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-04-07Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, extended release12.5 mgoralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-04-07Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet5 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet10 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2007-09-05Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-01-30Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-01-30Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralLife Line Home Care Services, Inc.2008-11-21Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated5 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-20Not AvailableUs
Zolpidem Tartratetablet, film coated10 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-21Not AvailableUs
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AdormixSanofi Pasteur
Bikalmsanofi-aventis
Dormizolsanofi-aventis
HypnogenZentiva
Ivadalsanofi-aventis
IvedalWinthrop
NasenPolfarmex
NimadormSandoz
Nottemsanofi-aventis
Stilnoctsanofi-aventis
Stilnoxsanofi-aventis
Stilnox CRsanofi-aventis
ZolsanaKrka
ZoltisBiofarm
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Zolpidem tartrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001047
Categories
CAS number82626-48-0
WeightAverage: 307.3895
Monoisotopic: 307.168462309
Chemical FormulaC19H21N3O
InChI KeyZAFYATHCZYHLPB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H21N3O/c1-13-5-8-15(9-6-13)19-16(11-18(23)21(3)4)22-12-14(2)7-10-17(22)20-19/h5-10,12H,11H2,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
N,N-dimethyl-2-[6-methyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl]acetamide
SMILES
CN(C)C(=O)CC1=C(N=C2C=CC(C)=CN12)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylimidazoles. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring linked to an imidazole ring through a CC or CN bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzoles
Sub ClassImidazoles
Direct ParentPhenylimidazoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 4-phenylimidazole
  • 5-phenylimidazole
  • Imidazopyridine
  • Methylpyridine
  • Toluene
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the short-term treatment of insomnia.
PharmacodynamicsZolpidem is a sedative or hypnotic agent with a chemical structure unrelated to benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other drugs with known hypnotic properties. It interacts with a GABA-BZ receptor complex and shares some of the pharmacological properties of the benzodiazepines. In contrast to the benzodiazepines, which non-selectively bind to and activate all three alpha receptor subtypes, zolpidem in vitro binds the (alpha1) receptor preferentially. The (alpha1) receptor is found primarily on the Lamina IV of the sensorimotor cortical regions, substantia nigra (pars reticulata), cerebellum molecular layer, olfactory bulb, ventral thalamic complex, pons, inferior colliculus, and globus pallidus.
Mechanism of actionZolpidem modulates the alpha-subunit, known as the benzodiazepine receptor, within the GABAA receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex. Unlike the benzodiazepines, which non-selectively interact with all three alpha-receptor subtypes, Zolpidem preferentially binds to the alpha-1 receptor.
AbsorptionZolpidem is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding92.5 ± 0.1% (independent of concentration between 40 and 790 ng/mL)
Metabolism

Zolpidem is converted to inactive metabolites in the liver.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Zolpidem
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M3)Details
Zolpidem
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M4)Details
Zolpidem
Not Available
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M11)Details
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M4)
Not Available
Zolpidem carboxylic acid derivative (M2)Details
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M3)
Not Available
Zolpidem carboxylic acid derivative (M1)Details
Route of eliminationZolpidem tartrate tablets are converted to inactive metabolites that are eliminated primarily by renal excretion.
Half life2.6 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral (male rat) LD50 = 695 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include impairment of consciousness ranging from somnolence to light coma.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9392
Caco-2 permeable+0.6638
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7574
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.621
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7412
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.624
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8331
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8754
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9119
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5265
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5507
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8352
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9928
Rat acute toxicity2.5614 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9831
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6928
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Novadel pharma inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Biovail laboratories international srl
  • Apotex inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Carlsbad technology inc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Genpharm inc
  • Hikma pharmaceuticals
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lek pharmaceuticals dd
  • Mutual pharmacal co
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Synthon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Torrent pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • World gen llc
  • Meda pharmaceuticals
  • Pfizer inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Spray, meteredoral5 mg
Tabletoral10 mg
Tabletoral5 mg
Tabletoral6.25 mg
Tabletsublingual1.75 mg
Tabletsublingual3.5 mg
Tablet, coatedoral10 mg
Tablet, coatedoral12.5 mg
Tablet, coatedoral5 mg
Tablet, coatedoral6.25 mg
Tablet, extended releaseoral12.5 mg
Tablet, extended releaseoral6.25 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral10 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral5 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral12.5 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral6.25 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ambien cr 12.5 mg tablet6.19USD tablet
Ambien cr 6.25 mg tablet6.19USD tablet
Ambien 10 mg tablet6.11USD tablet
Ambien 5 mg tablet6.04USD tablet
Ambien CR 12.5 mg Controlled Release Tabs6.0USD tab
Ambien CR 6.25 mg Controlled Release Tabs6.0USD tab
Edluar 10 mg sl tablet5.0USD tablet
Edluar 5 mg sl tablet5.0USD tablet
Zolpidem tartrate 10 mg tablet2.73USD tablet
Zolpidem tartrate 5 mg tablet2.73USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States65145312000-06-012020-06-01
United States76325171997-10-012017-10-01
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point196 °CPhysProp
water solubility23 mg/mLNot Available
logP1.2Not Available
pKa6.2MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0313 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.15ALOGPS
logP3.02ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.65ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.61 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity93.58 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.06 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraMS
References
Synthesis Reference

Markus Sauter, “Process for preparing zolpidem.” U.S. Patent US20020183522, issued December 05, 2002.

US20020183522
General Reference
  1. Lemmer B: The sleep-wake cycle and sleeping pills. Physiol Behav. 2007 Feb 28;90(2-3):285-93. Epub 2006 Oct 16. Pubmed
  2. Depoortere H, Zivkovic B, Lloyd KG, Sanger DJ, Perrault G, Langer SZ, Bartholini G: Zolpidem, a novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. I. Neuropharmacological and behavioral effects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986 May;237(2):649-58. Pubmed
  3. Clauss RP, Guldenpfennig WM, Nel HW, Sathekge MM, Venkannagari RR: Extraordinary arousal from semi-comatose state on zolpidem. A case report. S Afr Med J. 2000 Jan;90(1):68-72. Pubmed
  4. Schlich D, L’Heritier C, Coquelin JP, Attali P, Kryrein HJ: Long-term treatment of insomnia with zolpidem: a multicentre general practitioner study of 107 patients. J Int Med Res. 1991 May-Jun;19(3):271-9. Pubmed
  5. Maarek L, Cramer P, Attali P, Coquelin JP, Morselli PL: The safety and efficacy of zolpidem in insomniac patients: a long-term open study in general practice. J Int Med Res. 1992 Apr;20(2):162-70. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesN05CF02
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (323 KB)
MSDSDownload (170 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AmprenavirAmprenavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if amprenavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
AtazanavirAtazanavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if atazanavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ClarithromycinClarithromycin, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if clarithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ConivaptanConivaptan, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if conivaptan is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DarunavirDarunavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if darunavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DelavirdineDelavirdine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if delavirdine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DihydrocodeineEnhanced CNS depressant effects contraindicates concurrent use for certain brand name formulations of zolpidem.
FluconazoleFluconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if fluconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
FosamprenavirFosamprenavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if fosamprenavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
IndinavirIndinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if indinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
IsoniazidIsoniazid, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if isoniazid is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ItraconazoleItraconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if itraconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
KetoconazoleKetoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
LopinavirLopinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if lopinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
MethotrimeprazineAdditive CNS depressant effects. Reduce zolpidem dose by half upon initiation of methotrimeprazine. Zolpidem dose may be adjusted once methotrimeprazine dose has been established. Monitor for increased CNS depression.
NefazodoneNefazodone, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if nefazodone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
NelfinavirNelfinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if nelfinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
NicardipineNicardipine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if nicardipine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
PosaconazolePosaconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if posaconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
QuinidineQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
RitonavirRitonavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if ritonavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
SaquinavirSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TelithromycinTelithromycin, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TriprolidineThe CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Zolpidem, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy.
VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Should not be administered with or immediately after a meal.

Targets

1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Vlainic J, Pericic D: Effects of acute and repeated zolpidem treatment on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold and on locomotor activity: comparison with diazepam. Neuropharmacology. 2009 Jun;56(8):1124-30. Epub 2009 Apr 1. Pubmed
  4. Smith AJ, Alder L, Silk J, Adkins C, Fletcher AE, Scales T, Kerby J, Marshall G, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Atack JR: Effect of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors determined using (36)Cl ion flux. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1108-18. Pubmed
  5. Pritchett DB, Seeburg PH: Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha 5-subunit creates novel type II benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology. J Neurochem. 1990 May;54(5):1802-4. Pubmed

2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details

References:

  1. Pritchett DB, Seeburg PH: Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha 5-subunit creates novel type II benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology. J Neurochem. 1990 May;54(5):1802-4. Pubmed
  2. Smith AJ, Alder L, Silk J, Adkins C, Fletcher AE, Scales T, Kerby J, Marshall G, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Atack JR: Effect of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors determined using (36)Cl ion flux. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1108-18. Pubmed

3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details

References:

  1. Pritchett DB, Seeburg PH: Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha 5-subunit creates novel type II benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology. J Neurochem. 1990 May;54(5):1802-4. Pubmed
  2. Smith AJ, Alder L, Silk J, Adkins C, Fletcher AE, Scales T, Kerby J, Marshall G, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Atack JR: Effect of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors determined using (36)Cl ion flux. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1108-18. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. Pubmed
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

4. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

5. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

8. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 P23219 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 10, 2014 15:37