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Identification
NameQuinine
Accession NumberDB00468  (APRD00563)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Quinine
(8S,9R)-Quinine
(R)-(-)-Quinine
(R)-(6-Methoxyquinolin-4-yl)((2S,4S,8R)-8-vinylquinuclidin-2-yl)methanol
6'-Methoxycinchonidine
Chinin
Chinine
Chininum
Quinina
Quinine
External Identifiers
  • UNII-KF7Z0E0Q2B
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Jamp-quininecapsule300 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2015-09-16Not applicableCanada
Jamp-quininecapsule200 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2015-09-16Not applicableCanada
Pro-quinine - 200capsule200 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-03Not applicableCanada
Pro-quinine - 300capsule300 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-07-03Not applicableCanada
Qualaquincapsule324 mg/1oralAR Scientific Inc.2005-08-122016-04-05Us
Qualaquincapsule324 mg/1oralCaraco Pharma, Inc.2005-08-122016-04-05Us
Qualaquincapsule324 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2005-08-122016-04-05Us
Quinine - Odancapsule300 mgoralOdan Laboratories Ltd1999-05-01Not applicableCanada
Quinine - Odancapsule200 mgoralOdan Laboratories Ltd1999-05-01Not applicableCanada
Quinine - Odantablet300 mgoralOdan Laboratories Ltd2001-11-08Not applicableCanada
Quinine Sulfatecapsule324 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-03-312016-04-05Us
Quinine Sulfatecapsule324 mg/1oralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.2012-07-232016-04-05Us
Quinine Sulfatecapsule200 mgoralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Quinine Sulfatecapsule300 mgoralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Quinine Sulfate Cap 200mgcapsule200 mgoralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312001-07-20Canada
Quinine Sulfate Cap 200mgcapsule200 mgoralParke Davis Division, Warner Lambert Canada Inc.1951-12-311998-04-07Canada
Quinine Sulfate Cap 300mgcapsule300 mgoralParke Davis Division, Warner Lambert Canada Inc.1951-12-311998-04-07Canada
Quinine Sulfate Cap 300mgcapsule300 mgoralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312001-07-20Canada
Quinine Sulfate Capsules 200mgcapsule200 mgoralD.C. Labs Limited1951-12-312002-04-23Canada
Quinine Sulfate Capsules 300mgcapsule300 mgoralD.C. Labs Limited1951-12-312002-04-23Canada
Teva-quininecapsule300 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1966-12-31Not applicableCanada
Teva-quininecapsule200 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1966-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-quinine Capsulescapsule300 mgoralApotex Inc2004-06-08Not applicableCanada
Apo-quinine Capsulescapsule200 mgoralApotex Inc2004-06-08Not applicableCanada
Quinine Sulfatecapsule324 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2012-09-282016-04-23Us
Quinine Sulfatecapsule324 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-08-042016-04-05Us
Quinine Sulfatecapsule324 mg/1oralCore Pharma, Llc2015-07-232016-04-05Us
Quinine Sulfatecapsule324 mg/1oralRiconpharma Llc2015-07-232016-04-05Us
Quinine Sulfatecapsule324 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-12-142016-04-23Us
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CinkonaIpca
JasoquinJayson
QSMLeben
QuinlupLupin
QutilLittle Greave
SulquinSaga
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Quinine Hydrochloride
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001044
Quinine sulfate
804-63-7
Thumb
  • InChI Key: RONWGALEIBILOG-VMJVVOMYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 746.334935286
  • Average Mass: 746.912
DBSALT000531
Categories
UNIIA7V27PHC7A
CAS number130-95-0
WeightAverage: 324.4168
Monoisotopic: 324.183778022
Chemical FormulaC20H24N2O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=LOUPRKONTZGTKE-WZBLMQSHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H24N2O2/c1-3-13-12-22-9-7-14(13)10-19(22)20(23)16-6-8-21-18-5-4-15(24-2)11-17(16)18/h3-6,8,11,13-14,19-20,23H,1,7,9-10,12H2,2H3/t13-,14-,19-,20+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(R)-[(1S,2S,4S,5R)-5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-yl](6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)methanol
SMILES
[H][C@]1(C[C@@H]2CC[N@]1C[C@@H]2C=C)[[email protected]](O)C1=CC=NC2=CC=C(OC)C=C12
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cinchona alkaloids. These are alkaloids structurally characterized by the presence of the cinchonan skeleton, which consists of a quinoline linked to an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassCinchona alkaloids
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentCinchona alkaloids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cinchonan-skeleton
  • Hydroxyquinoline
  • Quinoline
  • Quinuclidine
  • Anisole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Piperidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of malaria and leg cramps
PharmacodynamicsQuinine is used parenterally to treat life-threatening infections caused by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Quinine acts as a blood schizonticide although it also has gametocytocidal activity against P. vivax and P. malariae. Because it is a weak base, it is concentrated in the food vacuoles of P. falciparum. It is thought to act by inhibiting heme polymerase, thereby allowing accumulation of its cytotoxic substrate, heme. As a schizonticidal drug, it is less effective and more toxic than chloroquine. However, it has a special place in the management of severe falciparum malaria in areas with known resistance to chloroquine.
Mechanism of actionThe theorized mechanism of action for quinine and related anti-malarial drugs is that these drugs are toxic to the malaria parasite. Specifically, the drugs interfere with the parasite's ability to break down and digest hemoglobin. Consequently, the parasite starves and/or builds up toxic levels of partially degraded hemoglobin in itself.
Related Articles
Absorption76 - 88%
Volume of distribution
  • 1.43 ± 0.18 L/kg [Healthy Pediatric Controls]
  • 0.87 ± 0.12 L/kg [P. falciparum Malaria Pediatric Patients]
  • 2.5 to 7.1 L/kg [healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose]
Protein bindingApproximately 70%
Metabolism

Hepatic, over 80% metabolized by the liver.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Quinine
3-hydroxyquinineDetails
Route of eliminationQuinine is eliminated primarily via hepatic biotransformation. Approximately 20% of quinine is excreted unchanged in urine.
Half lifeApproximately 18 hours
Clearance
  • 0.17 L/h/kg [healthy]
  • 0.09 L/h/kg [patients with uncomplicated malaria]
  • 18.4 L/h [healthy adult subjects with administration of multiple-dose activated charcoal]
  • 11.8 L/h [healthy adult subjects without administration of multiple-dose activated charcoal]
  • Oral cl=0.06 L/h/kg [elderly subjects]
ToxicityQuinine is a documented causative agent of drug induced thrombocytopenia (DIT). Thrombocytopenia is a low amount of platelets in the blood. Quinine induces production of antibodies against glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex in the majority of cases of DIT, or more rarely, the platelet-glycoprotein complex GPIIb-IIIa. Increased antibodies against these complexes increases platelet clearance, leading to the observed thrombocytopenia.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9836
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7863
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8208
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8387
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.762
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5754
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7225
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.972
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity3.0596 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5884
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.538
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Ar holding co inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral200 mg
Tabletoral300 mg
Capsuleoral324 mg/1
Capsuleoral300 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Quinine sulfate powd ultrex25.86USD g
Apo-Quinine 300 mg Capsule0.39USD capsule
Novo-Quinine 300 mg Capsule0.39USD capsule
Apo-Quinine 200 mg Capsule0.25USD capsule
Novo-Quinine 200 mg Capsule0.25USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point57 °CPhysProp
water solubility500 mg/L (at 15 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.44HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.76ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.334 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.82ALOGPS
logP2.51ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area45.59 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity94.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.96 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Tong Sun, Shawn Watson, Wei Lai, Stephan D. Parent, “QUININE SULFATE/BISULFATE SOLID COMPLEX; METHODS OF MAKING; AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF.” U.S. Patent US20090326005, issued December 31, 2009.

US20090326005
General References
  1. Paintaud G, Alvan G, Berninger E, Gustafsson LL, Idrizbegovic E, Karlsson KK, Wakelkamp M: The concentration-effect relationship of quinine-induced hearing impairment. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994 Mar;55(3):317-23. [PubMed:8143397 ]
External Links
ATC CodesM09AA72P01BC01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:30.08
  • 92:02.00*
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (718 KB)
MSDSDownload (72.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolQuinine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcepromazineThe serum concentration of Acepromazine can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
AcetohexamideAcetohexamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
AliskirenQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.
AlogliptinAlogliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
Aluminum hydroxideThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
AmilorideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amiloride.
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
AmlodipineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
ArtemetherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Artemether is combined with Quinine.
AtenololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Atenolol.
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Atorvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
Atracurium besylateQuinine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
Azilsartan medoxomilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Azilsartan medoxomil.
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.
BenazeprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazepril.
BendroflumethiazideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide.
BetaxololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Betaxolol.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BisoprololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Bisoprolol.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
BumetanideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Bumetanide.
Calcium AcetateThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Calcium Acetate.
Calcium carbonateThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Calcium carbonate.
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
CandesartanQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.
CaptoprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Captopril.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Carvedilol can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
ChlorothiazideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorothiazide.
ChlorpropamideChlorpropamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
ChlorthalidoneQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorthalidone.
CilazaprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilazapril.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
Cisatracurium besylateQuinine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium besylate.
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
ClevidipineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Clevidipine.
ClonidineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Clonidine.
CodeineThe therapeutic efficacy of Codeine can be decreased when used in combination with Quinine.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Quinine.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DapsoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinine is combined with Dapsone.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DicoumarolQuinine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
DiltiazemQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Diltiazem.
DofetilideDofetilide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.
DoxazosinQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Doxazosin.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Dronabinol can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
EnalaprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalapril.
EnalaprilatQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.
EplerenoneQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Eplerenone.
EprosartanQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Eprosartan.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Erythromycin.
EsmololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
Etacrynic acidQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Ethacrynic acid.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
FelodipineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Felodipine.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Quinine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Quinine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Fluvoxamine can be decreased when combined with Quinine.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosinoprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Fosinopril.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FurosemideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Furosemide.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GliclazideGliclazide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
GlimepirideGlimepiride may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
GliquidoneGliquidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
GlyburideGlyburide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
GoserelinGoserelin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.
GuanfacineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanfacine.
HalofantrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinine is combined with Halofantrine.
HydralazineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydralazine.
HydrochlorothiazideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IndapamideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Indapamide.
Insulin AspartInsulin Aspart may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
Insulin DetemirInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
Insulin GlargineInsulin Glargine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
Insulin GlulisineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
Insulin HumanInsulin Regular may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
Insulin LisproInsulin Lispro may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
IrbesartanQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Irbesartan.
IsradipineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Isradipine.
IvabradineIvabradine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
LabetalolQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Labetalol.
Lactic AcidThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Sodium lactate.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
LeuprolideLeuprolide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.
LinagliptinLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
LisinoprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Lisinopril.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LosartanQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Losartan.
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumefantrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinine is combined with Lumefantrine.
Magnesium hydroxideThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.
Magnesium oxideThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Magnesium oxide.
MannitolQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Mannitol.
MecamylamineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Mecamylamine.
MefloquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinine is combined with Mefloquine.
MetforminMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
MethyclothiazideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyclothiazide.
MethyldopaQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.
MetolazoneQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Metolazone.
MetoprololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Metoprolol.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.
MinoxidilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
MoexiprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Moexipril.
MoxonidineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.
NadololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nadolol.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
NebivololThe serum concentration of Nebivolol can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Quinine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NicardipineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicardipine.
NifedipineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nifedipine.
NimodipineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nimodipine.
NisoldipineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nisoldipine.
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Quinine.
NitroprussideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.
OlmesartanQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Olmesartan.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PancuroniumQuinine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
PenbutololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PerindoprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
PhenoxybenzamineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Phenoxybenzamine.
PhentolamineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Phentolamine.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PindololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Pindolol.
PrazosinQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Prazosin.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinine is combined with Prilocaine.
PropranololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Propranolol.
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
QuinaprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.
RamiprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Ramipril.
RepaglinideRepaglinide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
ReserpineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Reserpine.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RocuroniumQuinine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Sildenafil can be decreased when combined with Quinine.
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
Sodium bicarbonateThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Sodium bicarbonate.
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinine is combined with Sodium Nitrite.
SotalolQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Sotalol.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
SpiramycinThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Spiramycin.
SpironolactoneQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Spironolactone.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SuccinylcholineQuinine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Succinylcholine.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Tamoxifen can be reduced when Tamoxifen is used in combination with Quinine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TelithromycinThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Telithromycin.
TelmisartanQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Telmisartan.
TerazosinQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Terazosin.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
TetracyclineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Tetracycline.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
TimololQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Timolol.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TolbutamideTolbutamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
TorasemideQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Torasemide.
TramadolThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Quinine.
TrandolaprilQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Trandolapril.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
TriamtereneQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Triamterene.
ValsartanQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.
VecuroniumQuinine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.
VildagliptinVildagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
WarfarinQuinine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

Targets

1. Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Plasmodium falciparum
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
References
  1. Alumasa JN, Gorka AP, Casabianca LB, Comstock E, de Dios AC, Roepe PD: The hydroxyl functionality and a rigid proximal N are required for forming a novel non-covalent quinine-heme complex. J Inorg Biochem. 2011 Mar;105(3):467-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2010.08.011. Epub 2010 Sep 22. [PubMed:20864177 ]
  2. Fitch CD: Ferriprotoporphyrin IX, phospholipids, and the antimalarial actions of quinoline drugs. Life Sci. 2004 Mar 5;74(16):1957-72. [PubMed:14967191 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
The GPIb-V-IX complex functions as the vWF receptor and mediates vWF-dependent platelet adhesion to blood vessels. The adhesion of platelets to injured vascular surfaces in the arterial circulation is a critical initiating event in hemostasis. GP-IX may provide for membrane insertion and orientation of GP-Ib.
Gene Name:
GP9
Uniprot ID:
P14770
Molecular Weight:
19045.87 Da
References
  1. Asvadi P, Ahmadi Z, Chong BH: Drug-induced thrombocytopenia: localization of the binding site of GPIX-specific quinine-dependent antibodies. Blood. 2003 Sep 1;102(5):1670-7. Epub 2003 May 8. [PubMed:12738668 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein phosphatase binding
Specific Function:
Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium (PubMed:26148990). Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization which promotes calcium influx. Required for maximal calcium influx and proliferation during the reactivation of naive T-cells. The channel is blocked by clotrimazole and charybdotoxin but is insensitive to apamin (PubMed:17157250, PubMe...
Gene Name:
KCNN4
Uniprot ID:
O15554
Molecular Weight:
47695.12 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhao XJ, Yokoyama H, Chiba K, Wanwimolruk S, Ishizaki T: Identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the 3-hydroxylation of quinine by human live microsomes and nine recombinant human cytochromes P450. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Dec;279(3):1327-34. [PubMed:8968357 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933 ]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhao XJ, Yokoyama H, Chiba K, Wanwimolruk S, Ishizaki T: Identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the 3-hydroxylation of quinine by human live microsomes and nine recombinant human cytochromes P450. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Dec;279(3):1327-34. [PubMed:8968357 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. AR Scientific, Inc. Qualaquin® (quinine sulfate) capsules prescribing information. Philadelphia, PA; 2008 Jun.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Sweet DH, Miller DS, Pritchard JB: Ventricular choline transport: a role for organic cation transporter 2 expressed in choroid plexus. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 9;276(45):41611-9. Epub 2001 Sep 11. [PubMed:11553644 ]
  2. Gorboulev V, Ulzheimer JC, Akhoundova A, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Karbach U, Quester S, Baumann C, Lang F, Busch AE, Koepsell H: Cloning and characterization of two human polyspecific organic cation transporters. DNA Cell Biol. 1997 Jul;16(7):871-81. [PubMed:9260930 ]
  3. Kakehi M, Koyabu N, Nakamura T, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Functional characterization of mouse cation transporter mOCT2 compared with mOCT1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Aug 23;296(3):644-50. [PubMed:12176030 ]
  4. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [PubMed:11502595 ]
  5. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515 ]
  6. Sweet DH, Pritchard JB: rOCT2 is a basolateral potential-driven carrier, not an organic cation/proton exchanger. Am J Physiol. 1999 Dec;277(6 Pt 2):F890-8. [PubMed:10600936 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Gray AT, Yost SC, Terashita S, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional expression of a human liver organic cation transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jun;51(6):913-21. [PubMed:9187257 ]
  2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880 ]
  3. Kakehi M, Koyabu N, Nakamura T, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Functional characterization of mouse cation transporter mOCT2 compared with mOCT1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Aug 23;296(3):644-50. [PubMed:12176030 ]
  4. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [PubMed:11502595 ]
  5. Sweet DH, Miller DS, Pritchard JB: Ventricular choline transport: a role for organic cation transporter 2 expressed in choroid plexus. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 9;276(45):41611-9. Epub 2001 Sep 11. [PubMed:11553644 ]
  6. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515 ]
  7. Grundemann D, Gorboulev V, Gambaryan S, Veyhl M, Koepsell H: Drug excretion mediated by a new prototype of polyspecific transporter. Nature. 1994 Dec 8;372(6506):549-52. [PubMed:7990927 ]
  8. Martel F, Vetter T, Russ H, Grundemann D, Azevedo I, Koepsell H, Schomig E: Transport of small organic cations in the rat liver. The role of the organic cation transporter OCT1. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1996 Aug-Sep;354(3):320-6. [PubMed:8878062 ]
  9. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. [PubMed:8898084 ]
  10. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Waldegger S, Gorboulev V, Arndt P, Lang F, Koepsell H: Electrogenic properties and substrate specificity of the polyspecific rat cation transporter rOCT1. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 20;271(51):32599-604. [PubMed:8955087 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [PubMed:11716514 ]
  2. van der Sandt IC, Blom-Roosemalen MC, de Boer AG, Breimer DD: Specificity of doxorubicin versus rhodamine-123 in assessing P-glycoprotein functionality in the LLC-PK1, LLC-PK1:MDR1 and Caco-2 cell lines. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2000 Sep;11(3):207-14. [PubMed:11042226 ]
  3. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103 ]
  4. Borgnia MJ, Eytan GD, Assaraf YG: Competition of hydrophobic peptides, cytotoxic drugs, and chemosensitizers on a common P-glycoprotein pharmacophore as revealed by its ATPase activity. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 9;271(6):3163-71. [PubMed:8621716 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. [PubMed:11883641 ]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10