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Identification
NameZolpidem
Accession NumberDB00425  (APRD00095)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

Zolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to benzodiazepine receptors which are located on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Zolpidem is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (2-3 hours). It is classified as an imidazopyridine. As an anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, the beneficial effects start to emerge at 10 and 20 times the dose required for sedation, respectively. For that reason, it has never been approved for either muscle relaxation or seizure prevention. Recently, zolpidem has been cited in various medical reports mainly in the United Kingdom as waking persistent vegetative state (PVS) patients, and dramatically improving the conditions of people with brain injuries. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
N,N,6-Trimethyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine-3-acetamideNot AvailableNot Available
ZolpidemFrench/German/SpanishBAN, DCF, DCIT
ZolpidemumLatinINN
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Zolpidem tartrate
Thumb Not applicable DBSALT001047
Brand names
NameCompany
AdormixSanofi Pasteur
Ambiensanofi-aventis
Ambien CRsanofi-aventis
Bikalmsanofi-aventis
Dormizolsanofi-aventis
EdluarNot Available
HypnogenZentiva
IntermezzoPurdue
Ivadalsanofi-aventis
IvedalWinthrop
NasenPolfarmex
NimadormSandoz
Nottemsanofi-aventis
Stilnoctsanofi-aventis
Stilnoxsanofi-aventis
Stilnox CRsanofi-aventis
ZolpimistNot Available
ZolsanaKrka
ZoltisBiofarm
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number82626-48-0
WeightAverage: 307.3895
Monoisotopic: 307.168462309
Chemical FormulaC19H21N3O
InChI KeyZAFYATHCZYHLPB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H21N3O/c1-13-5-8-15(9-6-13)19-16(11-18(23)21(3)4)22-12-14(2)7-10-17(22)20-19/h5-10,12H,11H2,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
N,N-dimethyl-2-[6-methyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl]acetamide
SMILES
CN(C)C(=O)CC1=C(N=C2C=CC(C)=CN12)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassAzoles
SubclassImidazoles
Direct parentPhenylimidazoles
Alternative parentsImidazopyridines; Toluenes; Pyridines and Derivatives; Tertiary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Tertiary Amines; Polyamines; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids
Substituentsimidazopyridine; toluene; pyridine; benzene; tertiary carboxylic acid amide; carboxamide group; tertiary amine; carboxylic acid derivative; enolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the phenylimidazoles. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring linked to an imidazole ring through a CC or CN bond.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the short-term treatment of insomnia.
PharmacodynamicsZolpidem is a sedative or hypnotic agent with a chemical structure unrelated to benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other drugs with known hypnotic properties. It interacts with a GABA-BZ receptor complex and shares some of the pharmacological properties of the benzodiazepines. In contrast to the benzodiazepines, which non-selectively bind to and activate all three alpha receptor subtypes, zolpidem in vitro binds the (alpha1) receptor preferentially. The (alpha1) receptor is found primarily on the Lamina IV of the sensorimotor cortical regions, substantia nigra (pars reticulata), cerebellum molecular layer, olfactory bulb, ventral thalamic complex, pons, inferior colliculus, and globus pallidus.
Mechanism of actionZolpidem modulates the alpha-subunit, known as the benzodiazepine receptor, within the GABAA receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex. Unlike the benzodiazepines, which non-selectively interact with all three alpha-receptor subtypes, Zolpidem preferentially binds to the alpha-1 receptor.
AbsorptionZolpidem is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding92.5 ± 0.1% (independent of concentration between 40 and 790 ng/mL)
Metabolism

Zolpidem is converted to inactive metabolites in the liver.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Zolpidem
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M3)Details
Zolpidem
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M4)Details
Zolpidem
Not Available
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M11)Details
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M4)
Not Available
Zolpidem carboxylic acid derivative (M2)Details
Methoxyzolpidem derivative (M3)
Not Available
Zolpidem carboxylic acid derivative (M1)Details
Route of eliminationZolpidem tartrate tablets are converted to inactive metabolites that are eliminated primarily by renal excretion.
Half life2.6 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral (male rat) LD50 = 695 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include impairment of consciousness ranging from somnolence to light coma.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9392
Caco-2 permeable + 0.6638
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.7574
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.621
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7412
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.624
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8331
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8754
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9119
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.5265
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.5507
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8352
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9928
Rat acute toxicity 2.5614 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9831
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.6928
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Novadel pharma inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Biovail laboratories international srl
  • Apotex inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Carlsbad technology inc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Genpharm inc
  • Hikma pharmaceuticals
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lek pharmaceuticals dd
  • Mutual pharmacal co
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Synthon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Torrent pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • World gen llc
  • Meda pharmaceuticals
  • Pfizer Inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ambien cr 12.5 mg tablet6.19USDtablet
Ambien cr 6.25 mg tablet6.19USDtablet
Ambien 10 mg tablet6.11USDtablet
Ambien 5 mg tablet6.04USDtablet
Ambien CR 12.5 mg Controlled Release Tabs6.0USDtab
Ambien CR 6.25 mg Controlled Release Tabs6.0USDtab
Edluar 10 mg sl tablet5.0USDtablet
Edluar 5 mg sl tablet5.0USDtablet
Zolpidem tartrate 10 mg tablet2.73USDtablet
Zolpidem tartrate 5 mg tablet2.73USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States65145312000-06-012020-06-01
United States76325171997-10-012017-10-01
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point196 °CPhysProp
water solubility23 mg/mLNot Available
logP1.2Not Available
pKa6.2MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility3.13e-02 g/lALOGPS
logP3.15ALOGPS
logP3.02ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)5.65ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area37.61ChemAxon
rotatable bond count3ChemAxon
refractivity93.58ChemAxon
polarizability35.06ChemAxon
number of rings3ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Markus Sauter, “Process for preparing zolpidem.” U.S. Patent US20020183522, issued December 05, 2002.

US20020183522
General Reference
  1. Lemmer B: The sleep-wake cycle and sleeping pills. Physiol Behav. 2007 Feb 28;90(2-3):285-93. Epub 2006 Oct 16. Pubmed
  2. Depoortere H, Zivkovic B, Lloyd KG, Sanger DJ, Perrault G, Langer SZ, Bartholini G: Zolpidem, a novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. I. Neuropharmacological and behavioral effects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986 May;237(2):649-58. Pubmed
  3. Clauss RP, Guldenpfennig WM, Nel HW, Sathekge MM, Venkannagari RR: Extraordinary arousal from semi-comatose state on zolpidem. A case report. S Afr Med J. 2000 Jan;90(1):68-72. Pubmed
  4. Schlich D, L’Heritier C, Coquelin JP, Attali P, Kryrein HJ: Long-term treatment of insomnia with zolpidem: a multicentre general practitioner study of 107 patients. J Int Med Res. 1991 May-Jun;19(3):271-9. Pubmed
  5. Maarek L, Cramer P, Attali P, Coquelin JP, Morselli PL: The safety and efficacy of zolpidem in insomniac patients: a long-term open study in general practice. J Int Med Res. 1992 Apr;20(2):162-70. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC07219
PubChem Compound5732
PubChem Substance46507949
ChemSpider5530
BindingDB26266
ChEBI10125
ChEMBLCHEMBL911
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000112
PharmGKBPA451976
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/zolpid.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/zolpidem.html
WikipediaZolpidem
ATC CodesN05CF02
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(323 KB)
MSDSshow(170 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AmprenavirAmprenavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if amprenavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
AtazanavirAtazanavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if atazanavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ClarithromycinClarithromycin, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if clarithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ConivaptanConivaptan, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if conivaptan is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DarunavirDarunavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if darunavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DelavirdineDelavirdine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if delavirdine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DihydrocodeineEnhanced CNS depressant effects contraindicates concurrent use for certain brand name formulations of zolpidem.
FluconazoleFluconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if fluconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
FosamprenavirFosamprenavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if fosamprenavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
IndinavirIndinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if indinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
IsoniazidIsoniazid, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if isoniazid is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ItraconazoleItraconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if itraconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
KetoconazoleKetoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
LopinavirLopinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if lopinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
MethotrimeprazineAdditive CNS depressant effects. Reduce zolpidem dose by half upon initiation of methotrimeprazine. Zolpidem dose may be adjusted once methotrimeprazine dose has been established. Monitor for increased CNS depression.
NefazodoneNefazodone, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if nefazodone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
NelfinavirNelfinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if nelfinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
NicardipineNicardipine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if nicardipine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
PosaconazolePosaconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if posaconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
QuinidineQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
RitonavirRitonavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if ritonavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
SaquinavirSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TelithromycinTelithromycin, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TriprolidineThe CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Zolpidem, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy.
VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Should not be administered with or immediately after a meal.

Targets

1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Vlainic J, Pericic D: Effects of acute and repeated zolpidem treatment on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold and on locomotor activity: comparison with diazepam. Neuropharmacology. 2009 Jun;56(8):1124-30. Epub 2009 Apr 1. Pubmed
  4. Smith AJ, Alder L, Silk J, Adkins C, Fletcher AE, Scales T, Kerby J, Marshall G, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Atack JR: Effect of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors determined using (36)Cl ion flux. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1108-18. Pubmed
  5. Pritchett DB, Seeburg PH: Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha 5-subunit creates novel type II benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology. J Neurochem. 1990 May;54(5):1802-4. Pubmed

2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details

References:

  1. Pritchett DB, Seeburg PH: Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha 5-subunit creates novel type II benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology. J Neurochem. 1990 May;54(5):1802-4. Pubmed
  2. Smith AJ, Alder L, Silk J, Adkins C, Fletcher AE, Scales T, Kerby J, Marshall G, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Atack JR: Effect of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors determined using (36)Cl ion flux. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1108-18. Pubmed

3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details

References:

  1. Pritchett DB, Seeburg PH: Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha 5-subunit creates novel type II benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology. J Neurochem. 1990 May;54(5):1802-4. Pubmed
  2. Smith AJ, Alder L, Silk J, Adkins C, Fletcher AE, Scales T, Kerby J, Marshall G, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Atack JR: Effect of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors determined using (36)Cl ion flux. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1108-18. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

2. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

3. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. Pubmed
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

8. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 P23219 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 10, 2014 15:37