You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NamePethidine
Accession NumberDB00454  (APRD00074)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
IsonipecaïneNot AvailableIS
MeperidineNot AvailableUSAN
PethidinGermanINN
PéthidineFrenchINN
PethidinumLatinINN
PetidinaSpanishINN
PetydynaPolishNot Available
SauteralgylNot AvailableIS
SpasmedalNot AvailableIS
SpasmodolinNot AvailableIS
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Meperidine hydrochloride
Thumb Not applicable DBSALT001046
Pethidine hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: WCNLCIJMFAJCPX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 283.13390666
  • Average Mass: 283.794
DBSALT000628
Brand names
NameCompany
Demerolsanofi-aventis
Dolantinsanofi-aventis
Dolcontralmibe
DolosalCristália
DolsinBiotika
LydolSopharma
MialginZentiva
PetidinNycomed
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Pamergan P100Pethidine and Promethazine
Weak PethilorfanPethidine and Levallorphan
Categories
CAS number57-42-1
WeightAverage: 247.3327
Monoisotopic: 247.157228921
Chemical FormulaC15H21NO2
InChI KeyXADCESSVHJOZHK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H21NO2/c1-3-18-14(17)15(9-11-16(2)12-10-15)13-7-5-4-6-8-13/h4-8H,3,9-12H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
ethyl 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate
SMILES
CCOC(=O)C1(CCN(C)CC1)C1=CC=CC=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassPiperidines
SubclassPhenylpiperidines
Direct parentPhenylpiperidines
Alternative parentsPhenylacetic Acid Derivatives; Piperidinecarboxylic Acids; Tertiary Amines; Carboxylic Acid Esters; Ethers; Enolates; Polyamines
Substituentsphenylacetate; piperidinecarboxylic acid; benzene; carboxylic acid ester; tertiary amine; ether; enolate; carboxylic acid derivative; polyamine; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the phenylpiperidines. These are compounds containing a phenylpiperidine skeleton, which consists of a piperidine bound to a phenyl group.
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed to control moderate to severe pain.
PharmacodynamicsMeperidine is a synthetic opiate agonist belonging to the phenylpiperidine class. Meperidine may produce less smooth muscle spasm, constipation, and depression of the cough reflex than equivalent doses of morphine. The onset of action is lightly more rapid than with morphine, and the duration of action is slightly shorter. The chemical structure of meperidine is similar to local anesthetics. Meperidine is recommended for relief of moderate to severe acute pain and has the unique ability to interrupt postoperative shivering and shaking chills induced by amphotericin B. Meperidine has also been used for intravenous regional anesthesia, peripheral nerve blocks and intraarticular, epidural and spinal analgesia. Meperidine is considered a second-line agent for the treatment of acute pain.
Mechanism of actionMeperidine is primarily a kappa-opiate receptor agonist and also has local anesthetic effects. Meperidine has more affinity for the kappa-receptor than morphine. Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin and glucagon. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.
AbsorptionThe oral bioavailability of meperidine in patients with normal hepatic function is 50-60% due to extensive first-pass metabolism. Bioavailability increases to 80-90% in patients with hepatic impairment (e.g. liver cirrhosis). Meperidine is less than half as effective when administered orally compared to parenteral administration. One study reported that 80-85% of the drug administered intramuscularly was absorbed within 6 hours of intragluteal injection in health adults; however, inter-individual variation and patient-specific variable appear to cause considerable variations in absorption upon IM injection.
Volume of distribution

Meperidine crosses the placenta and is distributed into breast milk.

Protein binding60-80% bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein. The presence of cirrhosis or active viral hepatitis does not appear to affect the extent of protein binding.
Metabolism

Meperidine is metabolized in the liver by hydrolysis to meperidinic acid followed by partial conjugation with glucuronic acid. Meperidine also undergoes N-demethylation to normeperidine, which then undergoes hydrolysis and partial conjugation. Normeperidine is about half as potent as meperidine, but it has twice the CNS stimulation effects.

Route of eliminationExcreted in the urine. The proportion of drug that is excreted unchanged or as metabolites is dependent on pH. When urine pH is uncontrolled, 5-30% of the meperidine dose is excreted as normeperidine and approximately 5% is excreted unchanged. Meperidine and normeperidine are found in acidic urine, while the free and conjugated forms of meperidinic and normperidinic acids are found in alkaline urine.
Half lifeInitial distribution phase (t1/2 α) = 2-11 minutes; terminal elimination phase (t1/2 β) = 3-5 hours. In patients with hepatic dysfunction (e.g. liver cirrhosis or active viral hepatitis) the t1/2 β is prolonged to 7-11 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9947
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9876
Caco-2 permeable + 0.6683
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.7821
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.5174
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.5401
Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.6375
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8593
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8826
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.5073
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6897
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6691
CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.7415
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7635
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6876
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.5547
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8694
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8355
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9145
Rat acute toxicity 3.1526 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.8593
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.5813
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Hospira inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • International medication systems ltd
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • International medication system
  • Mallinckrodt chemical inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Duramed pharmaceuticals inc sub barr laboratories inc
  • Mallinckrodt inc
  • Mikah pharma llc
  • Mikart inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous10 mg/ml
SolutionOral50 mg/5ml
SolutionParenteral25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, 75 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml
TabletOral50 mg, 100 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Meperidine HCl 100 mg/ml vial33.99USDvial
Meperidine hcl powder10.51USDg
Demerol 100 mg tablet3.33USDtablet
Demerol 100 mg/ml vial1.79USDml
Demerol 50 mg tablet1.71USDtablet
Meperidine HCl 100 mg tablet1.33USDtablet
Meperidine 100 mg tablet1.31USDtablet
Demerol 100 mg/ml ampul1.1USDml
Meperidine Hydrochloride 100 mg/ml1.1USDml
Meperidine Hydrochloride 75 mg/ml1.04USDml
Meperidine Hydrochloride 50 mg/ml0.98USDml
Meperidine HCl 50 mg tablet0.93USDtablet
Demerol 50 mg/ml vial0.85USDml
Meperidine 10 mg/ml syringe0.85USDml
Meperidine 50 mg tablet0.69USDtablet
Demerol 50 mg/ml ampul0.58USDml
Meperidine 10 mg/ml cartrdge0.3USDml
Demerol 50 mg Tablet0.16USDtablet
Meperidine HCl 50 mg/5ml Solution0.14USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point270 °CPhysProp
water solubility3220 mg/L (at 30 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.72SANGSTER (1994)
logS-1.89ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.59SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.11e+00 g/lALOGPS
logP2.9ALOGPS
logP2.46ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)8.16ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area29.54ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity72.48ChemAxon
polarizability28.09ChemAxon
number of rings2ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC07128
PubChem Compound4058
PubChem Substance46506899
ChemSpider3918
BindingDB50026752
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000230
PharmGKBPA450369
Drug Product Database640409
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/meper.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/meperidine.html
WikipediaMeperidine
ATC CodesN02AB02
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(173 KB)
MSDSshow(6.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AlvimopanIncreases levels by receptor binding competition. Discontinue opioid administration at least 7 days prior to administrating Alvimopan.
ChlorpromazineIncreased sedation and hypotension
DesvenlafaxineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
DonepezilPossible antagonism of action
EltrombopagIncreases levels of Meperidine via metabolism decrease. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibition with unclear significance.
GalantaminePossible antagonism of action
IsocarboxazidPotentially fatal adverse effects
IsoniazidPossible episodes of hypotension
MoclobemideIncreased CNS toxicity (can cause death)
PhenelzinePotentially fatal adverse effects
RasagilineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Concomitant use should be avoided.
RitonavirRitonavir increases the levels of analgesic
RivastigminePossible antagonism of action
SelegilinePotentially fatal adverse effects
SibutraminePossible serotoninergic syndrome
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the adverse/toxic effects of Meperidine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for Meperidine toxicity during concomitant use.
TramadolIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
TranylcypromineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Concomitant use should be avoided.
TrazodoneIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
TrimipramineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
TriprolidineThe CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Meperidine, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy.
VenlafaxineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
ZolmitriptanUse of two serotonin modulators, such as zolmitriptan and meperidine, increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals. Avoid alcohol.

Targets

1. Kappa-type opioid receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Kappa-type opioid receptor P41145 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

2. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1 Q05586 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Sakimura K, Shimoji K: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel block by meperidine is dependent on extracellular pH. Anesth Analg. 2000 Apr;90(4):928-32. Pubmed

3. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B Q13224 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Sakimura K, Shimoji K: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel block by meperidine is dependent on extracellular pH. Anesth Analg. 2000 Apr;90(4):928-32. Pubmed

4. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A Q12879 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Sakimura K, Shimoji K: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel block by meperidine is dependent on extracellular pH. Anesth Analg. 2000 Apr;90(4):928-32. Pubmed

5. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C Q14957 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Sakimura K, Shimoji K: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel block by meperidine is dependent on extracellular pH. Anesth Analg. 2000 Apr;90(4):928-32. Pubmed

6. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D O15399 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Sakimura K, Shimoji K: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel block by meperidine is dependent on extracellular pH. Anesth Analg. 2000 Apr;90(4):928-32. Pubmed

7. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 P11229 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 P08172 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 P20309 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4 P08173 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5 P08912 Details

References:

  1. Hustveit O: Binding of fentanyl and pethidine to muscarinic receptors in rat brain. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1994 Jan;64(1):57-9. Pubmed

8. Mu-type opioid receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mu-type opioid receptor P35372 Details

References:

  1. Poulain R, Horvath D, Bonnet B, Eckhoff C, Chapelain B, Bodinier MC, Deprez B: From hit to lead. Combining two complementary methods for focused library design. Application to mu opiate ligands. J Med Chem. 2001 Oct 11;44(21):3378-90. Pubmed
  2. Bronwen Bryant and Kathleen Knights (2010).Pharmacology for Health Professionals, 3rd Edition. Chatswood: Mosby Australia. ISBN 978-0-7295-3929-6.

9. Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter Q01959 Details

References:

  1. Lomenzo SA, Izenwasser S, Gerdes RM, Katz JL, Kopajtic T, Trudell ML: Synthesis, dopamine and serotonin transporter binding affinities of novel analogues of meperidine. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 1999 Dec 6;9(23):3273-6. Pubmed
  2. Lomenzo SA, Rhoden JB, Izenwasser S, Wade D, Kopajtic T, Katz JL, Trudell ML: Synthesis and biological evaluation of meperidine analogues at monoamine transporters. J Med Chem. 2005 Mar 10;48(5):1336-43. Pubmed
  3. Gu X, Izenwasser S, Wade D, Housman A, Gulasey G, Rhoden JB, Savoie CD, Mobley DL, Lomenzo SA, Trudell ML: Synthesis and structure-activity studies of benzyl ester meperidine and normeperidine derivatives as selective serotonin transporter ligands. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Dec 1;18(23):8356-64. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.09.060. Epub 2010 Sep 29. Pubmed

10. Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter P23975 Details

References:

  1. Lomenzo SA, Rhoden JB, Izenwasser S, Wade D, Kopajtic T, Katz JL, Trudell ML: Synthesis and biological evaluation of meperidine analogues at monoamine transporters. J Med Chem. 2005 Mar 10;48(5):1336-43. Pubmed
  2. Gu X, Izenwasser S, Wade D, Housman A, Gulasey G, Rhoden JB, Savoie CD, Mobley DL, Lomenzo SA, Trudell ML: Synthesis and structure-activity studies of benzyl ester meperidine and normeperidine derivatives as selective serotonin transporter ligands. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Dec 1;18(23):8356-64. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.09.060. Epub 2010 Sep 29. Pubmed

11. Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binding

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter P31645 Details

References:

  1. Lomenzo SA, Rhoden JB, Izenwasser S, Wade D, Kopajtic T, Katz JL, Trudell ML: Synthesis and biological evaluation of meperidine analogues at monoamine transporters. J Med Chem. 2005 Mar 10;48(5):1336-43. Pubmed
  2. Gu X, Izenwasser S, Wade D, Housman A, Gulasey G, Rhoden JB, Savoie CD, Mobley DL, Lomenzo SA, Trudell ML: Synthesis and structure-activity studies of benzyl ester meperidine and normeperidine derivatives as selective serotonin transporter ligands. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Dec 1;18(23):8356-64. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.09.060. Epub 2010 Sep 29. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Ramirez J, Innocenti F, Schuetz EG, Flockhart DA, Relling MV, Santucci R, Ratain MJ: CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 are responsible for the in vitro N-demethylation of meperidine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Sep;32(9):930-6. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Ramirez J, Innocenti F, Schuetz EG, Flockhart DA, Relling MV, Santucci R, Ratain MJ: CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 are responsible for the in vitro N-demethylation of meperidine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Sep;32(9):930-6. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Ramirez J, Innocenti F, Schuetz EG, Flockhart DA, Relling MV, Santucci R, Ratain MJ: CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 are responsible for the in vitro N-demethylation of meperidine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Sep;32(9):930-6. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Ramirez J, Innocenti F, Schuetz EG, Flockhart DA, Relling MV, Santucci R, Ratain MJ: CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 are responsible for the in vitro N-demethylation of meperidine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Sep;32(9):930-6. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Serum albumin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serum albumin P02768 Details

References:

  1. Edwards DJ, Svensson CK, Visco JP, Lalka D: Clinical pharmacokinetics of pethidine: 1982. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1982 Sep-Oct;7(5):421-33. Pubmed

2. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 P02763 Details

References:

  1. Edwards DJ, Svensson CK, Visco JP, Lalka D: Clinical pharmacokinetics of pethidine: 1982. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1982 Sep-Oct;7(5):421-33. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on January 11, 2014 19:56