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Identification
NamePromethazine
Accession NumberDB01069  (APRD00601)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(2-dimethylamino-2-methyl)ethyl-N-dibenzoparathiazineNot AvailableNot Available
10-(2-Dimethylaminopropyl)phenothiazineNot AvailableNot Available
N,N,α-trimethyl-10H-phenothiazine-10-ethanamineNot AvailableNot Available
ProazamineNot AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Promethazine hydrochloride
58-33-3
Thumb
  • InChI Key: XXPDBLUZJRXNNZ-UHFFFAOYNA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 320.111397079
  • Average Mass: 320.88
DBSALT000427
Brand names
NameCompany
AvomineNot Available
FarganNot Available
FarganesseNot Available
LergiganNot Available
PHENADOZNot Available
PhenerganNot Available
PrometheganNot Available
ProthiazineNot Available
ReceptozineNot Available
RomerganNot Available
SominexNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Phenergan VC Expectorant SyrupPhenylephrine hydrochloride + Potassium guaiacol sulphonate + Promethazine hydrochloride
Categories
CAS number60-87-7
WeightAverage: 284.419
Monoisotopic: 284.13471934
Chemical FormulaC17H20N2S
InChI KeyPWWVAXIEGOYWEE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H20N2S/c1-13(18(2)3)12-19-14-8-4-6-10-16(14)20-17-11-7-5-9-15(17)19/h4-11,13H,12H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
dimethyl[1-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-2-yl]amine
SMILES
CC(CN1C2=CC=CC=C2SC2=CC=CC=C12)N(C)C
Mass Specshow(7.88 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzothiazines
SubclassPhenothiazines
Direct parentPhenothiazines
Alternative parentsBenzene and Substituted Derivatives; Tertiary Amines; Polyamines; Thioethers
Substituentsbenzene; tertiary amine; thioether; polyamine; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the phenothiazines. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a phenothiazine moiety, which is a linear tricyclic system that consists of a two benzene rings joined by a para-thiazine ring.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of allergic disorders, and nausea/vomiting.
PharmacodynamicsPromethazine, a phenothiazine, is an H1-antagonist with anticholinergic, sedative, and antiemetic effects and some local anesthetic properties. Promethazine is used as an antiemetic or to prevent motion sickness.
Mechanism of actionLike other H1-antagonists, promethazine competes with free histamine for binding at H1-receptor sites in the GI tract, uterus, large blood vessels, and bronchial muscle. The relief of nausea appears to be related to central anticholinergic actions and may implicate activity on the medullary chemoreceptor trigger zone.
AbsorptionOn average, 88% of a promethazine dose is absorbed after oral administration; however, the absolute bioavailability is only 25% because of first-pass clearance.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding93%
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationPromethazine hydrochloride is metabolized in the liver, with the sulfoxides of promethazine and N-desmethylpromethazine being the predominant metabolites appearing in the urine.
Half life16-19 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include mild depression of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system to profound hypotension, respiratory depression, unconsciousness, and sudden death. Other reported reactions include hyperreflexia, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, and extensor-plantar reflexes (Babinski reflex). LD50=55mg/kg (I.V. in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9832
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9855
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.8157
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8408
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.6473
Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.5156
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7736
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.5338
CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.9107
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9341
CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.8931
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.567
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9133
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9088
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0
Rat acute toxicity 2.6959 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9786
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.7661
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Akorn inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Bedford laboratories
  • Bioniche pharma usa llc
  • Hikma farmaceutica (portugal) sa
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Pharmaforce inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Altana inc
  • Victory pharma inc
  • Polymedica industries inc
  • Able laboratories inc
  • G and w laboratories inc
  • Paddock laboratories inc
  • Perrigo new york inc
  • Taro pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Alpharma us pharmaceuticals division
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
  • Ani pharmaceuticals inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Wyeth pharmaceuticals inc
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Kvk tech inc
  • Lannett co inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Private formulations inc
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Bristol myers squibb pharma co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamTopical
LiquidIntramuscular
SolutionIntravenous
SyrupOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Promethegan 12 50 mg Suppository Box101.64USDbox
Phenergan 12 50 mg Suppository Box80.16USDbox
Phenergan 12 25 mg Suppository Box62.59USDbox
Promethegan 12 25 mg Suppository Box62.27USDbox
Promethazine HCl 12 50 mg Suppository Box60.94USDbox
Phenergan 12 12.5 mg Suppository Box54.58USDbox
Phenergan 25 mg suppository8.32USDsuppository
Promethegan 50 mg suppository8.14USDsuppository
Phenergan 12.5 mg suppository7.94USDsuppository
Phenergan 50 mg suppository7.39USDsuppository
Promethazine 50 mg suppository4.88USDsuppository
Promethegan 25 mg suppository4.62USDsuppository
Phenadoz 25 mg suppository4.45USDsuppository
Promethazine 25 mg suppository4.32USDsuppository
Promethegan 12.5 mg suppository4.02USDsuppository
Promethazine HCl 12.5 mg Suppository4.0USDsuppository
Phenadoz 12.5 mg suppository3.89USDsuppository
Phenergan 25 mg/ml ampul3.84USDml
Promethazine 12.5 mg suppository3.82USDsuppository
Phenergan 50 mg/ml ampul3.68USDml
Promethazine HCl 50 mg/ml Solution 1ml Ampule2.8USDampule
Promethazine 50 mg/ml ampul2.25USDml
Promethazine hcl powder2.14USDg
Promethazine 25 mg/ml ampul1.1USDml
Promethazine 25 mg/ml1.06USDml
Promethazine HCl 50 mg tablet0.81USDtablet
Promethazine 50 mg tablet0.78USDtablet
Promethazine HCl 25 mg tablet0.73USDtablet
Phenergan 25 mg tablet0.62USDtablet
Promethazine 25 mg tablet0.51USDtablet
Promethazine 12.5 mg tablet0.49USDtablet
Promethazine-DM 6.25-15 mg/5ml Syrup0.18USDml
Promethazine HCl 6.25 mg/5ml Syrup0.11USDml
Promethazine VC Plain 6.25-5 mg/5ml Syrup0.09USDml
Promethazine-Codeine 6.25-10 mg/5ml Syrup0.06USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point60 °CPhysProp
boiling point190-192 °C at 3.00E+00 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility15.6 mg/L (at 24 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP4.81HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.26ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.1SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility2.45e-02 g/lALOGPS
logP4.52ALOGPS
logP4.29ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)9.05ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area6.48ChemAxon
rotatable bond count3ChemAxon
refractivity88.5ChemAxon
polarizability32.38ChemAxon
number of rings3ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US2530451
General Reference
  1. Peters RJ Jr, Kelder SH, Markham CM, Yacoubian GS Jr, Peters LA, Ellis A: Beliefs and social norms about codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) onset and perceived addiction among urban Houstonian adolescents: an addiction trend in the city of lean. J Drug Educ. 2003;33(4):415-25. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00494
KEGG CompoundC07404
PubChem Compound4927
PubChem Substance46507798
ChemSpider4758
ChEBI8461
ChEMBLCHEMBL643
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000334
PharmGKBPA451128
Drug Product Database583979
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/phenergan.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/promethazine.html
WikipediaPromethazine
ATC CodesD04AA10R06AD02R06AD05
AHFS Codes
  • 04:04.12
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(93.4 KB)
MSDSshow(74.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AmphetamineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms
BenzphetamineAntipsychotics may diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines. Monitor effectiveness of amphetamine therapy when altering concurrent antipsychotic therapy as antipsychotic agents may impair the stimulatory effect of amphetamines.
BromocriptineThe phenothiazine decreases the effect of bromocriptine
CisaprideIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
DesvenlafaxineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
DexfenfluramineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms.
DextroamphetamineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms
DiethylpropionDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms.
DonepezilPossible antagonism of action
FenfluramineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms.
GalantaminePossible antagonism of action
GatifloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
GrepafloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
GuanethidinePromethazine may decrease the effect of guanethidine.
LevofloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
MazindolDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms.
MethamphetamineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms
MetrizamideIncreased risk of convulsions
PhendimetrazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms
PhenmetrazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms
PhentermineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms.
PhenylpropanolamineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms.
RivastigminePossible antagonism of action
SparfloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
TacrineThe therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Promethazine, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
TerbinafineTerbinafine may reduce the metabolism and clearance of Promethazine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for therapeutic/adverse effects of Promethazine if Terbinafine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TerfenadineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ThiotepaThiotepa, a strong CYP2B6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Promethazine, a CYP2B6 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Promethazine if Thiotepa is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TramadolIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
TranylcypromineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Use caution during concomitant therapy and monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
TrazodoneIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
TrimethobenzamideTrimethobenzamide and Promethazine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
TrimipramineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
TriprolidineTriprolidine and Promethazine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
TrospiumTrospium and Promethazine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
VenlafaxineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
ZolmitriptanUse of two serotonin modulators, such as zolmitriptan and promethazine, increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy.
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to reduce irritation. Avoid alcohol.

Targets

1. Histamine H1 receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Histamine H1 receptor P35367 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Suzuki A, Yasui-Furukori N, Mihara K, Kondo T, Furukori H, Inoue Y, Kaneko S, Otani K: Histamine H1-receptor antagonists, promethazine and homochlorcyclizine, increase the steady-state plasma concentrations of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol. Ther Drug Monit. 2003 Apr;25(2):192-6. Pubmed
  3. Smith BN, Armstrong WE: Histamine enhances the depolarizing afterpotential of immunohistochemically identified vasopressin neurons in the rat supraoptic nucleus via H1-receptor activation. Neuroscience. 1993 Apr;53(3):855-64. Pubmed
  4. Miller RA, Tu AT: Factors in snake venoms that increase capillary permeability. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1989 Nov;41(11):792-4. Pubmed
  5. Claro E, Arbones L, Garcia A, Picatoste F: Phosphoinositide hydrolysis mediated by histamine H1-receptors in rat brain cortex. Eur J Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 16;123(2):187-96. Pubmed
  6. Ikeda H, Kubo N, Nakamura A, Harada N, Minamino M, Yamashita T: Histamine-induced calcium released from cultured human mucosal microvascular endothelial cells from nasal inferior turbinate. Acta Otolaryngol. 1997 Nov;117(6):864-70. Pubmed
  7. Paton DM, Webster DR: Clinical pharmacokinetics of H1-receptor antagonists (the antihistamines). Clin Pharmacokinet. 1985 Nov-Dec;10(6):477-97. Pubmed

2. D(2) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(2) dopamine receptor P14416 Details

References:

  1. Golembiewski JA, O’Brien D: A systematic approach to the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2002 Dec;17(6):364-76. Pubmed

3. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 P11229 Details

References:

  1. Golembiewski JA, O’Brien D: A systematic approach to the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2002 Dec;17(6):364-76. Pubmed

4. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 P08172 Details

References:

  1. Golembiewski JA, O’Brien D: A systematic approach to the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2002 Dec;17(6):364-76. Pubmed

5. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 P20309 Details

References:

  1. Golembiewski JA, O’Brien D: A systematic approach to the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2002 Dec;17(6):364-76. Pubmed

6. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4 P08173 Details

References:

  1. Golembiewski JA, O’Brien D: A systematic approach to the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2002 Dec;17(6):364-76. Pubmed

7. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5 P08912 Details

References:

  1. Golembiewski JA, O’Brien D: A systematic approach to the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2002 Dec;17(6):364-76. Pubmed

8. Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor P35348 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

9. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A P28223 Details

References:

  1. Bileviciute I, Stenfors C, Theodorsson E, Lundeberg T: Unilateral injection of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) induces bilateral oedema formation and release of CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the rat hindpaw. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Nov;125(6):1304-12. Pubmed
  2. Kelley BM, Porter JH: The role of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the discriminative stimulus properties of clozapine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997 Aug;57(4):707-19. Pubmed
  3. Hoenicke EM, Vanecek SA, Woods JH: The discriminative stimulus effects of clozapine in pigeons: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine1C and 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Oct;263(1):276-84. Pubmed
  4. Martinez F, Coleman JW: A comparison of the effects of chlorpromazine and more selective histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists on human IgG synthesis in vitro. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1990;12(2):185-91. Pubmed
  5. Fiorella D, Rabin RA, Winter JC: The role of the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs. I: Antagonist correlation analysis. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995 Oct;121(3):347-56. Pubmed

10. Calmodulin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calmodulin P62158 Details

References:

  1. Cohen ME, Sharp GW, Donowitz M: Suggestion of a role for calmodulin and phosphorylation in regulation of rabbit ileal electrolyte transport: effects of promethazine. Am J Physiol. 1986 Nov;251(5 Pt 1):G710-7. Pubmed
  2. Scott JA, Khaw BA, Fallon JT, Locke E, Rabito CA, Peto CA, Homcy CJ: The effect of phenothiazines upon maintenance of membrane integrity in the cultured myocardial cell. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1986 Dec;18(12):1243-54. Pubmed
  3. Lohr KM, Feix JB, Kurth C: Chlorpromazine inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis beyond the chemotactic receptor-ligand interaction. J Infect Dis. 1984 Nov;150(5):643-52. Pubmed
  4. DiPaola M, Keith CH, Feldman D, Tycko B, Maxfield FR: Loss of alpha 2-macroglobulin and epidermal growth factor surface binding induced by phenothiazines and naphthalene sulfonamides. J Cell Physiol. 1984 Feb;118(2):193-202. Pubmed
  5. Luchowski EM, Yousif F, Triggle DJ, Maurer SC, Sarmiento JG, Janis RA: Effects of metal cations and calmodulin antagonists on [3H] nitrendipine binding in smooth and cardiac muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Sep;230(3):607-13. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Platts SH, Shi SJ, Meck JV: Akathisia with combined use of midodrine and promethazine. JAMA. 2006 May 3;295(17):2000-1. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Ibrahim S, Peggins J, Knapton A, Licht T, Aszalos A: Influence of antipsychotic, antiemetic, and Ca(2+) channel blocker drugs on the cellular accumulation of the anticancer drug daunorubicin: P-glycoprotein modulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Dec;295(3):1276-83. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 08, 2013 14:25